doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01063

Acta Psychologica Sinica (心理学报) 2017/49:8 PP.1063-1071

Effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy among elementary school students:The mediating effects of parents' encouragement and reading motivation


Abstract:
Reading ability is one of the most extensively investigated topics in education research. Several studies found that self-regulated reading was the core to improve reading ability while social economic status was important to self-regulated reading. However, the inner mechanisms were unknown. Both external factor (e.g., parents' encouragement) and internal factor (e.g., reading motivation) were likely to be mediating factors between socioeconomic status and reading autonomy. Therefore, it's important to discuss the mediating effect of parents' encouragement and reading motivation on reading autonomy. The present study investigated the mediating effect between family socioeconomic status and reading autonomy among elementary school students. Three hypotheses were tested:Hypothesis 1:family socioeconomic status directly affects the reading autonomy. Hypothesis 2:family socioeconomic status affects the reading autonomy through parents' encouragement and reading motivation, respectively. Thus, parents' encouragement and reading motivation are parallel mediator factors. Hypothesis 3:family socioeconomic status affects reading motivation through parents' encouragement, and then affects the reading autonomy. Hence, parents' encouragement and reading motivation are chain intermediary roles.
Participants were 313 fourth-grade students from two cities. All students completed the reading autonomy scale and questionnaire test. Participants were 175 (55.9%) male students and 138 (44.1%) female students. They completed four measures:socioeconomic status questionnaire, parents' encourage reading questionnaire, reading motivation questionnaire and reading autonomy scale.
Preliminary and descriptive analyses showed that Cronbach's alpha of parents' encourage reading questionnaire, reading motivation questionnaire, and reading autonomy scale was 0.828, 0.843, 0.749, respectively. Firstly, the statistic analysis showed that the total effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy was significant, γ=0.32, p < 0.01. Model fit indices in SEM were χ2/df=2.05, TLI=0.90, CFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.063, SRMR=0.053. Secondly, after the intervening variables (i.e. parents' encouragement and reading motivation) were included in the model, the direct effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy was not statistically significant, but other path coefficients were statistically significant. Model fit indices in SEM were χ2/df=1.39, TLI=0.93, CFI=0.94, RMSEA=0.038, SRMR=0.052. Finally, the bias-corrected bootstrap method was used for significant tests. The results indicated that the direct effect of family socioeconomic status on reading autonomy was not significant and three intermediary effects were statistically significant.
In conclusion, parents' encouragement and reading motivation play the intervention role between family socioeconomic status and reading autonomy.

Key words:family socioeconomic status,parents'encouragement,reading motivation,reading autonomy,mediating effect

ReleaseDate:2017-08-31 10:09:55



Anmarkrud, Ø., & Bråten, I. (2009). Motivation for reading comprehension. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(2), 252-256.

Baker, L., Scher, D., & Mackler, K. (1997). Home and family influences on motivations for reading. Educational Psychologist, 32(2), 69-82.

Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 371-399.

Briggs, C., & Elkind, D. (1977). Characteristics of early readers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 44(3 Suppl), 1231-1237.

Chall, J. S. (1983). Stages of reading development (pp. 10-24). New York, NY:McGraw-Hill.

Chen, J., Su, L., & He, S. R. (2011). To explore the relationship between reading scores of Macao students and its influence factors——the effect of "parents education level" and "parents encourage" on reading scores. Educational Measurement and Evaluation, (11), 37-41.

[陈俊, 苏玲, 何淑茹. (2011). 澳门小学生阅读成绩与其影响因素的关系探讨——"父母受教育水平"和"父母鼓励"对小学生阅读成绩的影响. 教育测量与评价, (11), 37-41.]

Cimpian, A., Arce, H. -M. C., Markman, E. M., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Subtle linguistic cues affect children's motivation. Psychological Science, 18(4), 314-316.

Clark, C., & Hawkins, L. (2010). Young people's reading:The importance of the home environment and family support:More findings from our national survey (pp. 1-32). London, UK:National Literacy Trust.

Currie, C. E., Elton, R. A., Todd, J., & Platt, S. (1997). Indicators of socioeconomic status for adolescents:The WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Health Education Research, 12(3), 385-397.

Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement:The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294-304.

