DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1006.2016.01530

Acta Agronomica Sinica (作物学报) 2016/42:10 PP.1530-1540

Artificial Warming from Late Winter to Early Spring by Phased Plastic Mulching Increases Grain Yield of Winter Wheat

Low temperature from late winter to early spring is a main restraint to high yield in winter wheat production in the northern part of North China Plain. We attempted to artificially increase the temperature during this period through phased plastic film mulching. A field experiment was carried out in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 growing seasons with several treatments differing from artificial warming period. Compared with the normal condition (control), mulching since January 25 or February 1 resulted in 167.7-176.8°C increment of accumulated temperature from late January to early March, and mulching one week ear-lier contributed to higher accumulated temperature by 23.0-49.7°C. Wheat seedlings under artificial warming showed earlier re-vival and growth than the control. And the subsequent growth stages were prolonged for 4-10 days because of the relative lower temperature after the plastic film was removed. The earliest warming treatment was most favorable to dry matter accumulation, translocation, and yield enhancement among all treatments. Compared with the control, the earliest warming treatment with mulching increased the dry matter weight and leaf area index at anthesis stage by 18.8% and 14.7%, respectively; as well as pro-longed active photosynthetic duration by more than 10 days, and increased leaf area duration by 43.6%, spike number per hectare by 0.48-0.98 million, kernel number per spike by 3.9-4.5 kernels, and thousand-kernel weight by 2.5-5.6 g. The final yields of the earliest warming treatment were 37.5% and 18.9% higher than those of the control in the cool 2012-2013 and the warm 2013-2014 growing season, respectively, and the maturity date was five days earlier than that of control in the 2013-2014 grow-ing season. Our results indicate that artificial warming by phased mulching with plastic film is an applicable technique in wheat production in North China Plain.

Key words:Late-winter and early-spring,Artificial warming by phased plastic mulching,Winter wheat,Yield,Northern part of the North China Plain

ReleaseDate:2017-01-12 13:30:54

Liu Y X, Wu T W, Guo Y F, Yan J H. Prediction research of cli-mate change treads over North China in the future 30 years. Acta Meteorol Sin, 2007, 65(1): 45-51 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[1] 柳艳香, 吴统文, 郭裕福, 颜京辉.华北地区未来30年气候变化趋势模拟研究.气象学报, 2007, 65(1): 45-51

Tan K Y, Fang S B, Ren S X. Experiment study of winter wheat growth and yield response to climate warming. Acta Meteorol Sin, 2012, 70: 902-908 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[2] 谭凯炎, 房世波, 任三学. 增温对华北冬小麦生产影响的试验研究. 气象学报, 2012, 70: 902-908

[3] 李克南, 杨晓光, 刘志娟, 王文峰, 陈阜. 全球气候变化对中国种植制度可能影响分析: III. 中国北方地区气候资源变化特征及其对种植制度界限的可能影响. 中国农业科学, 2010, 43: 2088-2097

Li K N, Yang X G, Liu Z J, Wang W F, Chen F. Analysis of the potential influence of global climate change on cropping systems in China: III. The change characteristics of climatic resources in northern China and its potential influence on cropping systems. Sci Agric Sin, 2010, 43: 2088-2097 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[4] Rosenzweig C, Tubiello F N. Effects of changes in minimum and maximum temperature on wheat yields in the central USA simu-lation study. Agric For Meteorol, 1996, 80: 215-230

Gao X, You F C, Xu Y H. Precipitation condition of water re-source in Hebei province. Arid Meteorol, 2008, 26(1): 47-51 (in Chinese with English abstract)

Sun Y H Li R Q, Dang H K, Zhang X W, Li H L, Li Y M. Population and individual characteristics of growth and develop-ment and yield components of super-high-yielding winter wheat in Hebei province. J Agric Univ Hebei, 2007, 30(3): 1-8 (in Chi-nese with English abstract)

[5] Batts G R, Morison J K L, Ellis R H. Effects of CO2 and tem-perature on growth and yield of crops of winter wheat over four seasons. Eur J Agron, 1997, 7: 43-52

Bian X B, Chen D D, Wang Q S, Wang S H. Effects of different day and night temperature enhancements on wheat grain yield and quality after anthesis under free air controlled condition. Sci Agric Sin, 2012, 45: 1489-1498 (in Chinese with English ab-stract)

[6] Yuan Z J, Shen Y J. Estimation of agricultural water consumption from meteorological and yield data: a case study of Hebei, North China. PLoS One, 2013, 8: e58685

Fang S B, Tan K Y, Ren S X. Winter wheat yield decline with spring higher night temperature by controlled experiments. Sci Agric Sin, 2010, 43: 3251-3258 (in Chinese with English ab-stract)

