DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1143.2010.10015

Acta Botanica Yunnanica (云南植物研究) 2010/32:3 PP.270-280

Altitudinal Variations in Reproductive Allocation of Bergenia purpurascens (Saxifragaceae)

The strategy of resource allocation between vegetative and reproductive functions, quantitative relationship between size and reproductive output are central aspects of plant life-history. To test the tactics of resource allocation and its altitudinal trend, we examined the reproductive allocation (RA) of Bergenia purpurascens (Saxifragaceae), in six populations along a shady slope in Sejila Mountain of southeast Tibet, at an altitude gradient from 4 200 m to 4 640 m. Our results showed that (1) with increasing altitude, vegetative biomass, reproductive biomass, total aboveground biomass, flower number per plant and length of flower stalk decreased significantly, but the number of leaves did not change greatly. However, the change of RA did not show a monotonic trend when altitude increased, shifting from significantly decreasing below the tree line to slightly increasing above it; (2) vegetative biomass was positively correlated with reproductive biomass, but negatively correlated with RA in all populations, but the level of significance was different among the populations; (3) RA decreased with individual size in all populations, whereas the relationship between absolute resource allocated to reproduction and individual size was allometric; (4) reproductive allometry and a size threshold for reproduction did exist in this alpine perennial, but the obvious altitudinal trend was only found along the populations below the tree line, not above it. We then concluded the altitude could not fully explain the change of resource allocation strategy of this alpine perennial, and different effects of size and habitat on RA may result from various environmental constraints along the altitudinal gradient or genetic background. Therefore, each individual within a population will follow its own developmental trajectory shaped by its genotype and the habitats. The most innovative finding was plant adaptation and resource trade-off might be sharply altered at the tree line, which is a sensitive area in alpine mountains. Further investigations are needed to better understand the relationship between the reproductive allocation and changing environmental conditions.

Key words:Reproductive allocation,Size-dependent,Reproductive threshold,Tree line,Perennial

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 15:19:52

Aarssen LW, Taylor DR, 1992. Fecundity allocation in herbaceous plants [J]. Oikos, 65 (2): 225—232

Bazzaz FA, Ackerly DD, Reekie EG, 2001. Reproductive Alloca-tion in Plants [A]. In: Michael F eds. Seeds: the Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities [M]. UK: Wallingford, 1—29

Billings WD, 1974. Adaptations and origins of alpine plants [J]. Arctic and Alpine Research,6 (2): 129—142

Bingham RA, Orthner AR, 1998. Efficient pollination of alpine plants [J]. Nature, 391 (6664): 238—239

Bonser SP, Aarssen LW, 2009. Interpreting reproductive allometry: Individual strategies of allocation explain size-dependent reproduction in plant populations [J]. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 11 (1): 31—40

Cheplick GP, 1995. Life history trade-offs in Amphibromus scabrivalvis (Poaceae): allocation to clonal growth, storage, and cleistogamous reproduction [J]. American Journal of Botany, 82 (5): 621—629

De Jong TJ, Roo LGD, Klinkhamer PGL, 1998. Is the threshold size for flowering in Cynoglossum officinale fixed or dependent on environment? [J]. New Phytologist, 138 (3): 489—496

Du GZ (杜国祯), Sun GJ (孙国钧), Wang XZ (王兮之), 1999. The relationship between size-dependent reproduction and population density of Elymus nutans [J]. Acta Prataculturae Sinica (草业学报), 8 (2): 26—33

Fabbro T, Korner C, 2004. Altitudinal differences in flower traits and reproductive allocation [J]. Flora, 199 (1): 70—81

Fan BL (樊宝丽), Meng JL (孟金柳), Zhao ZG (赵志刚) et al, 2008. Influence of altitude on reproductive traits and resource allocation of species of Ranunculaceae at East Qinghai Tibetan Plateau [J]. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica (西北植物学报), 28 (4): 0805—0811

Fan DM (范邓妹), Yang YP (杨永平), 2009. Reproductive performance in two populations of Polygonum viviparum (Polygonaceae) under different habitats [J]. Acta Botanica Yunnanica (云南植物研究), 31 (002): 153—157

Fan DM, Yang YP, 2009. Altitudinal variations in flower and bulbil production of an alpine perennial, Polygonum viviparum (Polygonaceae) [J]. Plant Biology, 11 (3): 493—497

Hautier Y, Randin CF, Stocklin J et al, 2009. Changes in reproductive investment with altitude in an alpine plant [J]. Journal of Plant Ecology, 2 (3): 125—134

He JC (何吉成), Luo TX (罗天祥), Xu YQ (徐雨晴), 2009. Characteristics of eco-climate at smith fir timberline in the Sergyemla Mountains, Southeast Tibetan Plateau [J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica (生态学报), 29 (1): 37—46

Hemborg AM, Karlsson PS, 1998. Altitudinal variation in size effects on plant reproductive effort and somatic costs of reproduction [J]. Ecoscience, 5 (4): 517—525

Hickman JC, 1975. Environmental unpredictability and plastic energy allocation strategies in the annual Polygonum cascadense (Polygonaceae) [J]. Journal of Ecology, 63 (2): 689—701

Iwasa Y, Cohen D, 1989. Optimal growth schedule of a perennial plant [J]. The American Naturalist, 133 (4): 480—505

Jongejans E, de Kroon H, Berendse F, 2006. The interplay between shifts in biomass allocation and costs of reproduction in four grassland perennials under simulated successional change [J]. Oecologia, 147 (2): 369—378