Deng, X. P., Luo, X. W., & Wu, Y. Z. (2016). The mediating effect of parental involvement between family socioeconomic status and academic performance:Meta-analysis structural equation modeling. Advances in Psychological Science, 24(12), 1844-1853.

[邓小平, 罗秀文, 邬雨臻. (2016). 父母卷入在家庭社会经济地位与学业成就间的中介作用:元分析结构方程模型. 心理科学进展, 24(12), 1844-1853.]

Fang, J., Wen, Z. L., Zhang, M. Q., & Sun, P. Z. (2014). The analyses of multiple mediation effects based on structural equation modeling. Journal of Psychological Science, 37(3), 735-741.

[方杰, 温忠麟, 张敏强, 孙配贞. (2014). 基于结构方程模型的多重中介效应分析. 心理科学, 37(3), 735-741.]

Gonzalez-DeHass, A. R., Willems, P. P., & Holbein, M. F. D. (2005). Examining the relationship between parental involvement and student motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), 99-123.

Guthrie, J. T., Hoa, A. L. W., Wigfield, A., Tonks, S. M., Humenick, N. M., & Littles, E. (2007). Reading motivation and reading comprehension growth in the later elementary years. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(3), 282-313.

Guthrie, J. T., & Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (3rd ed., pp. 403-422). New York:Longman.

Horner, S. L., & Shwery, C. S. (2002). Becoming an engaged, self-regulated reader. Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 102-109.

Li, C. N., Dang, J. N., He, S. S., & Li, H. M. (2013). Shyness and loneliness:The multiple mediating effects of self-efficacy. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 45(11), 1251-1260.

[李彩娜, 党健宁, 何姗姗, 李红梅. (2013). 羞怯与孤独感-自我效能的多重中介效应. 心理学报, 45(11), 1251-1260.]

Lin, C. D. (1985). Psychological issues of intellectual development. Shanghai, China:Knowledge Press.

[林传鼎. (1985). 智力开发的心理学问题. 上海:知识出版社.]

Liu, Y. J. (2012). On the development of primary school students' reading motivations and impacting factors. Chinese Journal of Special Education, (10), 90-96.

[刘玉娟. (2012). 小学生阅读动机的发展及影响因素. 中国特殊教育, (10), 90-96.]

MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum.

Masarik, A. S., & Conger, R. D. (2017). Stress and child development:A review of the Family Stress Model. Current Opinion in Psychology, 13, 85-90.

Matthews, K. A., & Gallo, L. C. (2011). Psychological perspectives on pathways linking socioeconomic status and physical health. Annual Review of Psychology, 62(1), 501-530.

Morrow, L. M. (1983). Home and school correlates of early interest in literature. Journal of Educational Research, 76(4), 221-230.

Mueller, C. M, & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Praise for intelligence can undermine children's motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 33-52.

Mullis, I. V. S., Kennedy, A. M., Martin, M. O., & Sainsbury, M. (2006). PIRLS 2006 assessment framework and specifications (2nd ed., p. 119). Chestnut Hill, MA:Timss & Pirls International Study Center, Boston College.

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012).. Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA:Muthén & Muthén.

Noble, K. G., Farah, M. J., & McCandliss, B. D. (2006). Socioeconomic background modulates cognition-achievement relationships in reading. Cognitive Development, 21(3), 349-368.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2010). PISA 2009 results:What students know and can do:Student performance in reading, mathematics and science (volume I). Paris, France:OECD.

Padak, N., & Rasinski, T. (2007). Is being wild about harry enough? Encouraging independent reading at home. The Reading Teacher, 61(4), 350-353.

Pang, W. G. (2003). Methods of measuring self-regulated learning. Journal of Psychological Science, 26(5), 882-884.

[庞维国. (2003). 自主学习的测评方法. 心理科学, 26(5), 882-884.]

Perry, N. E., Hutchinson, L., & Thauberger, C. (2007). Mentoring student teachers to design and implement literacy tasks that support self-regulated reading and writing. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 23(1), 27-50.

Ren, C. R. (2010). Measurement methodology on social economic status index of students. Journal of Educational Studies, 6(5), 77-82.

[任春荣. (2010). 学生家庭社会经济地位(SES)的测量技术. 教育学报, 6(5), 77-82.]

