DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2016.01495

Acta Agronomica Sinica (作物学报) 2016/42:10 PP.1495-1505

Effect of Wetting and Drying Alternative Irrigation Coupling with Nitrogen Application on Root Characteristic and Grain-sink Activity

Soil moisture and nitrogen nutrient are the two principal factors affecting rice production. Elucidation of their coupling effects on grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) has great significance for high yielding and high efficiency in production. The purposes of this study were to investigate the coupling effects of water and nitrogen on root traits and grain-sink activity. A field experiment was conducted using a mid-season japonica rice cultivar of Xindao 20 with three treatments of different nitrogen levels, including 0N, MN (240 kg ha-1) and HN (360 kg ha-1), and three irrigation regimes, including submerged irrigation (0 kPa), alternate wetting and moderate drying (-20 kPa) and alternate wetting and severe drying (-40 kPa) in 2013 and 2014. There was a sig-nificant interaction between irrigation regimes and nitrogen applications, with a similar result in two years. The grain yield was the highest in the treatment of MN coupling with mild water stress due to improved seed filling rate and grain weight. In the same nitrogen level, root length, root bleeding, organic acid and Z+ZR contents in roots at main growth stages were higher in treatment of alternate wetting and moderate drying than in treatment of submerged irrigation, meanwhile activating of ATPase, sucrose syn-thase and adenosine phosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity in grain were also increased during grain filling period, but root-shoot ratio was lower after panicle initiation stage. The treatment of mild water stress and MN enhanced rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency, being the best water-nitrogen coupling management model in this paper. The opposite result was ob-served under the condition of alternate wetting and severe drying. Grain yield positively correlated with root length and root me-tabolism indices at main growth stages and negatively correlated with ratio of root to shoot at the stage of heading. A negative correlation was observed between root-shoot ratio and activating of ATPase, sucrose synthase and AGPase in grain, while a sig-nificant or very significant and positive correlation between root length, root metabolism traits and aboveground development. These results suggest that a good root morphology, increasing root metabolism and aboveground development capabilities through the appropriate regulation of water coupling with nitrogen application will be much more beneficial to increasing grain yield in rice.

Key words:Rice,Water and nitrogen coupling,Yield,Root characteristic,Sink activity in grain

ReleaseDate:2017-01-12 13:30:50

[1] Peng S B, Tang Q Y, Zou Y B. Current status and challenges of rice production in China. Plant Product Sci, 2009, 12: 3-8

Li H L, Zhang W F, Zhang F S, Du F, Li L K. Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2010, 16: 1136-1143 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[2] 李红莉, 张卫峰, 张福锁, 杜芬, 李亮科. 中国主要粮食作物化肥施用量与效率变化分析. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2010, 16: 1136-1143

Zhu Z L, Jin J Y. Fertilizer use and food security in China. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2013, 19: 259-273 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[3] 朱兆良, 金继运. 保障我国粮食安全的肥料问题. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2013, 19: 259-273

Peng Y, Ma J, Jiang M J, Sun Y J, Yang Z Y. Effects of slow/controlled release fertilizers on root morphological and physiological characteristic of rice. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2013, 19: 1048-1057 (in Chinese with English abstract)

Yang J C. Relationships of rice root morphology and physiology with the formation of grain yield and quality and the nutrient absorption and utilization. Sci Agric Sin, 2011, 44: 36-46 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[4] Cassman K G, Dobermann A, Waiters D T. Meeting cereal de-mand while protecting natural resources and improving environ-mental quality. Annu Rev Env Resour, 2003, 28: 315-358

Chen J F, Dai T B, Cao W X, Jiang D, Liu Y B. Variations of nitrogen nutrition efficiency in different rice germplasm types. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2007, 13: 175-183 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[5] Tilman D K, Cassman K G, Matson P A.Agricultural sustain-ability and intensive production practices. Nature, 2002, 418: 671-678

[6] 彭玉, 马均, 蒋明金, 孙永健, 杨志远. 缓/控释肥对杂交水稻根系形态、生理特性和产量的影响. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2013, 19: 1048-1057

Zhu D F, Lin X Q, Cao W X. Effects of deep roots on growth and yield in two rice varieties. Sci Agric Sin, 2001, 34: 429-432 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[7] 杨建昌. 水稻根系形态生理与产量、品质形成及养分吸收利用的关系. 中国农业科学, 2011, 44: 36-46

Zhang F X, Zhou M Y, Zhou C L, Qian X Q. Effect of water and fertilizer coupling on root morphological characteristic and activity of rice. Trans CSAE, 2006, 22(5): 197-200 (in Chinese with English abstract)

Chen D G, Zhou X Q, Li L J, Liu C G, Zhang X, Chen Y D. Rela-tionship between root morphological characteristics and yield components of major commercial indica rice in South China. Acta Agron Sin, 2013, 39: 1899-1908 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[8] 程建峰, 戴廷波, 曹卫星, 姜东, 刘宜柏. 不同类型水稻种质氮素营养效率的变异分析. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2007, 13: 175-183

