DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2016.01118

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2016/24:7 PP.1118-1129

Socioeconomic disparities in health and its underlying mechanisms

Socioeconomic disparities in health refer to the systematic differences in health outcomes between the populations of different socioeconomic status. In the past three decades, studies from Western societies have well established the negative associations of socioeconomic status with a wide array of health outcomes, and have explored socioeconomic disparities in health in terms of structural conditions and personal characteristics. On the basis of empirical evidence, theorists have proposed sociocultural self-model, reserve capability model, and biopsychosocial model to comprehensively understand the mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in health. Future work should further investigate the roles of sociocultural factors and individual difference variables in socioeconomic disparities in health with more diverse research designs. This work contributes to the understanding of health disparities in the globe, and has implications for the practice of promoting health equality in Chinese societies.

Key words:socioeconomic status,health inequality,psychosocial mechanisms,socioeconomic disparities in health

ReleaseDate:2016-12-19 16:09:32

郭永玉, 杨沈龙, 李静, 胡小勇. (2015). 社会阶层心理学视角下的公平研究. 心理科学进展, 23(8), 1299-1311.

汤胜蓝, 孟庆跃, 陈致和, Bekedam, H., Evans, T., Whitehead, M. (2008). 应对中国健康公平挑战. 见《柳叶刀》专辑:21世纪中国与全球健康. 北京: 北京大学医学出版社.

杨博, 李树茁, 伊莎贝尔·阿塔尼. (2015). 流动人口的风险性行为——社会经济地位与社会资本因素探析. 南京社会科学, (1), 91-99.

Adler, N. E. (2009). Health disparities through a psychological lens. American Psychologist, 64(8), 663-673.

Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R. L., & Syme, S. L. (1994). Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49(1), 15-24.

Adler, N. E., Boyce, W. T., Chesney, M. A., Folkman, S., & Syme, S. L. (1993). Socioeconomic inequalities in health. No easy solution. JAMA, 269(24), 3140-3145.

Adler, N. E., Epel, E. S., Castellazzo, G., & Ickovics, J. R. (2000). Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: Preliminary data in healthy white women. Health Psychology, 19(6), 586-592.

Adler, N. E., & Newman, K. (2002). Socioeconomic disparities in health: Pathways and policies. Health Affairs, 21(2), 60-76.

Adler, N. E., & Stewart, J. (2010). Health disparities across the lifespan: Meaning, methods, and mechanisms. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186, 5-23.

Anda, R. F., Dong, M. X., Brown, D. W., Felitti, V. J., Giles, W. H., Perry, G. S., … Dube, S. R. (2009). The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to a history of premature death of family members. BMC Public Health, 9(1), 106-115.

Anderson, C., Kraus, M. W., Galinsky, A. D., & Keltner, D. (2012). The local-ladder effect: Social status and subjective well-being. Psychological Science, 23(7), 764-771.

Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Barbareschi, G., Sanderman, R., Kempen, G. I. J. M., & Ranchor, A. V. (2008). The mediating role of perceived control on the relationship between socioeconomic status and functional changes in older patients with coronary heart disease. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 63(6), P353-P361.

Bond, M. H. (2010). Oxford handbook of Chinese psychology. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A. M., & Fischhoff, B. (2007). Individual differences in adult decision-making competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 938-956.

Chen, E., Langer, D. A., Raphaelson, Y. E., & Matthews, K. A. (2004). Socioeconomic status and health in adolescents: The role of stress interpretations. Child Development, 75(4), 1039-1052.

Chen, E., & Miller, G. E. (2012). “Shift-and-persist” strategies: Why low socioeconomic status isn't always bad for health. Perspectives on Psychological Science: A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 7(2), 135-158.

Chen, E., & Miller, G. E. (2013). Socioeconomic status and health: Mediating and moderating factors. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 723-749.

Clarke, C. A., Miller, T., Chang, E. T., Yin, D. X., Cockburn, M., & Gomez, S. L. (2010). Racial and social class gradients in life expectancy in contemporary California. Social Science & Medicine, 70(9), 1373-1380.

