DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00450

Acta Psychologica Sinica (心理学报) 2019/51:4 PP.450-461

Influence of language and culture on retrieval-induced forgetting under the self-referential condition: Evidence from the Han and the Mosuo

Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the phenomenon, in which individuals may forget related information during the retrieval process whenever they try to remember something. Studies have shown that "self-reference" is one of the boundary conditions of RIF in the Western cultural context, indicating that RIF is only eliminated when the recalled materials are related to self-concept (known as the "self-referential effect"). In the Chinese culture, however, RIF was observed under the conditions of self-reference and maternal reference. The Mosuo people are raised in a matrilineal society, in which they are familiar with their mothers and aunts to the same extent. Such people consider their aunts and natural mothers as equally important. Conversely, the Han is a patriarchal society that differs considerably from the orientation of the Mosuo's. This study aimed to explore the influence of the culture and language of the Mosuo and Han on their self-cognition and processing, especially the influence of their aunts on their self-conception.
Tested participants included 131 Mosuo and 126 Han from Yunnan's Ninglang District. The experiment had a 2 (Nationality:the Mosuo, the Han)×4 (Conditions:Self-reference, Mother-reference, Aunt-reference, Other-reference)×3 (Retrieval Factor:Rp+, Rp-, or Nrp items) design. Nationality and condition were manipulated as between-subject factors, and the retrieval factor was manipulated as a within-subject factor. The study had four phases. (1) Study phase:Participants were shown Chinese characters on the monitor, with a series of 32 category exemplars in random order. They were instructed to memorize the exemplars while associating them with the paired category. (2) Retrieval-practice phase:Here, participants were sequentially presented with word-pair forms of eight cues that could probe their memory. Each cue comprised a category name and a first initial character of an exemplar. Participants were asked to recall the target exemplar in the written form in response to each cue. (3) Distractor phase:Participants were requested to perform mathematical operations within three minutes. (4) Final test phase:Participants were required to produce a written recall of as many exemplars as possible in response to each presented category name.
Results indicated that (1) in the Mosuo culture context, RIF was not observed under self-referential, mother-referential, and aunt-referential encoding, and was found only for other-referential encoding, and (2) for Han participants, RIF was observed in the aunt-referential and the other-referential encoding, but not in the self-referential and mother-referential encoding.
The present findings demonstrate that, first, in the Han and Mosuo cultures, self-reference and maternal reference are the key factors that cause RIF. Second, in the Mosuo culture, aunt-reference is another key factor that influences RIF aside from self-reference and maternal reference. Aunts who are integrated in the self-concept of the Mosuo people are also important to such individuals. Finally, (3) language and culture are crucial factors of self-formation and development.

Key words:retrieval-induced forgetting,self-referential processing,mother-referential processing,aunt-referential processing,cross-cultural research

ReleaseDate:2019-04-26 01:28:05

Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). Remembering can cause forgetting:Retrieval dynamics in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20(5), 1063-1087.

Bakhtin, M. (1998). The complete works of Bakhtin. Shijiazhuang:Hebei Education Press.

[巴赫金. (1998). 巴赫金全集:卷4. 石家庄:河北教育出版社.]

Barber, S. J., & Mather, M. (2012). Forgetting in context:The effects of age, emotion, and social factors on retrieval-induced forgetting. Memory and Cognition, 40(6), 874-888.

Campbell, J. I. D., & Thompson, V. A. (2012). Retrieval-induced forgetting of arithmetic facts. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38(1), 118-129.

Criss, A. H., Malmberg, K. J., & Shiffrin, R. M. (2011). Output interference in recognition memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 64(4), 316-326.

D'Argembeau, A., Comblain, C., & Van der Linden, M. (2005). Affective valence and the self-reference effect:Influence of retrieval conditions. British Journal of Psychology, 96(4), 457-466.

D'Argembeau, A., & Van der Linden, M. (2008). Remembering pride and shame:Self-enhancement and the phenomenology of autobiographical memory. Memory, 16(5), 538-547.