Ji L, Li Y X, Zhang X Z, Yu H Y. Root morphological and activity characteristics of rice genotype with high nitrogen utili-zation efficiency. Sci Agric Sin, 2012, 45: 4770-4781 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[9] 朱德峰, 林贤青, 曹卫星. 水稻深层根系对生长和产量的影响. 中国农业科学, 2001, 34: 429-432

Xue Y G, Chen T T, Yang C, Wang Z Q, Liu L J, Yang J C. Effects of different cultivation patterns on the yield and physio-logical characteristics in mid-season japonica rice. Acta Agron Sin, 2010, 36: 466-476 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[10] Yang J C, Zhang H, Zhang J H. Root morphology and physiology in relation to the yield formation of rice. J Integr Agric, 2012, 11: 920-926

[11] Xue Q, Zhu Z, Musick J, Stewart B, Dusek D A. Root growth and water uptake in winter wheat under deficit irrigation. Plant Soil, 2003, 257: 151-161

Li H S. Theory and Technology of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2000. pp 125-127 (in Chinese)

[12] Ma S C, Li F M, Xu B C, Huang Z B. Effect of lowering the root/shoot ratio by pruning roots on water use efficiency and grainyield of winter wheat. Field Crops Res, 2010, 115: 158-164

Ji L, Li T X, Zhang X Z, Yu H Y. Characteristics of organic acid and amino acid in root exudates of rice genotype with high nitro-gen efficiency. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2012, 18: 1046-1055 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[13] 张凤翔, 周明耀, 周村林, 钱晓晴. 水肥耦合对水稻根系形态与活力的影响. 农业工程学报, 2006, 22(5): 197-200

Yao F X. Studies on Physiological Mechanism of Rice Growth and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiency under Different Water and Nitrogen Regimes. PhD Dissertation of Huazhong Agricul-ture University, Wuhan, China, 2011 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[14] Inukai Y, Ashikari M, Kitano H. Function of the root system and molecular mechanism of crown root formation in rice. Plant Cell Physiol, 2004, 45: 17

Wang D Y, Han B, Zhang X F, Shao G S, Xu C M, Fu G F. Influence of rhizosphere oxygen concentration on rice root growth. Acta Agron Sin, 2008, 34: 803-808 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[15] 陈达刚, 周新桥, 李丽君, 刘传光, 张旭, 陈友订. 华南主栽高产籼稻根系形态特征及其与产量构成的关系. 作物学报, 2013, 39: 1899-1908

Lan Z M, Lin X J, Zhang W G, Zhang H, Wu Y Q. Effect of P de-ficiency on the emergence of Astragalus L. root exudates and mobilization of sparingly soluble phosphorus. Sci Agric Sin, 2012, 45: 1521-1531 (in Chinese with English abstract)

Liu L J, Chang E H, Fan M M, Wang Z Q, Yang J C. Effects of potassium and calcium on root exudates and grain quality during grain filling. Acta Agron Sin, 2011, 37: 661-669 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[16] 戢林, 李廷轩, 张锡洲, 余海英. 氮高效利用基因型水稻根系形态和活力特征. 中国农业科学, 2012, 45: 4770-4781

Wu F, Gao Y X, Song N, Guo S W, Shen Q R. Effects of nitrogen form and water stress on root physiological characteristics of rice plants. J Nanjing Agric Univ, 2008, 31: 63-66 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[17] Yang J C, Zhang J H. Crop management techniques to enhance harvest index in rice. J Exp Bot, 2010, 61: 3177-3189

[18] Evan J R. Nitrogen and photosynthesis in flag leaf of wheat. Plant Physiol, 1985, 72: 297--302

Wang H Z, Xu G W, Wu J Z, Zhang J, Chen M C, Fu G Z, Li Y J. Regulation effect of nitrogen fertilization on grain filling and activities of enzymes involved in starch synthesis of Yumai 49-198. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2013, 19: 288-296 (in Chinese with English abstract)

Li C Y, Xu W, Liu L W, Yang J, Zhu X K, Guo W S. Changes of endogenous hormone contents and antioxidative enzyme activi-ties in wheat leaves under low temperature stress at jointing stage. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2015, 26: 2015-2022 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[19] Venkateswarlu B, Visperas R M. Source-sink relationships in crop plant. Rice, 1987, 125: 1-19

Zhang H, Huang Z H, Wang J C, Wang Z Q, Yang J C. Changes in morphological and physiological traits of roots and their rela-tionships with grain yield during the evolution of mid-season indica rice cultivars in Jiangsu province. Acta Agron Sin, 2011, 37: 1020-1030 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[20] Xue Y G, Duan H, Liu L J, Wang Z Q, Yang J C, Zhang J H. An improved crop management increases grain yield and nitrogen and water use efficiency in rice. Crop Sci, 2013, 53: 271-284

