doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01009

Acta Psychologica Sinica (心理学报) 2017/49:8 PP.1009-1021

The modulation of working memory load and perceptual load on attentional guidance from representations of working memory


Abstract:
Attention is biased towards the objects that sharing common features with the online representations in working memory (WM) and such phenomenon is called WM based attentional guidance. Although the attentional guidance was regarded as operating in an involuntary manner, many researchers still found that the guidance effects decreased or even eliminated with the increasing of WM load. However, the issue how WM load affects attentional guidance is still controversial. The probable reason for the attenuating of memory-driven guidance caused by the WM load might either be due to exhausting of cognitive resources with the load increasing, or be due to the reducing of the representation status when multiple representations maintaining in WM simultaneously. Here, with using the eye movement tracking technique to measure the attentional deployment in real time during the visual search task, we attempted to explore how the WM load modulated the attentional guidance under different perceptual load of visual search task.
The classic dual-task paradigm combined the WM task and the visual search task was adopted in the present study. Participants were required to complete a visual search task while maintaining 1, 2 or 4 items in the WM online. During the visual search task, one of the WM items either reappear as a distractor of visual search task in the invalid condition or not reappear in the neutral condition.
When low perceptual load of visual search task was used in experiment 1 and 3, the results showed that the distractor matched the WM representation could capture more of the first fixation than other distractors, and the RT in invalid condition was significant greater than the neutral condition in visual search under WM load of 1 and 2, suggesting a classic attentional guidance effect, but this effect was not observed when the WM load increased to 4 items which was regarded as the full load of WM. In contrast, when the high perceptual load of visual search task was used in experiment 2 and 4, the guidance effect was only found under the WM load of 1, and disappeared when the WM load add to 2 items.
In conclusion, the present study illustrated that (1) both the load of WM and perceptual load of visual search task can modulate the WM based attentional guidance by the means of competing for the common cognitive resources, and (2) multiple representations maintained simultaneously in WM can guide attentional selection if the cognitive resources are sufficient.

Key words:working memory load,perceptual load,guidance effects,cognitive resources

ReleaseDate:2017-08-31 10:09:54



Awh, E., Anllo-Vento, L., & Hillyard, S. A. (2000). The role of spatial selective attention in working memory for locations:Evidence from event-related potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(5), 840-847.

Bacon, W. F., & Egeth, H. E. (1994). Overriding stimulus-driven attentional capture. Perception & Psychophysics, 55(5), 485-496.

Bays, P. M., & Husain, M. (2008). Dynamic shifts of limited working memory resources in human vision. Science, 321(5890), 851-854.

Beck, V. M., Hollingworth, A., & Luck, S. J. (2012). Simultaneous control of attention by multiple working memory representations. Psychological Science, 23(8), 887-898.

Bundesen, C., Habekost, T., & Kyllingsbæk, S. (2005). A neural theory of visual attention:Bridging cognition and neurophysiology. Psychological Review, 112(2), 291-328.

Carlisle, N., & Woodman, G. (2012). The guidance of attention is dominated by task relevance and not simply maintenance in working memory. Journal of Vision, 12(9), 953.

Carlisle, N. B., & Woodman, G. F. (2011). Automatic and strategic effects in the guidance of attention by working memory representations. Acta Psychologica, 137(2), 217-225.

Carlisle, N. B., & Woodman, G. F. (2013). Reconciling conflicting electrophysiological findings on the guidance of attention by working memory. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 75(7), 1330-1335.

Charron, S., & Koechlin, E. (2010). Divided representation of concurrent goals in the human frontal lobes. Science, 328(5976), 360-363.

Chun, M. M., Golomb, J. D., & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2011). A taxonomy of external and internal attention. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 73-101.

Cowan, N. (1999). An embedded-processes model of working memory. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory:Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 62-101). Cambridge, UK:Cambridge University Press.

Desimone, R., & Duncan, J. (1995). Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 18, 193-222.