[7] 高霞, 尤凤春, 许耀辉. 河北省水资源状况的降水条件分析. 干旱气象, 2008, 26(1): 47-51

Zhang J P, Zhao Y X, Wang C Y, He Y. Effects of climate change on winter wheat growth and yield in North China. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2006, 17: 1179-1184 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[8] 孙亚辉, 李瑞奇, 党红凯, 张馨文, 李慧玲, 李雁鸣. 河北省超高产冬小麦群体和个体生育特性及产量结构特点. 河北农业大学学报, 2007, 30(3): 1-8

Guo T C, Wang C Y, Zhu Y J, Wang H C, Li J X, Zhou J Z. Ef-fects of high temperature on senescence of root and top-partial of wheat plant in the later stage. Acta Agron Sin, 1998, 24: 957-962 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[9] 卞晓波, 陈丹丹, 王强盛, 王绍华. 花后开放式增温对小麦产量及品质的影响. 中国农业科学, 2012, 45: 1489-1498

Geng T, Chen Y J, Zhang W J, Chen C Q. Effects of all day warming on growth, development and yield of winter wheat cul-tivars bred in different periods. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2014, 25: 1357-1365 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[10] 房世波, 谭凯炎, 任三学. 夜间增温对冬小麦生长和产量影响的实验研究. 中国农业科学, 2010, 43: 3251-3258

[11] 张建平, 赵艳霞, 王春乙, 何勇. 气候变化对我国华北地区冬小麦发育和产量的影响. 应用生态学报, 2006, 17: 1179-1184

Zhang B, Zheng J C, Tian Y L, Dong W J, Chen J, Yang F, Zhang W J. System design of free air temperature increased (FATI) for field nighttime warming experiment and its effects on rice-wheat cropping system. Acta Agron Sin, 2010, 36: 620-628 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[12] Sadras V O, Monzon J P. Modelled wheat phenology captures rising temperature trends: shortened time to flowering and matur-ity in Australia and Argentina. Field Crops Res, 2006, 99: 136-146

Tian Y L, Chen Y J, Deng A X, Zheng J C, Zhang W J. Effects of asymmetric warming on the growth characteristics and yield components of winter wheat under free air temperature increased. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2011, 22: 681-686 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[13] 郭天财, 王晨阳, 朱云集, 王化岑, 李九星, 周继泽. 后期高温对冬小麦根系及地上部衰老的影响. 作物学报, 1998, 24: 957-962

Yao Y M, Wang X Y, Chen J Z, Yan H L, Mu Q L, Liu P C, Tian X H. Pros and cons effects of warming on wheat grain yield and quality during grain filling. J Triticeae Crops, 2015, 35: 860-866 (in Chinese with English abstract)

Gao L N, Chen S Y, Zhang X Y, Sun H Y, Wang Y M, Shao L W. Effect of mulching on soil temperature and crop growth of winter wheat in plain of North China. Agric Res Arid Areas, 2009, 27(1): 107-113 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[14] Jenner C F. Effects of exposure of wheat ears to high temperature on dry matter accumulation and carbohydrate metabolism in the grain of two cultivars: II. Carry-over effects. Aust J Plant Physiol, 1991, 18: 179-190

He L Q, Zhang W H, Zhang Y S, Cao C Y, Li K J, Du X. Water utilization and matter production in winter wheat under soil- coated ultrathin plastic-film mulching and irrigation management. Acta Agron Sin, 2014, 40: 1980-1989 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[15] Stone P J, Nicolas M E. Wheat cultivars vary widely in their re-sponse of grain yield and quality of short period of post-anthesis heat stress. Aust J Plant Physiol, 1994, 21: 887-900

Chen L S. The rational application of fertilizer and the law of di-minishing return. Acta Agric Univ Pekinensis, 1982, 8(1): 69-76 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[16] Fitter A H, Fitter R S R, Harris I T B. Relationships between first flowering date and temperature in the flora of a locality in central England. Funct Ecol, 1995, 9: 55-60

[17] 耿婷, 陈摇金, 张卫建, 陈长青. 全天增温对不同年代冬小麦品种生长发育及产量的影响. 应用生态学报, 2014, 25: 1357-1365

Chu Q H, Qiang Y Z. The identity and problem of the diminish-ing rate of return in the economics and the fertilizer sciences. J Shanxi Agric Sci, 2011, 39(1): 33-37 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[18] 张彬, 郑建初, 田云录, 董文军, 陈金, 杨飞, 张卫建. 农田开放式夜间增温系统的设计及其在稻麦上的试验效果. 作物学报, 2010, 36: 620-628

Zhang F Q, Wang X Y, Yu Z W, Wang X Z, Bai H L. Characteris-tics of accumulation and distribution of nitrogen and dry matter in wheat at yield level of ten thousand kilograms per hectare. Acta Agron Sin, 2009, 35: 1086-1096 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[19] 田云录, 陈摇金, 邓艾兴, 郑建初, 张卫建. 开放式增温下非对称性增温对冬小麦生长特征及产量构成的影响. 应用生态学报, 2011, 22: 681-686

