DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00443

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:3 PP.443-451

Individual-based psychological models of retirement

Retirement is a multi-phased dynamic process whereby retirees draw pensions at a specific age. There are three types of retirement models, viz., the Antecedent Model, the Process Model and the Outcome Model. The Antecedent Model of Retirement includes Classic Antecedent Model of Retirement and Multilevel-model of Retirement, which address antecedents of retirement respectively in individual-environment and macroscopic views. The Process Model of Retirement involves the Three-Phase Model of Retirement Decision-Making, the Temporal Process Model of Retirement and the Resource-based Dynamic Model for Retirement Adjustment; they reveal the process of retirement from the perspectives of the phasing, individuality and dynamics of retirement. The Outcome Model of Retirement explores the effect of retirement on individuals and organizations. In addition, the Four-Phase Model for Retirement is an integrated model based on Western models and in the light of China's reality. It is suggested that future studies in this field focus on increasing the diversity of objects, revealing the functioning mechanism of psychological variables that affect retirement, improving the applicability, and facilitating the indigenization of the latest study.

Key words:Antecedent Model of Retirement,Process Model of Retirement,Outcome Model of Retirement,Four-phase Model of Retirement,indigenization

ReleaseDate:2017-04-10 17:44:40

郭金华. (2016). 中国老龄化的全球定位和中国老龄化研究的问题与出路. 学术研究, (2), 61-67.

胡丽红. (2016). 年龄歧视对临退休员工工作退缩行为的影响——工作疏离感和临退休焦虑的作用. 财经问题研究, (6), 117-122.

李伟, 孙静. (2014). 离退休老年人心理健康状况及其与社会支持和心理韧性的关系. 中国全科医学, (16), 1898-1901.

鲁元平, 张克中. (2014). 老有所乐吗?——基于退休与幸福感的实证分析. 经济管理, 36(8), 168-178.

王克祥, 于凌云. (2016). 关于渐进式延迟退休年龄政策的研究综述. 人口与经济, (1), 57-65.

杨华, 欧阳静. (2013). 阶层分化、代际剥削与农村老年人自杀——对近年中部地区农村老年人自杀现象的分析. 管理世界, (5), 47-63.

Bal, P. M., de Jong, S. B., Jansen, P. G. W., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). Motivating employees to work beyond retirement:A multi-level study of the role of I-deals and unit climate. Journal of Management Studies, 49(2), 306-331.

Bal, P. M., de Lange, A. H., van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Zacher, H., Oderkerk, F. A., & Otten, S. (2015). Young at heart, old at work? Relations between age, (meta-)stereotypes, self-categorization, and retirement attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91, 35-45.

Bayl-Smith, P., & Griffin, B. (2014). Age discrimination in the workplace:Identifying as a late-career worker and its relationship with engagement and intended retirement age. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(9), 588-599.

Beehr, T. A. (1986). The process of retirement:A review and recommendations for future investigation. Personnel Psychology, 39(1), 31-55.

Beehr, T. A. (2014). To retire or not to retire:That is not the question. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(8), 1093-1108.

Blekesaune, M. (2015). Can self-enhancement values predict retirement behavior? An analysis combining survey and register data from Norway. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 80(2), 101-114.

Blekesaune, M., & Skirbekk, V. (2012). Can personality predict retirement behaviour? A longitudinal analysis combining survey and register data from Norway. European Journal of Ageing, 9(3), 199-206.

Bloemen, H., Hochguertel, S., & Zweerink, J. (2015). Joint retirement of couples:Evidence from a natural experiment (IZA DP NO. 8861). Retrieved from Institute for the Study of Labor website:

Bonsang, E., Adam, S., & Perelman, S. (2012). Does retirement affect cognitive functioning?. Journal of Health Economics, 31(3), 490-501.

Dingemans, E., & Henkens, K. (2014). Involuntary retirement, bridge employment, and satisfaction with life:A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(4), 575-591.

Duberley, J., Carmichael, F., & Szmigin, I. (2014). Exploring women's retirement:Continuity, context and career transition. Gender, Work and Organization, 21(1), 71-90.

Earl, J. K., Gerrans, P., & Halim, V. A. (2015). Active and adjusted:Investigating the contribution of leisure, health and psychosocial factors to retirement adjustment. Leisure Sciences, 37(4), 354-372.

Feldman, D. C., & Beehr, T. A. (2011). A three-phase model of retirement decision making. American Psychologist, 66(3), 193-203.