Ren, C. R., & Xin, T. (2013). Longitudinal study on predicting effect of social economic status on students' performance. Educational Research, (3), 79-87.

[任春荣, 辛涛. (2013). 家庭社会经济地位对小学生成绩预测效应的追踪研究. 教育研究, (3), 79-87.]

Scarborough, H. S., & Dobrich, W. (1994). On the efficacy of reading to preschoolers. Developmental Review, 14(3), 245-302.

Shi, B. G., & Shen, J. L. (2007). The relationships among family SES, intelligence, intrinsic motivation and creativity. Psychological Development and Education, 23(1), 30-34.

[师保国, 申继亮. (2007). 家庭社会经济地位、智力和内部动机与创造性的关系. 心理发展与教育, 23(1), 30-34.]

Shi, L. S., Chen, Y. M., Hou, X., & Gao, F. Q. (2013). Social economic status and study engagement:The mediating effects of academic self-efficacy among junior high school students. Psychological Development and Education, 29(1), 71-78.

[石雷山, 陈英敏, 侯秀, 高峰强. (2013). 家庭社会经济地位与学习投入的关系:学业自我效能的中介作用. 心理发展与教育, 29(1), 71-78.]

Smith, M. C., Mikulecky, L., Kibby, M. W., Dreher, M. J., & Dole, J. A. (2000). What will be the demands of literacy in the workplace in the next millennium? Reading Research Quarterly, 35(3), 378-383.

Sohr-Preston, S. L., Scaramella, L. V., Martin, M. J., Neppl, T. K., Ontai, L., & Conger, R. (2013). Parental socioeconomic status, communication, and children's vocabulary development:A third-generation test of the family investment model. Child Development, 84(3), 1046-1062.

Stine-Morrow, E. A. L., Miller, L. M. S., & Hertzog, C. (2006). Aging and self-regulated language processing. Psychological Bulletin, 132(4), 582-606.

Stouten, J., De Cremer, D., & van Dijk, E. (2006). Violating equality in social dilemmas:Emotional and retributive reactions as a function of trust, attribution, and honesty. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(7), 894-906.

Topping, K. (1987). Paired reading:A powerful technique for parent use. Reading Teacher, 40(7), 608-614.

Ushioda, E. (2011). Why autonomy? Insights from motivation theory and research. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 221-232.

Wen, H. B., Liang, K. L., & Liu, X. W. (2016). Effect of family environment on reading ability:The mediating effects of reading engagement and reading interest among junior high school students. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 48(3), 248-257.

[温红博, 梁凯丽, 刘先伟. (2016). 家庭环境对中学生阅读能力的影响:阅读投入、阅读兴趣的中介作用. 心理学报, 48(3), 248-257.]

Wen, H. B., & Xin, T. (2011-03-17). Reading literacy:The basic ability of children for the future. China Education Daily, p1-6.

[温红博, 辛涛. (2011-03-17). 阅读素养:孩子面向未来的基础能力. 中国教育报, p1-6.]

Wen, Z. L. (2017). Causal inference and analysis in empirical studies. Journal of Psychological Science, 40(1), 200-208.

[温忠麟. (2017). 实证研究中的因果推理与分析. 心理科学, 40(1), 200-208.]

Wen, Z. L., Liu, H. Y., & Hau, K. T. (2012). Analyses of moderating and mediating effects. Beijing, China:Educational Science Publishing House.

[温忠麟, 刘红云, 侯杰泰. (2012). 调节效应和中介效应分析. 北京:教育科学出版社.]

Wen, Z. L., & Ye, B. J. (2014). Analyses of mediating effects:The development of methods and models. Advances in Psychological Science, 22(5), 731-745.

[温忠麟, 叶宝娟. (2014). 中介效应分析:方法和模型发展. 心理科学进展, 22(5), 731-745.]

Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J. T., Perencevich, K. C., Taboada, A., Klauda, S. L., McRae, A., & Barbosa, P. (2008). Role of reading engagement in mediating effects of reading comprehension instruction on reading outcomes. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 432-445.

Zhou, H., & Long, L. R. (2004). Statistical remedies for common method biases. Advances in Psychological Science, 12(6), 942-950.

[周浩, 龙立荣. (2004). 共同方法偏差的统计检验与控制方法. 心理科学进展, 12(6), 942-950.]