doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.01158

Acta Psychologica Sinica (心理学报) 2017/49:9 PP.1158-1171

The effect of part-list cues on memory retrieval:The role of inhibition ability


Abstract:
When people are asked to recall items from a previously studied list and are given a subset of the items on that list as retrieval cues, they often do more poorly at recalling the remaining items on the list than do people asked to recall the items in the absence of such retrieval cues. Such part-list cueing effect has often been attributed to inhibitory executive-control processes that supposedly suppress the non-cue items' memory representation. According to this account, part-list cueing effect arises as an ‘aftereffect’ of executive-control processes during the presentation of part-list cues. The presence of part-list cues at testing leads to an early covert retrieval of the cue items, and this covert retrieval is assumed to trigger inhibitory processes on the non-cue items, affecting the representation of the non-cues itself and thus lowering their recovery chances. The core functions of executive-control processes include inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility.
The aim of current study was to further investigate the relationship between individual's inhibitory executive-control ability and the part-list cueing effect. In this study, undergraduate students with different cognitive inhibitory ability were asked to finish a part-list recall task, and participants' age, learning experience, and living background etc. were well balanced. In Experiment 1, a color-word Stroop task was carried out to test participants' inhibitory ability, which can be reflected by the accuracy difference between the incongruent and congruent conditions of the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants' working memory capacity, which is typically reflected by the OSPAN and T-OSPAN scores, was tested by an operation span task.
We found typical part-list cueing effect in both experiments, that participants' memory performance, discrimination, and response bias for target items were worse in the part-list cue condition than in the non-cue condition. The regression analysis showed a negative relationship (b=2.525) between the amount of part-list cue effect and participants' cognitive inhibitory ability, with the increasing Stroop effect, the part-list effect reduced. However, a positive correlation was shown between the amount of part-list cue effect and individual's working memory capacity, indicated by the OSPAN score and T-OSPAN score. Higher the OSPAN and T-OSPAN score is, larger part-list cue effect was observed.
The above results indicated that low-Stroop-effect individuals showing stronger part-list cueing effect than high-Stroop-effect individuals, and high-WMC individuals showing more part-list cueing effect than low-WMC individuals. Our findings are consistent with previous studies looking into individual-differences, suggesting a close link between working memory capacity, cognitive inhibitory ability and inhibitory efficiency. In addition, the current results also support the inhibitory executive-control account of part-list cueing effect.

Key words:part-list cueing effect,working memory capacity,Stroop task,inhibition,individual difference

ReleaseDate:2017-10-20 02:10:45



Andrés, P. (2009). Equivalent part set cueing effects in younger and older adults. The European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21, 176-191.

Anderson, M. C., & Levy, B. J. (2009). Suppressing unwanted memories. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 189-194.

Arbiv, D. C., & Meiran, N. (2015). Performance on the antisaccade task predicts dropout from cognitive training. Intelligence, 49, 25-31.

Aslan, A., & Bäuml, K. H. (2007). Part-list cuing with and without item-specific probes:The role of encoding. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 489-494.

Aslan, A., & Bäuml, K. H. (2009). The role of item similarity in part-list cueing impairment. Memory, 17, 697-707.

Aslan, A., & Bäuml, K. H. (2011). Individual differences in working memory capacity predict retrieval-induced forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 264-269.

Aslan, A., Bäuml, K. H., & Grundgeiger, T. (2007). The role of inhibitory processes in part-list cuing. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 335-341.

Aslan, A., Zellner, M., & Bäuml, K. H. (2010). Working memory capacity predicts listwise directed forgetting in adults and children. Memory, 18, 442-450.

Baddeley, A., Eysenck, M. W., & Anderson, M. C. (2009). Memory. New York, NY:Psychology Press.

Bai, X. J., Liu, T. L., & Shen, D. L. (2014). The inhibitory process of part-list cuing effect:Evidence from emotional Stroop task. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 46, 143-155.[白学军, 刘湍丽, 沈德立. (2014). 部分线索效应的认知抑制过程:情绪Stroop任务证据. 心理学报, 46, 143-155.]

Barber, S. J., Harris, C. B., & Rajaram, S. (2015). Why two heads apart are better than two heads together:Multiple mechanisms underlie the collaborative inhibition effect in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 559-566.

Barrett, L. F., Tugade, M. M., & Engle, R. W. (2004). Individual differences in working memory capacity and dual-process theories of the mind. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 553-573.

Basden, B. H., Basden, D. R., & Stephens, J. P. (2002). Part-set cuing of order information in recall tests. Journal of Memory and Language, 47, 517-529.

Basden, D. R., & Basden, B. H. (1995). Some tests of the strategy disruption interpretation of part-list cuing inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 1656-1669.