[21] 薛亚光, 陈婷婷, 杨成, 王志琴, 刘立军, 杨建昌. 中粳稻不同栽培模式对产量及其生理特性的影响. 作物学报, 2010, 36: 466-476

Liu L J, Wang K J, Bian J L, Xiong Y W, Chen L, Wang Z Q, Yang J C. Differences in yield response to nitrogen fertilizer among rice cultivars and their relationship with root morphology and physiology. Acta Agron Sin, 2014, 40: 1999-2007 (in Chi-nese with English abstract)

Chu G, Zhou Q, Xue Y G, Yan X Y, Liu L J, Yang J C. Effects of cultivation patterns on root morph-physiological traits and aboveground development of japonica hybrid rice cultivar Changyou 5. Acta Agron Sin, 2014, 40: 1245-1258 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[22] 李合生. 植物生理生化实验原理和技术. 北京: 高等教育出版社, 2000. pp 125-127

[23] 戢林, 李廷轩, 张锡洲, 余海英. 水稻氮高效基因型根系分泌物中有机酸和氨基酸的变化特征. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2012, 18: 1046-1055

[24] Bollmark M, Kubat B, Eliasson L. Variations in endogenous cytokinin content during adventitious root formation in pea cut-tings. J Plant Physiol, 1988, 132: 262-265

[25] Yang J C, Zhang J H, Wang Z Q, Zhu Q S, Liu L J. Activities of enzymes involved in sucrose-to-starch metabolism in rice grains subjected to water stress during filling. Field Crops Res, 2003, 81: 69-81

[26] Prasertsak A, Fuka S. Nitrogen availability and water stress in-teraction on rice growth and yield. Field Crops Res, 1997, 52: 249-260

[27] Aqueel M A, Leather S R. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and survival of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on different wheat cultivars. Crop Prot, 2011, 30: 216-221

[28] Sandhua S S, Mahalb S S, Vashistb K K, Buttar G S, Brbr A S, Singh M. Crop and water productivity of bed transplanted rice as influenced by various levels of nitrogen and irrigation in north-west India. Agric Water Manag, 2012, 104: 32-39

[29] 姚锋先. 不同水氮管理对水稻生长和水氮效率影响的生理机制研究.华中农业大学博士学位论文, 湖北武汉, 2011

[30] 王丹英, 韩勃, 章秀福, 邵国胜, 徐春梅, 符冠富. 水稻根际含氧量对根系生长的影响. 作物学报, 2008, 34: 803-808

[31] 兰忠明, 林新坚, 张伟光, 张辉, 吴一群. 缺磷对紫云英根系分泌物产生及难溶性磷活化的影响. 中国农业科学, 2012, 45: 1521-1531

[32] 刘立军, 常二华, 范苗苗, 王志琴, 杨建昌. 结实期钾、钙对水稻根系分泌物与稻米品质的影响. 作物学报, 2011, 37: 661-669

[33] 吴芳, 高迎旭, 宋娜, 郭世伟, 沈其荣. 氮素形态及水分胁迫对水稻根系生理特性的影响. 南京农业大学学报, 2008, 3l: 63-66

[34] Cabangon R J, Tuong T P, Castillo E G, Bao L X, Lu G A, Wang G H, Cui Y L, Bouman B A, Li Y H, Chen C D. Effect of irriga-tion method and N-fertilizer management on rice yield, water productivity and nutrient-use efficiencies in typical lowland rice conditions in China. Paddy Water Environ, 2004, 2: 195-206

[35] 王贺正, 徐国伟, 吴金芝, 张均, 陈明灿, 付国占, 李友军. 不同氮素水平对豫麦49-198籽粒灌浆及淀粉合成相关酶活性的调控效应. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2013, 19: 288--296

[36] 李春燕, 徐雯, 刘立伟, 杨景, 朱新开, 郭文善. 低温条件下拔节期小麦叶片内源激素含量和抗氧化酶活性变化. 应用生态学报, 2015, 26: 2015-2022

[37] 张耗, 黄钻华, 王静超, 王志琴, 杨建昌. 江苏中籼水稻品种演进过程中根系形态生理性状的变化及其与产量的关系. 作物学报, 2011, 37: 1020-1030

[38] 刘立军, 王康君, 卞金龙, 熊溢伟, 陈璐, 王志琴, 杨建昌. 水稻产量对氮肥响应的品种间差异及其与根系形态生理的关系. 作物学报, 2014, 40: 1999-2007

[39] 褚光, 周群, 薛亚光, 颜晓元, 刘立军, 杨建昌. 栽培模式对杂交粳稻常优5号根系形态生理性状和地上部生长的影响. 作物学报, 2014, 40: 1245-1258

[40] Chauhan B S, Abugho S B. Effects of water regime, nitrogen fer-tilization, and rice plant density on growth and reproduction of lowland weed Echinochloa crusgalli. Crop Prot, 2013, 54: 142-147