Advances in Polar Science 2013/24:4 PP.326-338
This study investigates recent climate change over the Arctic and its link to the mid-latitudes using the ERA-Interim global atmospheric reanalysis data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast(ECMWF).Since 1979,substantial surface warming,associated with the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases,has occurred over the Arctic.The greatest warming in winter has taken place offshore in the Kara-Barents Sea,and is associated with the increase in turbulent heat fluxes from the marginal ice zone.In contrast to the marked warming over the Arctic Ocean in winter,substantial cooling appears over Siberia and eastern Asia,linked to the reduction of Arctic sea ice during the freezing season(September-March).However,in summer,very little change is observed in surface air temperature over the Arctic because increased radiative heat melts the sea ice and the amount of turbulent heat gain from the ocean is relatively small.The heat stored in the upper ocean mixed layer in summer with the opening of the Arctic Ocean is released back to the atmosphere as turbulent heat fluxes during the autumn and through to the following spring.This warming of the Arctic and the reduced sea ice amplifies surface cooling over Siberia and eastern Asia in winter.
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