Dowd, E. W., Kiyonaga, A., Egner, T., & Mitroff, S. R. (2015). Attentional guidance by working memory differs by paradigm:An individual-differences approach. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77(3), 704-712.

Downing, P. E. (2000). Interactions between visual working memory and selective attention. Psychological Science, 11(6), 467-473.

Downing, P. E., & Dodds, C. (2004). Competition in visual working memory for control of search. Visual Cognition, 11(6), 689-703.

Emrich, S. M., Riggall, A. C., LaRocque, J. J., & Postle, B. R. (2013). Distributed patterns of activity in sensory cortex reflect the precision of multiple items maintained in visual short-term memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(15), 6516-6523.

Han, S. W., & Kim, M.-S. (2009). Do the contents of working memory capture attention? Yes, but cognitive control matters. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 35(5), 1292-1302.

Hickey, C., Chelazzi, L., & Theeuwes, J. (2011). Reward has a residual impact on target selection in visual search, but not on the suppression of distractors. Visual Cognition, 19(1), 117-128.

Hollingworth, A., & Beck, V. M. (2016). Memory-based attention capture when multiple items are maintained in visual working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 42(7), 911-917.

Hu, Y. M., Xu, Z., & Hitch, G. J. (2011). Strategic and automatic effects of visual working memory on attention in visual search. Visual Cognition, 19(6), 799-816.

Hu, Y. M., Zhang, M., Xu, Z., & Li, B. Q. (2013). Guidance of working memory on attention:The effects of inhibition incentive. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 45(2), 127-138.

[胡艳梅, 张明, 徐展, 李毕琴. (2013). 客体工作记忆对注意的导向作用:抑制动机的影响. 心理学报, 45(2), 127-138.]

Kiyonaga, A., & Egner, T. (2013). Working memory as internal attention:Toward an integrative account of internal and external selection processes. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(2), 228-242.

Kiyonaga, A., & Egner, T. (2014). Resource-sharing between internal maintenance and external selection modulates attentional capture by working memory content. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 670.

Konstantinou, N., Beal, E., King, J. R., & Lavie, N. (2014). Working memory load and distraction:Dissociable effects of visual maintenance and cognitive control. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76(7), 1985-1997.

Kuo, B.-C., Rao, A. L., Lepsien, J., & Nobre, A. C. (2009). Searching for targets within the spatial layout of visual short-term memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(25), 8032-8038.

Luck, S. J., & Vogel, E. K. (1997). The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature, 390(6657), 279-281.

Oberauer, K. (2002). Access to information in working memory:Exploring the focus of attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(3), 411-421.

Olivers, C. N. L. (2009). What drives memory-driven attentional capture? The effects of memory type, display type, and search type. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 35(5), 1275-1291.

Olivers, C. N. L., Meijer, F., & Theeuwes, J. (2006). Feature-based memory-driven attentional capture:Visual working memory content affects visual attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 32(5), 1243-1265.

Olivers, C. N. L., Peters, J., Houtkamp, R., & Roelfsema, P. R. (2011). Different states in visual working memory:When it guides attention and when it does not. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(7), 327-334.

Pan, Y. (2010). Content-based working memory-driven visual attention. Advances in Psychological Science, 18(2), 210-219.

[潘毅. (2010). 基于工作记忆内容的视觉注意. 心理科学进展, 18(2), 210-219.]

Pan, Y., & Soto, D. (2010). The modulation of perceptual selection by working memory is dependent on the focus of spatial attention. Vision Research, 50(15), 1437-1444.

Pan, Y., Xu, B. H., & Soto, D. (2009). Dimension-based working memory-driven capture of visual selection. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(6), 1123-1131.

Pertzov, Y., Bays, P. M., Joseph, S., & Husain, M. (2013). Rapid forgetting prevented by retrospective attention cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performan, 39(5), 1224-1231.

Peters, J. C., Goebel, R., & Roelfsema, P. R. (2009). Remembered but unused:The accessory items in working memory that do not guide attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(6), 1081-1091.