Basden, D. R., Basden, B. H., & Galloway, B. C. (1977). Inhibition with part-list cuing:Some tests of the item strength hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Learning and Memory, 3, 100-108.

Bäuml, K. H. (2008). Inhibitory processes. In H. L. Roediger Ⅲ (Ed.), Cognitive psychology of memory:Vol. 2. Learning and memory:A comprehensive reference (pp. 195-220). Oxford:Elsevier.

Bäuml, K. H., & Aslan, A. (2006). Part-list cuing can be transient and lasting:The role of encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 33-43.

Bäuml, K. H., Kissler, J., & Rak, A. (2002). Part-list cuing in amnesic patients:Evidence for a retrieval deficit. Memory & Cognition, 30, 862-870.

Bäuml, K. H., & Kuhbandner, C. (2003). Retrieval-induced forgetting and part-list cuing in associatively structured lists. Memory & Cognition, 31, 1188-1197.

Bäuml, K. H., & Samenieh, A. (2012). Influences of part-list cuing on different forms of episodic forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 366-375.

Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2007). Tools of the mind:The vygotskian approach to early childhood education (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH:Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Brébion, G., Larøi, F., & van der Linden, M. (2010). Associations of hallucination proneness with free-recall intrusions and response bias in a nonclinical sample. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32, 847-854.

Chen, H., & Wyble, B. (2016). Attribute amnesia reflects a lack of memory consolidation for attended information. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 42, 225-234.

Christensen, B. K., Girard, T. A., Benjamin, A. S., & Vidailhet, P. (2006). Evidence for impaired mnemonic strategy use among patients with schizophrenia using the part-list cuing paradigm. Schizophrenia Research, 85, 1-11.

Clark, I. A., & Maguire, E. A. (2016). Remembering preservation in hippocampal amnesia. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 51-82.

Collins, A., & Koechlin, E. (2012). Reasoning, learning, and creativity:Frontal lobe function and human decision-making. PLoS Biology, 10, e1001293.

Conway, A. R. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, Z. D., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks:A methodological review and user's guide. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 769-786.

Cowan, N., & Saults, J. S. (2013). When does a good working memory counteract proactive interference? Surprising evidence from a probe recognition task. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 142, 12-17.

Crescentini, C., Shallice, T., Del Missier, F., & Macaluso, E. (2010). Neural correlates of episodic retrieval:An fMRI study of the part-list cueing effect. NeuroImage, 50, 678-692.

Curtis, C. E., & D'Esposito, M. (2003). Persistent activity in the prefrontal cortex during working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 415-423.

De Jong, R., Berendsen, E., & Cools, R. (1999). Goal neglect and inhibitory limitations:Dissociable causes of interference effects in conflict situations. Acta Psychologica, 101, 379-394.

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168.

Dong, X. M., & Xu, Z. (2009). The variation of working memory capacity on directed forgetting. Science of Social Psychology, 24(6), 24-28.[董杏妹, 徐展. (2009). 有意遗忘中工作记忆容量所起的作用. 社会心理科学, 24(6), 24-28.]

Dulaney, C. L., & Rogers, W. A. (1994). Mechanisms underlying reduction in stroop interference with practice for young and old adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 470-484.

Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 19-23.

Engle, R. W., & Kane, M. J. (2003). Executive attention, working memory capacity, and a two-factor theory of cognitive control. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 44, 145-199.

Fenn, K. M., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2012). Individual differences in working memory capacity predict sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 141, 404-410.

Foos, P. W., & Clark, M. C. (2000). Old age, inhibition, and the part-set cuing effect. Educational Gerontology, 26, 155-160.

Fritz, C. O., & Morris, P. E. (2015). Part-set cuing of texts, scenes, and matrices. British Journal of Psychology, 106, 1-21.

Groborz, M., & Nęcka, E. (2003). Creativity and cognitive control:Explorations of generation and evaluation skills. Creativity Research Journal, 15, 183-197.

Guerreiro, M. J. S., Murphy, D. R., & van Gerven, P. W. M. (2010). The role of sensory modality in age-related distraction:A critical review and a renewed view. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 975-1022.

Guzel, M. A., & Higham, P. A. (2013). Dissociating early-and late-selection processes in recall:The mixed blessing of categorized study lists. Memory & Cognition, 41, 683-697.

Hölzel, B. K., Lazar, S. W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Vago, D. R., & Ott, U. (2011). How does mindfulness meditation work? proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 537-559.

Hultsch, D. F., & Craig, E. R. (1976). Adult age differences in the inhibition of recall as a function of retrieval cues. Developmental Psychology, 12, 83-84.

Jarrold, C., Tam, H., Baddeley, A. D., & Harvey, C. E. (2011). How does processing affect storage in working memory tasks? Evidence for both domain-general and domain-specific effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 688-705.

