DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00482

Acta Psychologica Sinica (心理学报) 2017/49:4 PP.482-499

Protest encounters setback: Effects of emotional reactions on participation intention in context of frustrate collective action

Like any goal-oriented behavior, collective action is accompanied by successes, setbacks, and failures, all of which are likely to cause protestors' complex psychological reactions. Although there is a vast literature on the structural and psychological factors that mobilize collective action, little is yet known about how outcomes of collective action affect emotional experience and continued engagement. The present article focused on two emotions that seem particularly relevant in the context of frustrated collective action: anger, which is supposed to increase effort in the future, and frustration, which is supposed to result in withdrawal. Moreover, we proposed that group identity and group efficiency are two central variables in determining the intensity of emotions. Both group identity and group efficiency could be positive predictors of anger and negative predictors of frustration.
Four studies were conducted to examine above-mentioned hypothesis. In study1 we tested the assumption that non-attainment of a group goal would trigger group members' intense anger or frustration. Group identity and group efficency were manipulated to investigate the effects of these two psychological variables on participants' emotional reactions to failure of collective action in study2 and study3. Using a longitudinal survey, study4 verified research conclusions within the background of a real event.
Results indicated that when facing setbacks, participants' feeling of anger was positively related with future action intentions, and their feeling of frustration was negatively related with future action intentions. That's to say, in the context of frustrated collective action, anger could motive people to pursue further action, while frustration could suppress their sustaining engagement. Furthermore, the intensity of anger was positively predicted by group identity and group efficiency, and the intensity of frustration was negatively predicted by these two factors. Thus, participants who identified with the ingroup or perceived their group as efficacious were more likely to experience anger about the non-attainment of a group goal and less likely to feel frustration.
The present work highlights the importance of taking into account outcomes of collective action with their associated achievement emotions, proves the hypothesis that collective action would feed back into appraisals of emotions, and fits into recent calls to develop dynamic theoretical models of collective action. It also provides a useful experimental paradigm through which researchers could study the reciprocal relations between emotions and collective action. Another important theoretical implication of this research is that it empirically investigates the motivating role of pride in the context of collective action. Future research should replicate these findings in other contexts of collective action to examine that whether these findings are generalizable, and explore when and why setback of collective action could motive people come to opt for non-normative action.

Key words:collective action,anger,frustration,group efficiency,group identity

ReleaseDate:2017-05-12 17:01:37

Bäck, E., Bäck, H., & Garcia-Albacete, G. (2013). Protest activity, social incentives, and rejection sensitivity: Results from a survey experiment about tuition fees. Contention: The Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Protest, 1, 1–15.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Becker, J. C., Tausch, N., Spears, R., & Christ, O. (2011). Committed Dis(s)idents: Participation in radical collective action fosters disidentification with the broader In–Group but enhances political identification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(8), 1104–1116.

Becker, J. C., & Wright, S. C. (2011). Yet another dark side of chivalry: Benevolent sexism undermines and hostile sexism motivates collective action for social change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(1), 62–77.

Blackwood, L. M., & Louis, W. R. (2012). If it matters for the group then it matters to me: Collective action outcomes for seasoned activists. British Journal of Social Psychology, 51, 72–92.

Chua, H. F., Gonzalez, R., Taylor, S. F., Welsh, R. C., & Liberzon, I. (2009). Decision-related loss: Regret and disappointment. NeuroImage, 47, 2031–2040.

Drury, J., Cocking, C., Beale, J., Hanson, C., & Rapley, F. (2005). The phenomenology of empowerment in collective action. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 309–328.

Drury, J., & Reicher, S. D. (2005). Explaining enduring empowerment: A comparative study of collective action and psychological outcomes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 35–58.

Evripidou, A., & Drury, J. (2013). This is the time of tension: Collective action and subjective power in the Greek anti–austerity movement. Contention: The Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Protest, 1, 31–51.

Foster, M. D. (2014). The relationship between collective action and well–being and its moderators: Pervasiveness of discrimination and dimensions of action. Sex Roles, 70, 165–182.

Foster, M. D. (2015). Tweeting about sexism: The well-being benefits of a social media collective action. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54(4), 629–647.

Frijda, N. H., Kuipers, P., & ter Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 212– 228.

Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2012). Reducing intergroup bias: The common ingroup identity model. New York: Routledge.

Glasforda, D. E., & Dovidiob, J. F. (2011). E pluribus unum: Dual identity and minority group members' motivation to engage in contact, as well as social change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(5), 1021–1024.

Goodwin, J., & Jasper, J. M. (2006). Emotions and social movements. In J. E. Stets & J. H. Turner (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of emotions (pp. 611–635). US: Springer .

Gould, D. B. (2009). Moving politics, emotion and act up's fight against aids. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Halperin, E., & Pliskin, R. (2015). Emotions and emotion regulation in intractable conflict: Studying emotional processes within a unique context. Political Psychology, 36, 119–150.

Halperin, E., Russell, A. G., Dweck, C. S., & Gross, J. J. (2011). Anger, hatred, and the quest for peace: Anger can be constructive in the absence of hatred. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(2), 274–291.

Hogg, M. A. (2000). Subjective uncertainty reduction through self-categorization: A motivational theory of social identity processes. European Review of Social Psychology, 11, 223–255.

Klandermans, B. (1984). Mobilization and participation in trade union action: An expectancy–value approach. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 57(2), 107–120.