Dai, J. Q., Zhai, H. C., Wu, H.Y., Yang, S. Y., Cacioppo, J. T., & Cacioppo, S., Luo. Y. J. (2014). Maternal face processing in Mosuo preschool children. Biological Psychology, 99, 69-76.

Durbin, K. A., Mitchell, K. J. & Johnson, M. K. (2017). Source memory that encoding was self-referential:The influence of stimulus characteristics. Memory, 25(9), 1191-1200.

Engels, F. (1972). The origins of families, privates, property systems and states. selected works of Marx and Engles (4). Beijing:People's Publishing House. (Original work published 1884).

[恩格斯. (1972). 家庭、私有制和国家的起源. 马克思恩格斯选集(4). 北京:人民出版社.]

Fei, X. T. (1985). Local China. Beijing:Joint Publishing.

[费孝通. (1985). 乡土中国. 北京:三联书店.]

Ge, L. J., & Zhou, N. (1996). From the culture and personality to culture and self:The transfer of psychological anthropology research center of gravity. Seeking Truth, (1), 27-31.

[葛鲁嘉, 周宁. (1996). 从文化与人格到文化与自我——心理人类学研究重心的转移. 求是学刊, (1), 27-31.]

Han, S. H., Gu, X. S., Mao, L. H., Ge, J. Q., Wang, G., & Ma, Y. N. (2010). Neural substrates of self-referential processing in Chinese Buddhists. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(2-3), 332-339.

Han, S. H., Ma, Y. N., & Wang, G. (2016). Shared neural representations of self and conjugal family members in Chinese brain. Culture & Brain, 4(1), 72-86.

Han, S. H., Mao, L. H., Gu, X. S., Zhu, Y., Ge, J. Q., & Ma, Y. N. (2008). Neural consequences of religious belief on self-referential processing. Social Neuroscience, 3(1), 1-15.

Han, S. H., & Northoff, G. (2009). Understanding the self:A cultural neuroscience approach. Progress in Brain Research, 178, 203-212.

Kobayashi, M., & Tanno, Y. (2013). Retrieval-induced forgetting of words with negative emotionality. Memory, 21(3), 315-323.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson M. (1980). Metaphors we live by (pp.30-32). Chicago:The University of Chicago Press.

Leshikar, E. D., Park, J. M., & Gutchess, A. H. (2015). Similarity to the self affects memory for impressions of others in younger and older adults. The Journals of Gerontology:Series B, 70(5), 737-742.

Lévi-Straus, C. (2006). Anthropologie structurale. Beijing:Renmin University of China Publishing House. (Original work published 1958)

[克劳德·列维斯特劳斯. (2006). 结构人类学. 北京:中国人民大学出版社.]

Luo, M. D. (2008). On the cultural nature of Chinese kinship appellation. Guizhou Culture and History, (4), 102-106.

[骆明弟. (2008). 汉语亲属称谓之文化性初探. 贵州文史丛刊, (4), 102-106.]

Ma, Y. N., Dan, B., Wang, C. B., Allen, M., Frith, C., & Roepstorff, A., Han, S. H. (2014). Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(1), 73-80.

Macrae, C. N., & Roseveare, T. A. (2002). I was always on my mind:The self and temporary forgetting. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(3), 611-614.

Mao. W. B, Zhao H. Y, Liu. L. Y., & Bai. L. (2016). The emotional memory trade-off effect in retrieval-induced forgetting. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 48(10), 1219-1228.

[毛伟宾, 赵浩远, 东利云, 白鹭. (2016). 提取诱发遗忘中的情绪记忆权衡效应. 心理学报, 48(10), 1219-1228.]

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self:Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253.

Ng, S. H., Han, S. H., Mao, L. H., & Lai, J. C. L. (2010). Dynamic bicultural brains:fMRI study of their flexible neural representation of self and significant others in response to culture priming. Asian Journal Social Psychology, 13(2), 83-91.

Northoff, G., Alexander, H., Greck, M. D., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., & Panksepp. J. (2006). Self-referential processing in our brain-A meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self. NeuroImage, 31(1), 440-457.

Plaut, V. C., Markus, H. R., Treadway, J. R., & Fu, A. S. (2012). The cultural construction of self and well-being:A tale of two cities. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(12), 1644-1658.