Kane, M. J., Bleckley, M. K., Conway, A. R. A., & Engle, R. W. (2001). A controlled-attention view of working-memory capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 130, 169-183.

Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2002). The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence:an individual-differences perspective. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 637-671.

Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2003). Working-memory capacity and the control of attention:The contributions of goal neglect, response competition, and task set to Stroop interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 132, 47-70.

Kane, M. J., Brown, L. H., McVay, J. C., Silvia, P. J., Myin-Germeys, I., & Kwapil, T. R. (2007). For whom the mind wanders, and when:An experience-sampling study of working memory and executive control in daily life. Psychological Science, 18, 614-621.

Khng, K. H., & Lee, K. (2014). The relationship between stroop and stop-signal measures of inhibition in adolescents:Influences from variations in context and measure estimation. PLoS One, 9, e101356.

Kissler, J., & Bäuml, K. H. (2005). Memory retrieval in schizophrenia:Evidence from part-list cuing. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 273-280.

Laurenson, C., Gorwood, P., Orsat, M., Lhuillier, J. P., Gall, D. L., & Richard-Devantoy, S. (2015). Cognitive control and schizophrenia:The greatest reliability of the Stroop task. Psychiatry Research, 227, 10-16.

Lee, J., & Park, S. (2005). Working memory impairments in schizophrenia:A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 599-611.

Levy, B. J., & Anderson, M. C. (2008). Anderson Individual differences in the suppression of unwanted memories:The executive deficit hypothesis. Acta Psychologica, 127, 623-635.

Liu, H. C., & Weng, X. C. (2007). Differences of Stroop interference:Characters, Pinyin and English. Psychological Science, 30, 365-368.[刘海程, 翁旭初. (2007). 汉字、拼音、英文Stroop干扰效应的比较研究. 心理科学, 30, 365-368.]

Liu, T. L. (2010). The mechanism and development characteristics of the part-list cuing effect (Unpublished master's thesis). Tianjin Normal University.[刘湍丽. (2010). 部分线索效应的产生机制与发展特点(硕士学位论文). 天津师范大学.]

Liu, T. L. (2014). Part-list cueing effect in recognition and free recall tasks:Mechanism and influencing factors (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Tianjin Normal University.[刘湍丽. (2014). 再认与自由回忆任务中的部分线索效应:机制和影响因素(博士学位论文). 天津师范大学.]

Liu, X. P., Shi, Y., & Tang, W. H. (2011). The mechanism of part-list cuing effect. Psychological Science, 34, 82-87.[刘希平, 石英, 唐卫海. (2011). 部分线索效应的作用机制. 心理科学, 34, 82-87.]

Liu, Y., Liang, N. Y., Wang, D. J., Zhang, S. Y., Yang, T. Y., Jie, C, Y., & Sun, W. (1990). Dictionary of usage frequency of modern Chinese words. Beijing, China:Yuhang Press.[刘源, 梁南元, 王德进, 张社英, 杨铁鹰, 揭春雨, 孙伟. (1990). 现代汉语常用词词频词典-音序部分. 北京:宇航出版社.]

Lunt, L., Bramham, J., Morris, R. G., Bullock, P. R., Selway, R. P., Xenitidis, K., & A. S. David. (2012). Prefrontal cortex dysfunction and ‘jumping to conclusions’:Bias or deficit? Journal of Neuropsychology, 6, 65-78.

Macleod, C. M. (1991). Half a century of research on the stroop effect:an integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 163-203.

Mall, J. T., & Morey, C. C. (2013). High working memory capacity predicts less retrieval induced forgetting. PLoS One, 8, e52806.

Marsh, E. J., Dolan, P. O., Balota, D. A., & Roediger Ⅲ, H. L. (2004). Part-set cuing effects in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 19, 134-144.

Mayer, A. R., Hanlon, F. M., Dodd, A. B., Yeo, R. A., Haaland, K. Y., Ling, J. M., & Ryman, S. G. (2016). Proactive response inhibition abnormalities in the sensorimotor cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 41, 312-321.

McCabe, D. P., Roediger Ⅲ, H. L., McDaniel, M. A., Balota, D. A., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2010). The relationship between working memory capacity and executive functioning:Evidence for a common executive attention construct. Neuropsychology, 24, 222-243.

Morooka, T., Ogino, T., Takeuchi, A., Hanafusa, K., Oka, M., & Ohtsuka, Y. (2012). Relationships between the color-word matching Stroop task and the Go/NoGo task:Toward multifaceted assessment of attention and inhibition abilities of children. Acta Medica Okayama, 66, 377-386.

Nickerson, R. S. (1984). Retrieval inhibition from part-set cuing:A persisting enigma in memory research. Memory & Cognition, 12, 531-552.

Oswald, K. M., Serra, M., & Krishna, A. (2006). Part-list cuing in speeded recognition and free recall. Memory & Cognition, 34, 518-526.