Klandermans, B., van der Toorn, J., & van Stekelenburg, J. (2008). Embeddedness and identity: How immigrants turn grievances into action. American Sociological Review, 73(6), 992–1012.

Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.

McCarthy, J. D., & Zald, M. N. (1977). Resource mobilization and social movements: A partial theory. American Journal of Sociology, 82(6), 1212–1241.

Packer, D. J. (2008). On being both with us and against us: A normative conflict model of dissent in social groups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12, 50–72.

Pekrun, R., & Stephens, E. J. (2010). Achievement emotions: A control-value approach. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 238–255.

Shi, J., Hao, Z., Saeri, A. K., & Cui, L. J. (2015). The dual– pathway model of collective action: Impacts of types of collective action and social identity. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 18(1), 45–65.

Smith, E. R. (1993). Social identity and social emotions: Toward new conceptualizations of prejudice. In D. M. Mackie & D. L. Hamilton (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and stereotyping: Interactive processes in group perception (pp. 297–315). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Smith, E. R., Seger, C. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Can emotions be truly group level? Evidence regarding four conceptual criteria. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(3), 431–446.

Smith, H. J., Cronin, T., & Kessler, T. (2008). Anger, fear, or sadness: Faculty members' emotional reactions to collective pay disadvantage. Political Psychology, 29, 221–246.

Stephen, M. J., & Chenoweth, E. (2008). Why civil resistance works: The strategic logic of nonviolent conflict. International Security, 33, 7–44.

Stewart, T. L., Latu, I. M., Branscombe, N. R., & Denney, H. T. (2010). Yes we can: Prejudice reduction through seeing (inequality) and believing (in social change). Psychological Science, 21(11), 1557–1562.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), Social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–48). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Tausch, N., & Becker, J. C. (2013). Emotional reactions to success and failure of collective action as predictors of future action intentions: A longitudinal investigation in the context of student protests in Germany. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(3), 525–542.

Thomas, E. F., McGarty, C., & Louis, W. (2014). Social interaction and psychological pathways to political engagement and extremism. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 15–22.

Tropp, L. R., & Wright, S. C. (2001). Ingroup identification as the inclusion of ingroup in the self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 585–600.

van Dijk, W. W., & Zeelenberg, M. (2002a). Investigating the appraisal patterns of regret and disappointment. Motivation and Emotion, 26, 321–331.

van Dijk, W. W., & Zeelenberg, M. (2002b). What do we talk about when we talk about disappointment? Distinguishing outcome–related disappointment from person-related disappointment. Cognition & Emotio, 16, 787–807.

van Stekelenburg, J., Anikina, N. C., Pouw, W. T. J. L., Petrovic, I., & Nederlof, N. (2013). From correlation to causation: The cruciality of a collectivity in the context of collective action. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 1, 161–187.

van Stekelenburg, J., Klandermans, B., & van Dijk, W. W. (2011). Combining motivations and emotion: The motivational dynamics of protest participation. International Journal of Social Psychology, 26(1), 91–104.

van Zomeren, M., Leach, C. W., & Spears, R. (2010). Does group efficacy increase group identification? Resolving their paradoxical relationship. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 1055–1060.

van Zomeren, M., Leach, C. W., & Spears, R. (2012). Protesters as “Passionate Economists”: A dynamic dual pathway model of approach coping with collective disadvantage. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16(2), 180–199.

van Zomeren, M., Postmes, T., & Spears, R. (2008). Toward an integrative social identity model of collective action: A quantitative research synthesis of three socio–psychological perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 504–535.

van Zomeren, M., Spears, R., Fischer, A. H., & Leach, C. W. (2004). Put your money where your mouth is! Explaining collective action tendencies through group–based anger and group efficacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(5), 649–664.

van Zomeren, M., Spears, R., & Leach, C. W. (2008). Exploring psychological mechanisms of collective action: Does relevance of group identity influence how people cope with collective disadvantage? British Journal of Social Psychology, 47(2), 353–372.

Xue, T., Chen, H., Yue, G. A., & Yao, Q. (2013). Collective action participation: Effects of multiple social identities on group–based emotions and efficacy paths. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 45(8), 899–920. [薛婷, 陈浩, 乐国安, 姚琦. (2013). 社会认同对集体行动的作用: 群体情绪与效能路径. 心理学报, 45(8), 899–920.]

Yin, R., & Zhang, F. F. (2015). The differentiation of different types of collective actions. Advances in Psychological Science, 23(1), 120–131. [殷融, 张菲菲. (2015). 不同类型集群行为的差异比较. 心理科学进展, 23(1), 120–131.]

Yzerbyt, V., Dumont, M., Wigboldus, D., & Gordijn, E. (2003). I feel for us: The impact of categorization and identification on emotions and action tendencies. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42(4), 533–549.

Zaal, M. P., van Laar, C., Ståhl, T., Ellemers, N., & Derks, B. (2011). By any means necessary: The effects of regulatory focus and moral conviction on hostile and benevolent forms of collective action. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 670–689.

Zhang, S. W., & Wang, E. P. (2011). The motivational and organizational mechanism of collective action in mass incidents. Advances in Psychological Science, 19(12), 1730–1740.

Zhang, S. W., Wang, E. P., & Zhou, J. (2012). The motivation mechanism of collective action in different contexts. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 44(4), 524–545. [张书维, 王二平, 周洁. (2012). 跨情境下集群行为的动因机制. 心理学报, 44(4), 524–545.]