Karlsson PS, Mendez M, 2005. The Resource Economy of Plant Reproduction [A]. In: Reekie EG, Bazzaz FA eds. Reproductive Allocation in Plants [M]. UK: Academic Press, 1—49

Kawano S, Masuda J, 1980. The productive and reproductive biology of plants. VII. Resource allocation and reproductive capacity in wild populations of Heloniopsis orientalis (Thunb.) C. Tanaka (Liliaceae) [J]. Oecologia, 45: 307—317

Kawano S, Hiratsuka A, Hayashi K, 1982. Life history characteristics and survivorship of Erythronium Japonicum [J]. Oikos, 38 (2): 129—149

Korner C, 1999. Alpine Plant Life: Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystems [M]. New York: Springer-Verlag

Li FR, Zhang AS, Duan SS et al, 2005. Patterns of reproductive allocation in Artemisia halodendron inhabiting two contrasting habitats [J]. Acta Oecologica, 28 (1): 57—64

Liang Y (梁艳), Zhang XC (张小翠), Chen XL (陈学林), 2008. Individual size and resource allocation in perennial Gentiana [J]. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica (西北植物学报), 28 (012): 2400—2407

Liu ZJ (刘左军), Du GZ (杜国祯), Chen JK (陈家宽), 2002. Size-dependent reproductive allocation of Ligularia virgaurea in different habitats [J]. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica (植物生态学报), 26 (001): 44—50

Mendez M, Obeso JR, 1993. Size-dependent vegetative and reproductive allocation in Arum italicum (Araceae) [J]. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71: 309—314

Mendez M, Karlsson PS, 2004. Between-population variation in size-dependent reproduction and reproductive allocation in Pinguicula vulgaris (Lentibulariaceae) and its environmental correlates [J]. Oikos, 104 (1): 59—70

Pickering CM, 1994. Size-dependent reproduction in Australian alpine Ranunculus [J]. Austral Ecology, 19 (3): 336—344

Reekie EG, 1998. An explanation for size-dependent reproductive allocation in Plantago major [J]. Canadian Iournal of Botany, 76 (1): 43—50

Ru GX (茹广欣), Zhu DQ (朱登强), Wang JH (王军辉) et al, 2008. Species diversity and soil nutrient characteristics of Abies georgei varsmithii of Sejila Mountain in Tibet [J]. Journal of Henan Agricultural University(河南农业大学学报), 42 (5): 511—515

Soule JD, Werner PA, 1981. Patterns of resource allocation in plants, with special reference to Potentilla recta L. [J]. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 108 (3): 311—319

Sugiyama S, Bazzaz FA, 1998. Size dependence of reproductive allocation: the influence of resource availability, competition and genetic identity [J]. Functional Ecology, 12 (2): 280—288

Waite S, Hutchings MJ, 1982. Plastic energy allocation patterns in Plantago coronopus [J]. Oikos, 38 (3): 333—342

Wang XP (王襄平), Zhang L (张玲), Fang JY (方精云), 2004. Geographical differences in alpine timberline and its climatic interpretation in China [J]. Acta Geographiea Sinica(地理学报), 59 (6): 871—879

Weiner J, 1988. The Influence of Competition on Plant Reproduction [A]. In: Lovett Doust J, Lovett Doust L eds. Plant Reproductive Ecology: Patterns and Strategies [M]. New York: Oxford University Press, 228—245

Weiner J, Rosenmeier L, Massoni ES et al, 2009a. Is reproductive allocation in Senecio vulgaris plastic? [J]. Botany, 87 (5): 475—481

Weiner J, Lesley GC, Joan P et al, 2009b. The allometry of reproduction within plant populations [J]. Journal of Ecology, 97 (6): 1220—1233

Wesselingh RA, Klinkhamer PGL, de Jong TJ et al, 1997. Threshold size for flowering in different habitats: effects of size-dependent growth and survival [J]. Ecology, 78 (7): 2118—2132

Willson MF, 1983. Plant reproductive ecology [M]. New York: Wiley inter science Publication

Worley AC, Harder LD. 1996. Size-dependent resource allocation and costs of reproduction in Pinguicula vulgaris (Lentibulariaceae) [J] Journal of Ecology, 84 (2): 195—206

Yang XL (杨小林), Cui GF (崔国发), Ren QS (任青山) et al, 2008. Plant diversity pattern and stability of the timberline community on Sejila Mountain in Tibet. western China [J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University(北京林业大学学报), 30 (1): 14—20

Zhang DY (张大勇), Jiang XH (姜新华), 2001. Mating system evolution, resources allocation, and genetic diversity in plant [J]. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica (植物生态学报), 25: 130—143

Zhang DY (张大勇), 2004. Plant Reproductive Ecology [M]. Beijing: Science Press

Zhang LJ (张林静), Shi YX (石云霞), Pan XL (潘晓玲), 2007. Analysis of correlativity between reproductive allocation and altitude in plants [J]. Journal of Northwest University (Natural Science Edition) (西北大学学报: 自然科学版), 37 (001): 77—80

Zhao F (赵芳), Yang YP (杨永平), 2008. Reproductive allocation in a dioecious perennial Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) along altitudinal gradients [J]. Journal of Systematics and Evolution (植物分类学报), 46 (6): 830—835

Zhao ZG (赵志刚), Du GZ (杜国祯), Ren QJ (任青吉), 2004. Size-dependent reproduction and sex allocation in five species of Ranunculaceae [J]. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica (植物生态学报), 28 (001): 9—16