Peng, S. H., Tang, Q., & Xuan, B. (2014). A unified framework of the Genes-Brain-Behavior for inhibitory control with aging. Advances in Psychological Science, 22, 1236-1245.[彭苏浩, 汤倩, 宣宾. (2014). 基因-大脑-行为框架下的抑制控制与老化. 心理科学进展, 22, 1236-1245.]

Peynircioğlu, Z. F., & Moro, C. (1995). Part-set cuing in incidental and implicit memory. The American Journal of Psychology, 108, 1-11.

Redick, T. S., Heitz, R. P., & Engle, R. W. (2007). Working memory capacity and inhibition:Cognitive and social consequences. In D. S. Gorfein & C. M. MacLeod (Eds.), Inhibition in cognition (pp. 125-142). Washington, DC:American Psychological Association.

Reysen, M. B., & Nairne, J. S. (2002). Part-list cuing of false memories. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 389-393.

Román, P., Soriano, M. F., Gómez-Ariza, C. J., & Bajo, M. T. (2009). Retrieval-induced forgetting and executive control. Psychological Science, 20, 1053-1058.

Rutman, A. M., Clapp, W. C., Chadick, J. Z., & Gazzaley, A. (2010). Early top-down control of visual processing predicts working memory performance. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 1224-1234.

Schlichting, A., Aslan, A., Holterman, C., & Bäuml, K. H. T. (2015). Working memory capacity predicts the beneficial effect of selective memory retrieval. Memory, 23, 786-794.

Serra, M., & Oswald, K. M. (2006). Part-list cuing of associative chains:Tests of strategy disruption. The Journal of General Psychology, 133, 301-317.

Slamecka, N. J. (1968). An examination of trace storage in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 504-513.

Solesio-Jofre, E., Lorenzo-López, L., Gutiérrez, R., López-Frutos, J. M., Ruiz-Vargas, J. M., & Maestú, F. (2012). Age-related effects in working memory recognition modulated by retroactive interference. The Journals of Gerontology:Series A, 67A, 565-572.

Storm, B. C., & Bui, D. C. (2016). Retrieval-practice task affects relationship between working memory capacity and retrieval-induced forgetting. Memory, 24, 1407-1418.

Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 18, 643-662.

Tang, W. H., Liu, T. L., Shi, Y., Feng, H., & Liu, X. P. (2014). The development of allocation of study time on part-list cuing effect of pictures, Acta Psychologica Sinica, 46, 621-638.[唐卫海, 刘湍丽, 石英, 冯虹, 刘希平. (2014). 图片部分线索效应的学习时间分配的发展. 心理学报, 46, 621-638.]

Tang, W. H., Liu, T. L., Shi, Y., Wei, H. Y., Feng, H., & Liu, X. P. (2015). The memory monitoring and control on the part-list cuing Effect. Journal of Psychological Science, 38, 564-568.[唐卫海, 刘湍丽, 石英, 魏昊昱, 冯虹, 刘希平. (2015). 部分线索效应中的记忆监控. 心理科学, 38, 564-568.]

Watkins, M. J. (1975). Inhibition in recall with extralist "cues". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 294-303.

Welford, A. T. (1986). Two comparisons of recognition and recall by signal detection measures. British Journal of Psychology, 77, 237-242.

Westerhausen, R., Kompus, K., & Hugdahl, K. (2011). Impaired cognitive inhibition in schizophrenia:A meta-analysis of the Stroop interference effect. Schizophrenia Research, 133, 172-181.

Wood, G., Vine, S. J., & Wilson, M. R. (2016). Working memory capacity, controlled attention and aiming performance under pressure. Psychological Research, 80, 510-517.

Yu, B., Yue, G. A., & Liu, H. J. (2014). Working memory capacity and self-regulation. Advances in Psychological Science, 22, 772-781.[于斌, 乐国安, 刘惠军. (2014). 工作记忆能力与自我调控. 心理科学进展, 22, 772-781.]

Yusoff, N., Grüning, A., & Browne, A. (2011). Modelling the Stroop effect:Dynamics in inhibition of automatic stimuli processing. In:R. Wang & F. Gu (Eds.), Advances in cognitive neurodynamics (Ⅱ) (pp. 641-645). Dordrecht:Springer.

Zabelina, D. L., & Robinson, M. D. (2010). Child's play:Facilitating the originality of creative output by a priming manipulation. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 4, 57-65.

Zanto, T. P., & Gazzaley, A. (2009). Neural suppression of irrelevant information underlies optimal working memory performance. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 3059-3066.

Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition:Evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 597-605.

Zellner, M., & Bäuml, K. H. (2005). Intact retrieval inhibition in children's episodic recall. Memory & Cognition, 33, 396-404.