doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00426

Acta Psychologica Sinica (心理学报) 2018/50:4 PP.426-435

The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation of negative marital events and marital satisfaction among older people: A cross-lagged analysis


Abstract:
When encountered with negative events, individuals' emotion regulation plays an important role that can influence the adaptation outcomes. Regardless of the theoretical origins of the definition of emotion regulation, the cognitive component is consistently addressed. Given the decline of health and sense of control and thus the lack of coping resources, older people tend to use more cognitive than behavioral emotion regulation while facing stressful events. Cognitive emotion regulation refers to the conscious and cognitive way of managing the intake of emotionally arousing information and dealing with stress. In this study, we chose the negative events in marriage as the stressful situation, and tested the adaptability of cognitive emotion regulation strategies by using depression and anxiety as the adaptive index. Besides, we used the Cross-Lagged Regression Analysis to examine the causal link between the marital satisfaction and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. We assumed that marital satisfaction would be influenced by the cognitive emotion regulation strategies.
There were 615 elderly adults with an average age of 67.48 years (SD=5.08) who participated in the first investigation, and 352 of them accepted a re-test two years later. The measures included the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Marital Satisfaction subscale, 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, 20-item Geriatric Anxiety Scale, demographic sheet, screening test for cognitive impairment, and the checklist of negative life events. The SPSS 22.0 was used for data analysis.
The main findings are as follows:(1) the cognitive emotion regulation strategies including rumination, catastrophizing, acceptance, and putting into perspective could positively predict depression or anxiety among elderly adults; (2) Cognitive emotion regulation strategies reported in the first investigation could not predict marital satisfaction at the reinvestigation. However, marital satisfaction at the first investigation could significantly predict the blaming of others and rumination at the reinvestigation. Specifically, individuals who reported lower marital satisfaction tended to employ more strategies of blaming others and rumination.
These results indicated that when facing negative events in marriage, using more strategies such as acceptance, rumination, putting into perspective, and catastrophizing would be associated with more depression or anxiety for older adults. Results also partly demonstrated age specificity, as previous findings show that younger participants displaying greater use of acceptance and putting into perspective as adaptive strategies. Contrary to our assumption, marital satisfaction can impact the cognitive emotion regulation strategies, which might due to that marital satisfaction is very stable in later life and it tend to predict rather than be predicted.

Key words:cognitive emotion regulation,marital satisfaction,older people,Cross-Lagged Analysis

ReleaseDate:2018-04-27 06:46:02



Aldwin, C. M. (2007). Stress, coping, and development:An integrative perspective. New York:Guilford Press.

Antonucci, T. C., Akiyama, H., & Takahashi, K. (2004). Attachment and close relationships across the life span. Attachment & Human Development, 6, 353-370.

Bradbury, T. N., & Fincham, F. D. (1990). Attributions in marriage:Review and critique. Psychological Bulletin, 107(1), 3-33.

Burke, W. J., Roccaforte, W. H., & Wengel, S. P. (1991). The short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale:A comparison with the 30-item form. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 4(3), 173-178.

Carr, D., Freedman, V. A., Cornman, J. C., & Schwarz, N. (2014). Happy marriage, happy life? Marital quality and subjective well-being in later life. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(5), 930-948.

Carstensen, L. L., Fung, H. H., & Charles, S. T. (2003). Socioemotional selectivity theory and the regulation of emotion in the second half of life. Motivation and Emotion, 27(2), 103-123.

Carstensen, L. L., Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (2004). Emotional behavior in long-term marriage. In H. T. Reis & C. E. Rusbult (Eds.), Close relationships:Key readings (pp. 550-567). New York:Psychology Press.

Charles, S. T., & Carstensen, L. L. (2008). Unpleasant situations elicit different emotional responses in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 23(3), 495-504.

de Ridder, D., & Kerssens, J. (2003). Owing to the force of circumstances? The impact of situational features and personal characteristics on coping patterns across situations. Psychology and Health, 18(2), 217-236.

Diamond, L. M., & Hicks, A. M. (2012). "It's the economy, honey!" Couples' blame attributions during the 2007-2009 economic crisis. Personal Relationships, 19(3), 586-600.

Dong, G. H., Zhu, Y. X., & Yang, L. Z. (2008). Practice of the Chinese version on the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). China Journal of Health Psychology, 16(4), 456-458.