Clougherty, J. E., Souza, K., & Cullen, M. R. (2010). Work and its role in shaping the social gradient in health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186, 102-124.

Cohen, S., Alper, C. M., Doyle, W. J., Adler, N. E., & Treanor, J. J. (2008). Objective and subjective socioeconomic status and susceptibility to the common cold. Health Psychology, 27(1), 268-274.

Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., & Miller, G. E. (2007). Psychological stress and disease. JAMA, 298(14), 1685-1687.

Crouch, J. L., Hanson, R. F., Saunders, B. E., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Resnick, H. S. (2000). Income, race/ethnicity, and exposure to violence in youth: Results from the national survey of adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology, 28(6), 625-641.

Cummins, S., & Macintyre, S. (2006). Food environments and obesity-neighbourhood or nation? International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(1), 100-104.

Cundiff, J. M., Smith, T. W., Uchino, B. N., & Berg, C. A. (2013). Subjective social status: Construct validity and associations with psychosocial vulnerability and self-rated health. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20(1), 148-158.

Dai, J., Yeung, N., Zheng, D., You, J., Loh, A., Young, L., & Lu, Q. (2011). Posttraumatic growth experienced by Chinese breast cancer survivors. Poster presented at the 1st Cancer Survivorship Research Symposium, Houston, TX, US.

Dow, W. H., & Rehkopf, D. H. (2010). Socioeconomic gradients in health in international and historical context. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186, 24-36.

Dow, W. H., Schoeni, R. F., Adler, N. E., & Stewart, J. (2010). Evaluating the evidence base: Policies and interventions to address socioeconomic status gradients in health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186, 240-251.

Doyal, L. (1979). The political economy of health. London: Pluto Press.

Estabrooks, P. A., Lee, R. E., & Gyurcsik, N. C. (2003). Resources for physical activity participation: Does availability and accessibility differ by neighborhood socioeconomic status? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25(2), 100-104.

Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59(2), 77-92.

Evans, G. W., & Kim, P. (2010). Multiple risk exposure as a potential explanatory mechanism for the socioeconomic status-health gradient. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186, 174-189.

Figaro, M. K., Elasy, T., BeLue, R., Speroff, T., & Dittus, R. (2009). Exploring socioeconomic variations in diabetes control strategies: Impact of outcome expectations. Journal of the National Medical Association, 101(1), 18-23.

Gallo, L. C., & Matthews, K. A. (2003). Understanding the association between socioeconomic status and physical health: Do negative emotions play a role? Psychological Bulletin, 129(1), 10-51.

Gallo, L. C., Smith, T. W, & Cox, C. M. (2006). Socioeconomic status, psychosocial processes, and perceived health: An interpersonal perspective. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31(2), 109-119.

Gordon-Larsen, P., Nelson, M. C., Page, P., & Popkin, B. M. (2006). Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity. Pediatrics, 117(2), 417-424.

Grossmann, I., & Huynh, A. C. (2013). Where is the culture in social class? Psychological Inquiry: An International Journal for the Advancement of Psychological Theory, 24(2), 112-119.

Haushofer, J., & Fehr, E. (2014). On the psychology of poverty. Science, 344(6186), 862-867.

Kitagawa, E. M., & Hauser, P. M. (1973). Differential mortality in the United States: A study in socioeconomic epidemiology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Klein, W. M. P., Rothman, A. J., & Cameron, L. D. (2013). Theoretical innovations in social and personality psychology and implications for health: Introduction to special issue. Health Psychology, 32(5), 457-459.

Larson, K., & Halfon, N. (2010). Family income gradients in the health and health care access of US children. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 14(3), 332-342.

Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (1996). Understanding sociodemographic differences in health-the role of fundamental social causes. American Journal of Public Health, 86(4), 471-473.

Lu, Q., You, J., Man, J., Loh, A., & Young, L. (2014). Evaluating a culturally tailored peer-mentoring and education pilot intervention among Chinese breast cancer survivors using a mixed-methods approach. Oncology Nursing Forum, 41(6), 629-637.

