DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00829

Acta Psychologica Sinica (心理学报) 2017/49:6 PP.829-840

How employee's unethical behavior leads to coworker-initiated aggression: The perspective of deontic justice

Organizational behavior researchers have paid close attention to employee's unethical behaviors and suggest that the third parties' reactions will determine the follow-up development of these misconducts to a large extent. Coworkers' tolerance will probably lead to the spread of unethical behavior, while coworkers' punishment can effectively prevent the recurrence of such behavior. Drawing from deontic model of justice, this study proposed that coworker's deontic injustice mediated the relationship between employee's unethical behavior and employee's victimization, and ethical leadership moderated the impact of employee's unethical behavior on coworker's deontic injustice while task interdependence moderated the influence of coworker's deontic injustice on employee's victimization.

Key words:unethical behavior,workplace victimization,coworker,deontic justice,rational judgment

ReleaseDate:2017-08-10 07:39:30

Aquino, K., & Lamertz, K. (2004). A relational model of workplace victimization:Social roles and patterns of victimization in dyadic relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6), 1023-1034.

Aquino, K., & Thau, S. (2009). Workplace victimization:Aggression from the target's perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 717-741.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research:Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Beller, S. (2008). Deontic norms, deontic reasoning, and deontic conditionals. Thinking & Reasoning, 14(4), 305-341.

Bennett, R. J., & Robinson, S. L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 349-360.

Beugré, C. D. (2012). Development and validation of a deontic justice scale. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(9), 2163-2190.

Bishop, J. W., & Dow Scott, K. (2000). An examination of organizational and team commitment in a self-directed team environment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 439-450.

Blader, S. L., Wiesenfeld, B. M., Fortin, M., & Wheeler-Smith, S. L. (2013). Fairness lies in the heart of the beholder:How the social emotions of third parties influence reactions to injustice. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 121(1), 62-80.

Bowling, N. A., Beehr, T. A., Bennett, M. M., & Watson, C. P. (2010). Target personality and workplace victimization:A prospective analysis. Work & Stress, 24(2), 140-158.

Boyd, R., Gintis, H., Bowles, S., & Richerson, P. J. (2003). The evolution of altruistic punishment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(6), 3531-3535.

Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership:A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117-134.

Chen, X. P., Tsui, A. S., & Farh, J. L. (2012). Empirical methods in organization and management research (2nd ed.). Beijing, China:Peking University Press.

[陈晓萍, 徐淑英, 樊景立. (2012). 组织与管理研究的实证方法 (第二版). 北京:北京大学出版社.]

Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). London:Routledge.

Crawshaw, J. R., Cropanzano, R., Bell, C. M., & Nadisic, T. (2013). Organizational justice:New insights from behavioural ethics. Human Relations, 66(7), 885-904.

Cullen, K. L., Fan, J. Y., & Liu, C. (2014). Employee popularity mediates the relationship between political skill and workplace interpersonal mistreatment. Journal of Management, 40(6), 1760-1778.

Desai, S., & Kouchaki, M. (2016). Moral symbols:A necklace of garlic against unethical requests. Academy of Management Journal. In press.

Diekmann, K. A., Walker, S. D. S., Galinsky, A. D., & Tenbrunsel, A. E. (2013). Double victimization in the workplace:Why observers condemn passive victims of sexual harassment. Organization Science, 24(2), 614-628.

Fehr, E., & Gächter, S. (2002). Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature, 415(6868), 137-140.

Folger, R. (2001). Fairness as deonance. In S. Gilliland, D. Steiner, & D. Skarlicki (Eds.), Theoretical and cultural perspectives on organizational justice (pp. 3-34). Greenwich, CT:IAP.

Folger, R., Cropanzano, R., & Goldman, B. (2005). What is the relationship between justice and morality? In J. Greenberg & J. A. Colquitt (Eds.), Handbook of organizational justice (pp. 215-246). Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum.

Gino, F., Ayal, S., & Ariely, D. (2009). Contagion and differentiation in unethical behavior:The effect of one bad apple on the barrel. Psychological Science, 20(3), 393-398.

Greenbaum, R. L., Mawritz, M. B., Mayer, D. M., & Priesemuth, M. (2013). To act out, to withdraw, or to constructively resist? Employee reactions to supervisor abuse of customers and the moderating role of employee moral identity. Human Relations, 66(7), 925-950.

Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail:A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108(4), 814-834.

Hershcovis, M. S., & Barling, J. (2010a). Comparing victim attributions and outcomes for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 874-888.

Hershcovis, M. S., & Barling, J. (2010b). Towards a multi-foci approach to workplace aggression:A meta-analytic review of outcomes from different perpetrators. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(1), 24-44.

Hershcovis, M. S., & Reich, T. C. (2013). Integrating workplace aggression research:Relational, contextual, and method considerations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(S1), S26-S42.

Hershcovis, M. S., Reich, T. C., Parker, S. K., & Bozeman, J. (2012). The relationship between workplace aggression and target deviant behaviour:The moderating roles of power and task interdependence. Work & Stress, 26(1), 1-20.

Hershcovis, M. S., Turner, N., Barling, J., Arnold, K. A., Dupré, K. E., Inness, M.,.... Sivanathan, N. (2007). Predicting workplace aggression:A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 228-238.

Jensen, J. M., Patel, P. C., & Raver, J. L. (2014). Is it better to be average? High and low performance as predictors of employee victimization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(2), 296-309.

Kaukiainen, A., Salmivalli, C., Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., Lahtinen, A., Kostamo, A., & Lagerspetz, K. (2001). Overt and covert aggression in work settings in relation to the subjective well-being of employees. Aggressive Behavior, 27(5), 360-371.