[董光恒, 朱艳新, 杨丽珠. (2008). 认知情绪调节问卷中文版的应用. 中国健康心理学杂志, 16(4), 456-458.]

Duba, J. D., Hughey, A. W., Lara, T., & Burke, M. G. (2012). Areas of marital dissatisfaction among long-term couples. Adultspan Journal, 11(1), 39-54.

Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1990). Coping and emotion. In N. L. Stein,? B. Leventhal,? & T. R. Trabasso (Eds.), Psychological and biological approaches to emotion (pp. 313-332). Hillsdale, New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc..

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). ‘Mini-mental state’:A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189-198.

Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2006a). Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms:A comparative study of five specific samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1659-1669.

Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2006b). Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire-development of a short 18-item version (CERQ-short). Personality and Individual Differences, 41(6), 1045-1053.

Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2007). The cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire:Psychometric features and prospective relationships with depression and anxiety in adults. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 141-149.

Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311-1327.

Gross, J. J. (1999). Emotion regulation:Past, present, future. Cognition & Emotion, 13(5), 551-573.

Gross, J. J. (2013). Emotion regulation:Taking stock and moving forward. Emotion, 13(3), 359-365.

Hatch, S. L., & Dohrenwend, B. P. (2007). Distribution of traumatic and other stressful life events by race/ethnicity, gender, SES and age:A review of the research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 313-332.

Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C., & Schulz, R. (2010). A motivational theory of life-span development. Psychological Review, 117(1), 32-60.

King, D. B., & DeLongis, A. (2014). When couples disconnect:Rumination and withdrawal as maladaptive responses to everyday stress. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(4), 460-469.

Korporaal, M., Broese van Groenou, M. I., & van Tilburg, T. G. (2013). Health problems and marital satisfaction among older couples. Journal of Aging and Health, 25(8), 1279-1298.

Kraaij, V., Pruymboom, E., & Garnefski, N. (2002). Cognitive coping and depressive symptoms in the elderly:A longitudinal study. Aging & Mental Health, 6(3), 275-281.

Lawrence, E., Nylen, K., & Cobb, R. J. (2007). Prenatal expectations and marital satisfaction over the transition to parenthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(2), 155-164.

Lazarus, R. S. (2006). Stress and emotion:A new synthesis. New York:Springer Publishing Company.

Lin, Y., Peng, J., Zhong, M. T., & Yi, J. Y. (2014). Predictive value to depressive symptoms of stress and emotion regulation strategies in college students. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22(3), 504-507, 417.

[凌宇, 彭君, 钟明天, 蚁金瑶. (2014). 应激与认知情绪调节策略对大学生抑郁症状的预测研究. 中国临床心理学杂志, 22(3), 504-507, 417.]

Liu, Q. G., & Li, F. (2007). Mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation on the relation between college students' life events and life satisfaction. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 15(4), 397-398.

[刘启刚, 李飞. (2007). 认知情绪调节策略在大学生生活事件和生活满意度间的中介作用. 中国临床心理学杂志, 15(4), 397-398.]

Margelisch, K., Schneewind, K. A., Violette, J., & Perrig-Chiello, P. (2017). Marital stability, satisfaction and well-being in old age:Variability and continuity in long-term continuously married older persons. Aging & Mental Health, 21, 389-398.

Martin, R. C., & Dahlen, E. R. (2005). Cognitive emotion regulation in the prediction of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(7), 1249-1260.

Meng, C., Zhang, X. Q., Wang, H., Sun, H. L., Liu, H. J., Tang, Z., & Chen, B. (2004). Clock drawing as a cognitive screening test. Chinese Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 30, 452-454.

[孟超, 张新卿, 王姮, 孙厚亮, 刘宏军, 汤哲, 陈彪. (2004). 画钟测验检测认知功能损害. 中国神经精神疾病杂志, 30, 452-454.]

Olson, D. H., Fournier, D. G., & Druckman, J. M. (1983). PREPARE/ENRICH Counselor's manual. Minneapolis, MN:Life Innovations.

Opitz, P. C., Rauch, L. C., Terry, D. P., & Urry, H. L. (2012). Prefrontal mediation of age differences in cognitive reappraisal. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(4), 645-655.

Pachana, N. A., Byrne, G. J., Siddle, H., Koloski, N., Harley, E., & Arnold, E. (2007). Development and validation of the geriatric anxiety inventory. International Psychogeriatric, 19, 103-114.