Qiao, Y. Y., Zhang, J. J., & Li, Z. J., Jiang, S. (2017). The influence of language on implicit and explicit self-esteem of college students of Han, Miao, Hui ethnic groups. Journal of Research on Education on Ethnic Minorities, 28(3), 73-78.

[乔艳阳, 张积家, 李子健, 江珊. (2017). 语言影响汉、苗、回族大学生的外显自尊和内隐自尊. 民族教育研究, 28(3), 73-78.]

Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (2000). Longman dictionary of language teaching & applied linguistics (in Chinese). Beijing:Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

[理查兹, 普拉特, 普拉特. (2000). 朗文语言教学及应用语言学词典. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社.]

Rogers, T. B., Kuiper, N. A., & Kirker, W. S. (1977). Self-reference and the encoding of personal information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(9), 677-688.

Ross, M., Xun, W. Q. E., & Wilson, A. E. (2002). Language and the bicultural self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(8), 1040-1050.

Sedikides, C., & Green, J. D. (2000). On the self-protective nature of inconsistency-negativity management:Using the person memory paradigm to examine self-referent memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(6), 906-922.

Tulving, E., & Arbuckle, T. Y. (1963). Sources of intratrial interference in immediate recall of paired associates. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1(5), 321-334.

Uchida, Y., Ueno, T., & Miyamoto, Y. (2014). You were always on my mind:The importance of "significant others" in the attenuation of retrieval-induced forgetting in Japan. Japanese Psychological Research, 56(3), 263-274.

Vanderwal, T., Hunyadi, E., Grupe, D. W., Connors, C. M., & Schultz, R. T. (2008). Self, mother and abstract other:An fMRI study of reflective social processing. NeuroImage, 41(4), 1437-1446.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.

Wagar, B. M. & Cohen, D. (2003). Culture, memory, and the self:An analysis of the personal and collective self in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(5), 468-475.

Wang, G., Mao, L., Ma, Y., Yang, X., Cao, J., Liu, X., Wang, J., Wang, X., Han, S. (2012). Neural representations of close others in collectivistic brains. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7(2), 222-229.

Wang, X. X., Jiang, S., & Zhang, J. J. (2018). Effect of the spatial linguistic symbol on the container metaphor of seniority rules. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(9), 953-964.

[汪新筱, 江姗, 张积家. (2018). 空间语言标记影响亲属词的空间隐喻. 心理学报, 50(9), 953-964.]

Wu, Y. H., Wang, C., He, X., Mao, L. H., & Zang, L. (2010). Religious beliefs influence neural substrates of self-reflection in Tibetans. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(2-3), 324-331.

Wuyun, G., Shu, M., Cao, Z. J., Huang, W., Zou, X., Li, S., Zhang, X., Luo, H., & Wu, Y. H. (2014). Neural representations of the self and the mother for Chinese individuals. Plos One, 9(3), e91556.

Wu, Y. H., Wang, C., He, X., Mao, L. H., & Zang, L. (2010). Religious beliefs influence neural substrates of self-reflection in Tibetans. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 5, 324-331.

Xiao, E. P., Zhang, J. J., Wang, J. (2015). The ‘A zhu’ relationship under the sexual union in Mosuo matrilineal society:Akin to kinship or friendship? Acta Psychologica Sinica, 47(12), 1486-1498.

[肖二平, 张积家, 王娟. (2015). 摩梭走访制下的阿注关系:亲属还是朋友?心理学报, 47(12), 1486-1498.]

Xiao, E. P., & Zhang, J. J. (2012). National language influences national psychology:Evidence from classifying kinship words. Advances in Psychological Science, 20(8), 1189-1200.

[肖二平, 张积家. (2012). 从亲属词分类看民族语言对民族心理的影响. 心理科学进展, 20(8), 1189-1200.]

Xiao, E. P., Zhang, J. J., Wang, J., & Lin, N. (2010). The conceptual structure of kinship words of the Mosuo. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 42(10), 955-969.

[肖二平, 张积家, 王娟, 林娜. (2010). 摩梭人亲属词的概念结构. 心理学报, 42(10), 955-969.]