Tong Y A, Zhao Y, Zhao H B, Fan H Z. Effect of N rates on N uptake, transformation and the yield of winter wheat. Plant Nutr Fert Sci, 2007, 13: 64-69 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[20] 姚仪敏, 王小燕, 陈建珍, 闫浩亮, 穆麒麟, 刘盼春, 田小海. 灌浆期增温对小麦籽粒结实及品质的双向效应及与施氮量的关系. 麦类作物学报, 2015, 35: 860-866

Zhang N, Du X, Jiang D L, Cui Y H. Effect of sowing date on growth and yield of summer corn (Zea mays L.). J Agric Univ Hebei, 2009, 32(5): 7-11 (in Chinese with English abstract)

Liu Y E, Xie R Z, Zhang H B, Li S K, Gao S J. Study on increas-ing rate of maize yield after putting off harvest time in different ecoregions. Sci Agric Sin, 2010, 43: 2820-2828 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[21] Farooq M, Bramley H, Palta J A. Heat stress in wheat during re-productive and grain filling phases. Crit Rev Plant Sci, 2011, 30: 491-507

Li X L, Li C F, Hou Y H, Hou H P, Ge J Z, Zhao M. Dynamic characteristics of summer maize yield performance in different planting dates and its effect of ecological factors. Sci Agric Sin, 2012, 45: 1074-1083 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[22] Xiong W, Lin E D, Ju H. Climate change and critical thresholds in China’s food security. Clim Change, 2007, 81: 205-221

Li X D, Zhang D Q, Wang H F, Shao Y H, Fang B T, Lü F R, Yue J Q, Ma F J. Impact of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on growth and development and grain yield of winter wheat. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2015, 26: 839-846 (in Chi-nese with English abstract)

[23] 高丽娜, 陈素英, 张喜英, 孙宏勇, 王彦梅, 邵立威. 华北平原冬小麦麦田覆盖对土壤温度和生育进程的影响. 干旱地区农业研究, 2009, 27(1): 107-113

[24] 何立谦, 张维宏, 张永升, 曹彩云, 李科江, 杜雄. 土下微膜覆盖与灌水管理对冬小麦水分利用与物质生产效果的影响. 作物学报, 2014, 40: 1980-1989

Zhang L P, Jing Q, Dai T B, Jiang D, Cao W X. Effects of tem-perature and illumination on flag leaf photosynthetic characteris-tics and senescence of wheat cultivars with different grain quality. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2008, 19: 311-316 (in Chinese with English abstract)

[25] 陈伦寿. 报酬递减率与合理施肥. 北京农业大学学报, 1982, 8(1): 69-76

Gao X K, Ma G, Lü Y C. Causes and countermeasures of haze weather in Hengshui Zone. Rural Econ Sci-technol, 2014, 25(10): 21-22 (in Chinese)

[26] 褚清河, 强彦珍. 经济学与肥料学中报酬递减律的同一性及其问题. 山西农业科学, 2011, 39(1): 33-37

[27] 张法全, 王小燕, 于振文, 王西芝, 白洪立. 公顷产10000 kg小麦氮素和干物质积累与分配特性. 作物学报, 2009, 35: 1086-1096

[28] 同延安, 赵营, 赵护兵, 樊红柱. 施氮量对冬小麦氮素吸收、转运及产量的影响. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2007, 13: 64-69

[29] Zhang X Y, Wang Y Z, Sun H Y, Chen S Y, Shao L W. Optimizing the yield of winter wheat by regulating water consumption during vegetative and reproductive stages under limited water supply. Irrig Sci, 2013, 31: 1103-1112

[30] 张宁, 杜雄, 江东岭, 崔彦宏. 播期对夏玉米生长发育及产量影响的研究. 河北农业大学学报, 2009, 32(5): 7-11

[31] Sun H Y, Zhang X Y, Chen S Y, Pei D, Liu C M. Effects of har-vest and sowing time on the performance of the rotation of winter wheat-summer maize in the North China Plain. Ind Crop Prod, 2007, 25: 239-247

[32] 刘月娥, 谢瑞芝, 张厚宝, 李少昆, 高世菊. 不同生态区玉米适时晚收增产效果. 中国农业科学, 2010, 43: 2820-2828

[33] 李向岭, 李从锋, 侯玉虹, 侯海鹏, 葛均筑, 赵明. 不同播期夏玉米产量性能动态指标及其生态效应. 中国农业科学, 2012, 45: 1074-1083

[34] 李向东, 张德奇, 王汉芳, 邵运辉, 方保停, 吕风荣, 岳俊芹, 马富举. 越冬前增温对小麦生长发育和产量的影响. 应用生态学报, 2015, 26: 839-846

[35] 张黎萍, 荆奇, 戴廷波, 姜东, 曹卫星. 温度和光照强度对不同品质类型小麦旗叶光合特性和衰老的影响. 应用生态学报, 2008, 19: 311-316

[36] 高小宽, 马光, 吕亚慈. 浅析衡水市雾霾天气成因及治理措施. 农村经济与科技, 2014, 25(10): 21-22