Rothermund, K., & Brandstädter, J. (2003). Coping with deficits and losses in later life:From compensatory action to accommodation. Psychology and Aging, 18, 896-905.

Scheibe, S., & Zacher, H. (2013). A lifespan perspective on emotion regulation, stress, and well-being in the workplace. In P. L. Perrewe, C. C. Rosen, & J. R. B. Halbesleben (Eds.) The role of emotion and emotion regulation in job stress and well-being (pp. 163-193). Bradford, England:Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Schmitt, M., Kliegel, M., & Shapiro, A. (2007). Marital interaction in middle and old age:A predictor of marital satisfaction?. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 65(4), 283-300.

Scott, K., & Straus, M. (2007). Denial, minimization, partner blaming, and intimate aggression in dating partners. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(7), 851-871.

Shulman, K. I., Shedletsky, R., & Silver, I. L. (1986). The challenge of time:Clock-drawing and cognitive function in the elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 1, 135-140.

Stokes, J. E. (2017). Mutual influence and older married adults' anxiety symptoms:Results from the Irish longitudinal study on ageing. The Gerontologist, 57(3), 529-539.

Tang, D., Yan, L., & Wang, D. H. (2014). The relationship between the attitudes toward aging and the mental health among older adults. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22(1), 159-162.

[唐丹, 燕磊, 王大华. (2014). 老年人老化态度对心理健康的影响. 中国临床心理学杂志, 22(1), 159-162.]

Velotti, P., Balzarotti, S., Tagliabue, S., English, T., Zavattini, G. C., & Gross, J. J. (2016). Emotional suppression in early marriage:Actor, partner, and similarity effects on marital quality. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 33(3), 277-302.

Vink, D., Aartsen, M. J., & Schoevers, R. A. (2008). Risk factors for anxiety and depression in the elderly:A review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 106(1-2), 29-44.

Wang, D. H., Shen, J. L., & Chen, B. (2002). The theory of control:A new viewpoint of life-span development. Advances in Psychological Science, 10(2), 168-177.

[王大华, 申继亮, 陈勃. (2002). 控制理论:诠释毕生发展的新视点. 心理科学进展, 10(2), 168-177.]

Wang, Q. R., Wang, D. H., Li, C., & Miller, R. B. (2014). Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms among Chinese older couples. Aging & Mental Health, 18(1), 11-18.

Wang, X. D., Wang, X. L., & Ma, H. (1999). Rating Scales for Mental Health (updated edition, pp. 153-159). Beijing, China:China Mental Health Journal.

[汪向东, 王希林, 马弘. (1999). 心理卫生评定量表手册(增订版, pp. 153-159). 北京:中国心理卫生杂志社.]

Wang, Y., Wang, D. H., Fu, L., Jiang, W., & Zhai, X. Y. (2014). Marital attachment stability and its relationship with spousal support among older adults. Psychological Development and Education, 30(4), 396-402.

[王岩, 王大华, 付琳, 姜薇, 翟晓燕. (2014). 老年人夫妻依恋稳定性及其与配偶支持的关系. 心理发展与教育, 30(4), 396-402.]

Wang, Y. P., Yi, J. Y., He, J. C., Chen, G. N., Li, L. Y., Yang, Y. L., & Zhu, X. Z. (2014). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies as predictors of depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 23(1), 93-99.

Whisman, M. A., & Uebelacker, L. A. (2009). Prospective associations between marital discord and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 24(1), 184-189.

Wu, T., Li F. Z., Wang, D. H., & Li, Y. C. (2016). Communication and Its Relationships with Marital Satisfaction in Elderly Couples. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24(2), 321-326.

[吴婷, 李逢战, 王大华, 李云川. (2016). 老年夫妻沟通的特点及其与婚姻满意度的关系. 中国临床心理学杂志, 24(2), 321-326.]

Zhou, H., & Long, L. R. (2004). Statistical remedies for common method biases. Advances in Psychological Science, 12(6), 942-950.

[周浩, 龙立荣. (2004). 共同方法偏差的统计检验与控制方法. 心理科学进展, 12(6), 942-950.]

Zhu, X. Z., Auerbach, R. P., Yao, S. Q., Abela, J. R. Z., Xiao, J., & Tong, X. (2008). Psychometric properties of the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire:Chinese version. Cognition & Emotion, 22, 288-307.