Peters, J. C., Roelfsema, P. R., & Goebel, R. (2012). Task-relevant and accessory items in working memory have opposite effects on activity in extrastriate cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(47), 17003-17011.

Soto, D., Greene, C. M., Chaudhary, A., & Rotshtein, P. (2012). Competition in working memory reduces frontal guidance of visual selection. Cerebral Cortex, 22(5), 1159-1169.

Soto, D., Heinke, D., Humphreys, G. W., & Blanco, M. J. (2005). Early, involuntary top-down guidance of attention from working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 31(2), 248-261.

Soto, D., Hodsoll, J., Rotshtein, P., & Humphreys, G. W. (2008). Automatic guidance of attention from working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(9), 342-348.

Soto, D., & Humphreys, G. W. (2008). Stressing the mind:The effect of cognitive load and articulatory suppression on attentional guidance from working memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 70(5), 924-934.

Soto, D., Humphreys, G. W., & Heinke, D. (2006). Working memory can guide pop-out search. Vision Research, 46(6-7), 1010-1018.

Tan, J. F., Zhao, Y. F., Wu, S. S., Wang, L. J., Hitchman, G., Tian, X., … Chen, A. T. (2014). The temporal dynamics of visual working memory guidance of selective attention. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 345.

Theeuwes, J. (2012). Automatic control of visual selection. In M. D. Dodd & J. H. Flowers (Eds.), The influence of attention, learning, and motivation on visual search (pp. 23-62). New York:Springer.

Theeuwes, J., Reimann, B., & Mortier, K. (2006). Visual search for featural singletons:No top-down modulation, only bottom-up priming. Visual Cognition, 14(4-8), 466-489.

Theeuwes, J., & van der Burg, E. (2007). The role of spatial and nonspatial information in visual selection. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 33(6), 1335-1351.

van Gompel, R. P. G., Fischer, M. H., Murray, W. S., & Hill, R. L. (2007). Eye movements:A window on mind and brain. Amsterdam, Netherlands:Elsevier.

van Moorselaar, D., Battistoni, E., Theeuwes, J., & Olivers, C. N. L. (2015). Rapid influences of cued visual memories on attentional guidance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1339(1), 1-10.

van Moorselaar, D., Theeuwes, J., & Olivers, C. N. L. (2014). In competition for the attentional template:Can multiple items within visual working memory guide attention? Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 40(4), 1450-1464.

Woodman, G. F., & Luck, S. J. (2007). Do the contents of visual working memory automatically influence attentional selection during visual search? Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 33(2), 363-377.

Zhang, B., Hu, C. L., & Huang, S. (2016). What do eye movements reveal about the role of cognitive control in attention guidance from working memory representation. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 48(9), 1105-1118.

[张豹, 胡岑楼, 黄赛. (2016). 认知控制在工作记忆表征引导注意中的作用:来自眼动的证据. 心理学报, 48(9), 1105-1118.]

Zhang, B., & Huang, S. (2013). Mechanisms underlying the attentional guidance form working memory representations. Advances in Psychological Science, 21(9), 1578-1584.

[张豹, 黄赛. (2013). 工作记忆表征对视觉注意的引导机制. 心理科学进展, 21(9), 1578-1584.]

Zhang, B., Huang, S., & Qi, L. (2013). Working memory representation does guide visual attention:Evidence from eye movements. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 45(2), 139-148.

[张豹, 黄赛, 祁禄. (2013). 工作记忆表征引导视觉注意选择的眼动研究. 心理学报, 45(2), 139-148.]

Zhang, B., Zhang, J. X., Huang, S., Kong, L. Y., & Wang, S. P. (2011). Effects of load on the guidance of visual attention from working memory. Vision Research, 51(23-24), 2356-2361.

Zhang, B., Zhang, J. X., Kong, L. Y., Huang, S., Yue, Z. Z., & Wang, S. P. (2010). Guidance of visual attention from working memory contents depends on stimulus attributes. Neuroscience Letters, 486(3), 202-206.