Luthar, S. S. (2006). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 3): Risk, disorder, and adaptation. Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Lynch, J. W., Kaplan, G. A., & Shema, S. J. (1997). Cumulative impact of sustained economic hardship on physical, cognitive, psychological, and social functioning. New England Journal of Medicine, 337(26), 1889-1895.

Mani, A., Mullainathan, S., Shafir, E., & Zhao, J. Y. (2013). Poverty impedes cognitive function. Science, 341(6149), 976-980.

Marmot, M., & Brunner, E. (2005). Cohort profile: The Whitehall II study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(2), 251-256.

Marmot, M. G., Shipley, M. J., & Rose, G. (1984). Inequalities in death-specific explanations of a general pattern? The Lancet, 323(8384), 1003-1006.

McDonough, P., Duncan, G. J., Williams, D. R., & House, J. (1997). Income dynamics and adult mortality in the United States, 1972 through 1989. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1476-1483.

Mermelstein, R. J., & Revenson, T. A. (2013). Applying theory across settings, behaviors, and populations: Translational challenges and opportunities. Health Psychology, 32(5), 592-596.

Nobles, J., Weintraub, M. R., & Adler, N. E. (2013). Subjective socioeconomic status and health: Relationships reconsidered. Social Science & Medicine, 82, 58-66.

Orr, L., Feins, J. D., Jacob, R., Beecroft, E., Sanbonmatsu, L., Katz, L. F. & Kling, J. R. (2003). Moving to opportunity interim impacts evaluation. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research.

Pappas, G., Queen, S., Hadden, W., & Fisher, G. (1993). The increasing disparity in mortality between socioeconomic groups in the United States, 1960 and 1986. New England Journal of Medicine, 329(2), 103-109.

Prus, S. G. (2007). Age, SES, and health: A population level analysis of health inequalities over the life course. Sociology of Health & Illness, 29(2), 275-296.

Reichman, N. E., & Florio, M. J. (1996). The effects of enriched prenatal care services on Medicaid birth outcomes in New Jersey. Journal of Health Economics, 15(4), 455-476.

Sepúlveda, J., & Murray, C. (2014). The state of global health in 2014. Science, 345(6202), 1275-1278.

Singh-Manoux, A., Adler, N. E., & Marmot, M. G. (2003). Subjective social status: Its determinants and its association with measures of ill-health in the Whitehall II study. Social Science & Medicine, 56(6), 1321-1333.

Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Fryberg, S. A. (2012). Social class disparities in health and education: Reducing inequality by applying a sociocultural self-model of behavior. Psychological Review, 119(4), 723-744.

Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Townsend, S. S. M. (2007). Choice as an act of meaning: The case of social class. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(5), 814-830.

Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Phillips, L. T. (2014). Social class culture cycles: How three gateway contexts shape selves and fuel inequality. Annual Review of Psychology, 65(1), 611-634.

Suls, J., Krantz, D. S., & Williams, G. C. (2013). Three strategies for bridging different levels of analysis and embracing the biopsychosocial model. Health Psychology, 32(5), 597-601.

Virchow, R. (1848). Report on the typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia. In I. J. Rather (Ed.), Rudolph Virchow: Collected essays on public health and epidemiology (pp. 205-220). Canton, MA: Science History Publications.

Vohs, K. D. (2013). The poor's poor mental power. Science, 341, 969-970.

Williams, D. R., Mohammed, S. A., Leavell, J., & Collins, C. (2010). Race, socioeconomic status, and health: Complexities, ongoing challenges, and research opportunities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186, 69-101.

Yeung, N., Dai, J., Zheng, D., Man, J., Loh, A., Young, L., & Lu, Q. (2010). Exploring cancer-related experience and difficulties among Chinese breast cancer survivors living in the US: Using expressive writing approach. Psycho-Oncology, 20(S1), 92.

Youm, J., Chan, V., Belkora, J., & Bozic, K. J. (2015). Impact of socioeconomic factors on informed decision making and treatment choice in patients with hip and knee OA. The Journal of Arthroplasty, 30(2), 171-175.