Kish-Gephart, J. J., Harrison, D. A., & Treviño, L. K. (2010). Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels:Meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 1-31.

Kouchaki, M., & Desai, S. D. (2015). Anxious, threatened, and also unethical:How anxiety makes individuals feel threatened and commit unethical acts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 360-375.

Kouchaki, M., & Wareham, J. (2015). Excluded and behaving unethically:Social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 547-556.

Lam, C. K., van der Vegt, G. S., Walter, F., & Huang, X. (2011). Harming high performers:A social comparison perspective on interpersonal harming in work teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(3), 588-601.

Lian, H. W., Brown, D. J., Ferris, D. L., Liang, L. H., Keeping, L. M., & Morrison, R. (2014). Abusive supervision and retaliation:A self-control framework. Academy of Management Journal, 57(1), 116-139.

Linton, D. K., & Power, J. L. (2013). The personality traits of workplace bullies are often shared by their victims:Is there a dark side to victims?. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(6), 738-743.

Lotz, S., Okimoto, T. G., Schlösser, T., & Fetchenhauer, D. (2011). Punitive versus compensatory reactions to injustice:Emotional antecedents to third-party interventions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(2), 477-480.

Mayer, D. M., Aquino, K., Greenbaum, R. L., & Kuenzi, M. (2012). Who displays ethical leadership, and why does it matter? An examination of antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 151-171.

Mayer, D. M., Kuenzi, M., & Greenbaum, R. L. (2010). Examining the link between ethical leadership and employee misconduct:The mediating role of ethical climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(S1), 7-16.

Mitchell, M. S., Vogel, R. M., & Folger, R. (2015). Third parties' reactions to the abusive supervision of coworkers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(4), 1040-1055.

Moore, C., Detert, J. R., Klebe Treviño, L., Baker, V. L., & Mayer, D. M. (2012). Why employees do bad things:Moral disengagement and unethical organizational behavior. Personnel Psychology, 65(1), 1-48.

O'Reilly, J., & Aquino, K. (2011). A model of third parties' morally motivated responses to mistreatment in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 36(3), 526-543.

O'Reilly, J., Aquino, K., & Skarlicki, D. (2016). The lives of others:Third parties' responses to others' injustice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(2), 171-189.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891.

Reich, T. C., & Hershcovis, M. S. (2015). Observing workplace incivility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 203-215.

Rupp, D. E., & Bell, C. M. (2010). Extending the deontic model of justice:Moral self-regulation in third-party responses to injustice. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(1), 89-106.

Scott, K. L., Restubog, S. L. D., & Zagenczyk, T. J. (2013). A social exchange-based model of the antecedents of workplace exclusion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), 37-48.

Simon, L. S., Hurst, C., Kelley, K., & Judge, T. A. (2015). Understanding cycles of abuse:A multimotive approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(6), 1798-1810.

Skarlicki, D. P., & Kulik, C. T. (2004). Third-party reactions to employee (mis)treatment:A justice perspective. Research in Organizational Behavior, 26, 183-229.

Skarlicki, D. P., & Rupp, D. E. (2010). Dual processing and organizational justice:The role of rational versus experiential processing in third-party reactions to workplace mistreatment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 944-952.

Smith-Crowe, K., & Warren, D. E. (2014). The emotion-evoked collective corruption model:The role of emotion in the spread of corruption within organizations. Organization Science, 25(4), 1154-1171.

Somech, A., Desivilya, H. S., & Lidogoster, H. (2009). Team conflict management and team effectiveness:The effects of task interdependence and team identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(3), 359-378.

Steinbauer, R., Renn, R. W., Taylor, R. R., & Njoroge, P. K. (2014). Ethical leadership and followers' moral judgment:The role of followers' perceived accountability and self-leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 120(3), 381-392.

Thau, S., Derfler-Rozin, R., Pitesa, M., Mitchell, M. S., & Pillutla, M. M. (2015). Unethical for the sake of the group:Risk of social exclusion and pro-group unethical behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 98-113.

Treviño, L. K., & Ball, G. A. (1992). The social implications of punishing unethical behavior:Observers' cognitive and affective reactions. Journal of Management, 18(4), 751-768.

Turillo, C. J., Folger, R., Lavelle, J. J., Umphress, E. E., & Gee, J. O. (2002). Is virtue its own reward? Self-sacrificial decisions for the sake of fairness. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 89(1), 839-865.

Umphress, E. E., Bingham, J. B., & Mitchell, M. S. (2010). Unethical behavior in the name of the company:The moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4), 769-780.

Umphress, E. E., Simmons, A. L., Folger, R., Ren, R., & Bobocel, R. (2013). Observer reactions to interpersonal injustice:The roles of perpetrator intent and victim perception. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(3), 327-349.

Wang, D. X., & Zheng, X. W. (2013). An integrated study of workplace aggression:Combining the multiple dimensions. Journal of Zhejiang University (Humanities and Social Sciences), 43(4), 104-112.

[王端旭, 郑显伟. (2013). 职场攻击行为多视角整合研究. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 43(4), 104-112.]

Wiltermuth, S. S., Bennett, V. M., & Pierce, L. (2013). Doing as they would do:How the perceived ethical preferences of third-party beneficiaries impact ethical decision-making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 122(2), 280-290.

Wiltermuth, S. S., & Flynn, F. J. (2013). Power, moral clarity, and punishment in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 56(4), 1002-1023.

Zuber, F. (2015). Spread of unethical behavior in organizations:A dynamic social network perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 131(1), 151-172.