Xie, Y. E., (1999). A look at the traditional gender cultural identity of Chinese women from the ancient appellation custom. Journal of Henan University (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition), 39(5), 111-115.

[谢玉娥. (1999). 从古代称谓习俗看我国妇女传统的性别文化身份. 河南大学学报(哲学社会科学版), 39(5), 111-115.]

Xu, R. J. (2014). A study on Mosuo matriarchal culture terms. Beijing:National Publishing House.

[许瑞娟. (2014). 永宁摩梭"母系"文化词群研究. 北京:民族出版社.]

Xu, S. (1963). Shuo wen jie zi. Beijing:Zhonghua Book Company.

[许慎. (1963). 说文解字. 北京:中华书局.]

Yan, R. X., Liu. X. X., (2012). Research on Mosuo mtrilineal system. Kunming:Yunnan People's Publishing House.

[严汝娴, 刘小幸. (2012). 摩梭母系制研究. 昆明:云南人民出版社.]

Yang, H. S., & Zhu, Y. (2004). The self and retrieval-induced forgetting. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 36(2), 154-159.

[杨红升, 朱滢. (2004). 自我与提取诱发遗忘现象. 心理学报, 36(2), 154-159.]

Zhan, C. X., Wang, C. Q., Li, J. C., & Liu, L. C. (2006). The ‘A zhu’ marriage and matriarchy family of Yongning Naxi nationality. Shanghai:Shanghai People Publishing House.

[詹承绪, 王承权, 李近春, 刘龙初. (2006). 永宁纳西族的阿注婚姻和母系家庭. 上海:上海人民出版社.]

Zhang, J. J. (2018). Container metaphor, preface-structure and national psychology. Journal of Southwest University for Nationalities (Humanities and Social Science), 39(5), 214-221.

[张积家. (2018). 容器隐喻、差序格局与民族心理. 西南民族大学学报(人文社科版), 39(5), 214-221.]

Zhang, J. J., Wang, J., Xiao, E. P., & He, X. M. (2013). Influence of culture and circumstance on kinship words' conceptual structure. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 45(8), 825-839.

[张积家, 王娟, 肖二平, 和秀梅. (2013) 文化和情境影响亲属词的概念结构. 心理学报, 45(8), 825-839.

Zhang, J. J., Yu, Z, Qiao, Y. Y., (2017). Language influence on personality:Research evidence and theoretical explanation. Journal of Research on Education for Ethnic Minorities, 28(4), 74-82.

[张积家, 于宙, 乔艳阳. (2017). 语言影响人格:研究证据与理论解释. 民族教育研究, 28(4), 74-82.]

Zhou, A. B., Zhang, F., Ma, X. F., & Xia, R. X. (2015). The cultural differences of imam-reference processing:Based on the retrieval-induce forgetting paradigm discussed. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 47(6), 757-764.

[周爱保, 张奋, 马小凤, 李建升, 夏瑞雪. (2015). 阿訇参照效应的文化差异:基于提取诱发遗忘范式的探讨. 心理学报, 47(6), 757-764.]

Zhou, H. S. (2001). Is it a society without fathers or husbands? Beijing:Guangming Daily Publishing House.

[周华山. (2001). 无父无夫的国度? 北京:光明日报出版社.]

Zhu, Y. (2007). Culture and self. Beijing:Beijing Normal University Publication Hose.

[朱滢. (2007). 文化与自我. 北京:北京师范大学出版社.]

Zhu, Y., & Zhang, L. (2001). The experimental research about self-memory. Science in China (Series C), 31(6), 537-543.

[朱滢, 张力. (2001). 自我记忆效应的实验研究. 中国科学C辑, 31(6), 537-543.]

Zhu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, J., & Han, S. H. (2007). Neural basis of cultural influence on self-representation. NeuroImage, 34(3), 1310-1316.

Zulipino, A. (2016). Uyghur individual's self-reference effect based identity (Unpublished master dissertation). Xinan University.

[祖力皮努尔·艾力. (2016). 维吾尔族身份启动对自我参照效应影响研究(硕士学位论文). 西南大学.]