Feldman, D. C. (1994). The decision to retire early:A review and conceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 19(2), 285-311.

Feldman, D. C. (2013). Feeling like it's time to retire:A fit perspective on early retirement decisions. In M. Wang (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of retirement (pp. 280-292). New York:Oxford University Press.

Fasbender, U., & Deller, J. (2015). Post-retirement career planning. In N. A. Pachana (Ed.), Encyclopedia of geropsychology (pp. 1-11). Singapore:Springer.

Gringart, E., Helmes, E., & Speelman, C. (2013). Development of a measure of stereotypical attitudes towards older workers. Australian Psychologist, 48(2), 110-118.

Horner, E. M. (2014). Subjective well-being and retirement:Analysis and policy recommendations. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(1), 125-144.

Ihle, A., Grotz, C., Adam, S., Oris, M., Fagot, D., Gabriel, R., & Kliegel, M. (2016). The association of timing of retirement with cognitive performance in old age:The role of leisure activities after retirement. International Psychogeriatrics, 28, 1659-1669.

Kesavayuth, D., Rosenman, R. E., & Zikos, V. (2016). Retirement, personality, and well-being. Economic Inquiry, 54(2), 733-750.

Laitner, J., & Sonnega, A. (2013). Economic theories of retirement. In M. Wang (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of retirement (pp. 136-151). New York:Oxford University Press.

Leinonen, T., Martikainen, P., Laaksonen, M., & Lahelma, E. (2014). Excess mortality after disability retirement due to mental disorders:Variations by socio-demographic factors and causes of death. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(4), 639-649.

Leung, C. S. Y., & Earl, J. K. (2012). Retirement Resources Inventory:Construction, factor structure and psychometric properties. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(2), 171-182.

Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2012). Evaluating six common stereotypes about older workers with meta-analytical data. Personnel Psychology, 65(4), 821-858.

Oakman, J., & Wells, Y. (2013). Retirement intentions:What is the role of push factors in predicting retirement intentions?. Ageing and Society, 33(6), 988-1008.

Parker, A. M., Carvalho, L. S., & Rohwedder, S. (2013). Cognitive ability, expectations, and beliefs about the future:Psychological influences on retirement decisions. Retrieved from University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center website:

Perry, G. (2012). The need for retirement planning and counselling. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 14(2), 97-98.

Radl, J. (2013). Why do women in Spain retire later than men? Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 142, 109-122.

Shultz, K. S., & Wang, M. (2011). Psychological perspectives on the changing nature of retirement. American Psychologist, 66(3), 170-179.

Smaliukiene, R., & Tvaronavičienė, M. (2014). Bridge employment:An opportunity for aging society. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 156, 388-391.

Szinovacz, M. E. (2013). A multilevel perspective for retirement research. In M. Wang (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of retirement (pp. 152-173). New York:Oxford University Press.

Topa, G., & Alcover, C. M. (2015). Psychosocial factors in retirement intentions and adjustment:A multi-sample study. Career Development International, 20(4), 384-408.

Valero, E., & Topa, G. (2014). Brief retirement self-efficacy-11 scale (BRSE-11):Factorial structure and validity. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(4), 677-685.

van Selm, M., & van der Heijden, B. I. J. M. (2013). Communicating employability enhancement throughout the life-span:A national intervention program aimed at combating age-related stereotypes at the workplace. Educational Gerontology, 39(4), 259-272.

Wang, M., Henkens, K., & van Solinge, H. (2011). Retirement adjustment:A review of theoretical and empirical advancements. American Psychologist, 66(3), 204-213.

Wang, M., & Shultz, K. S. (2010). Employee retirement:A review and recommendations for future investigation. Journal of Management, 36(1), 172-206.

Wang, M., & Shi, J. Q. (2014). Psychological research on retirement. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 209-233.

Yeung, D. Y. (2013). Is pre-retirement planning always good? An exploratory study of retirement adjustment among Hong Kong Chinese retirees. Aging and Mental Health, 17(3), 386-393.

Zhan, Y. J., Wang, M., Liu, S. Q., & Shultz, K. S. (2009). Bridge employment and retirees' health:A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(4), 374-389.

Zhan, Y. J., Wang, M., & Shi, J. Q. (2015). Retirees' motivational orientations and bridge employment:Testing the moderating role of gender. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5), 1319-1331.

Zhan, Y. J., Wang, M., & Yao, X. (2013). Domain specific effects of commitment on bridge employment decisions:The moderating role of economic stress. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(3), 362-375.