doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00500

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:3 PP.500-510

Understanding emotional labor from a contingent perspective: A review on moderating variables and mechanisms


Abstract:
Exploration of moderators has been one of the major theoretical focus of emotional labor literature in recent years. Our review on the empirical studies indicated that a great variety of variables in three aspects-individual difference, job context and culture-had significant moderating effects on the effects of emotional labor. By taking a contingent perspective on emotional labor, we found that:(I) the display rules at organizational, industrial and cultural levels could exert different yet related influence on individual emotion expression in workplace; (II) the potential detrimental effect of surface acting could be possibly buffered, eradicated or even turned into positive one by means of either individual internal mechanism or organizational management intervention; (III) deep acting had a positive effect consistently across individuals and contexts; (IV) cultural context functioned as an important boundary condition for emotional labor process. It was revealed that both emotional labor requirements and regulation behaviors could possibly bring benefits to employees.

Key words:emotional labor,display rule,deep acting,surface acting,boundary condition

ReleaseDate:2017-04-10 17:44:43



陈瑞君, 秦启文. (2011). 情绪劳动与抑郁及焦虑的关系:情绪耗竭的中介作用. 心理科学, 34(3), 676-679.

刘朝, 王赛君, 马超群, 刘沁薇. (2013). 基于多层线性模型的情绪劳动、情绪状态和工作退缩行为关系研究. 管理学报, 10(4), 545-551.

Allen, J. A., Diefendorff, J. M., & Ma, Y. F. (2014). Differences in emotional labor across cultures:A comparison of Chinese and U.S. service workers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29(1), 21-35.

Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles:The influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.

Bandura, A., & Locke, E. A. (2003). Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 87-99.

Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Li, N. (2013). The theory of purposeful work behavior:The role of personality, higher-order goals, and job characteristics. Academy of Management Review, 38(1), 132-153.

Bhave, D. P., & Glomb, T. M. (2009). Emotional labour demands, wages and gender:A within-person, between-jobs study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(3), 683-707.

Bhave, D. P., & Glomb, T. M. (2016). The role of occupational emotional labor requirements on the surface acting-job satisfaction relationship. Journal of Management, 42, 722-741.

Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (2008). Gender and emotion in context. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 395-408). New York:Guilford.

Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2003). Development and validation of the Emotional Labour Scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(3), 365-379.

Butler, E. A., Lee, T. L., & Gross, J. J. (2009). Does expressing your emotions raise or lower your blood pressure? The answer depends on cultural context. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(3), 510-517.

Chen, Z. G., Sun, H. W., Lam, W., Hu, Q., Huo, Y. Y., & Zhong, J. A. (2012). Chinese hotel employees in the smiling masks:Roles of job satisfaction, burnout, and supervisory support in relationships between emotional labor and performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(4), 826-845.

Chi, N. W., Grandey, A. A., Diamond, J. A., & Krimmel, K. R. (2011). Want a tip? Service performance as a function of emotion regulation and extraversion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6), 1337-1346.

Chi, S. C. S., & Liang, S. G. (2013). When do subordinates' emotion-regulation strategies matter? Abusive supervision, subordinates' emotional exhaustion, and work withdrawal. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), 125-137.

Christoforou, P. S., & Ashforth, B. E. (2015). Revisiting the debate on the relationship between display rules and performance:Considering the explicitness of display rules. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 249-261.

Dalal, R. S., Meyer, R. D., Bradshaw, R. P., Green, J. P., Kelly, E. D., & Zhu, M. M. (2015). Personality strength and situational influences on behavior:A conceptual review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 41(1), 261-287.

Diefendorff, J. M., Erickson, R. J., Grandey, A. A., & Dahling, J. J. (2011). Emotional display rules as work unit norms:A multilevel analysis of emotional labor among nurses. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(2), 170-186.

Gabriel, A. S., Daniels, M. A., Diefendorff, J. M., & Greguras, G. J. (2015). Emotional labor actors:A latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 863-879.

Gangestad, S. W., & Snyder, M. (2000). Self-monitoring:Appraisal and reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 126(4), 530-555.

Goldberg, L. S., & Grandey, A. A. (2007). Display rules versus display autonomy:Emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and task performance in a call center simulation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 301-318.

Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional regulation in the workplace:A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95-110.

Grandey, A. A., Chi, N. W., & Diamond, J. A. (2013). Show me the money! Do financial rewards for performance enhance or undermine the satisfaction from emotional labor? Personnel Psychology, 66(3), 569-612.

Grandey, A. A., & Diamond, J. A. (2010). Interactions with the public:Bridging job design and emotional labor perspectives. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(2-3), 338-350.

Grandey, A. A., Diefendorff, J. M., & Rupp, D. E. (2013). Bringing emotional labor into focus:A review and integration of three research lenses. In A. A. Grandey, J. M. Diefendorff, & D. E. Rupp (Eds.), Emotional labor in the 21st century:Diverse perspectives on emotion regulation at work (pp. 3-27). New York:Psychology Press/Routledge.

Grandey, A. A., Fisk, G. M., & Steiner, D. D. (2005). Must "service with a smile" be stressful? The moderating role of personal control for American and French employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 893-904.

Grandey, A. A., & Gabriel, A. S. (2015). Emotional labor at a crossroads:Where do we go from here? Annual Review of Organizational Psychology & Organizational Behavior, 2(1), 323-349.

Grandey, A. A., Rafaeli, A., Ravid, S., Wirtz, J., & Steiner, D. D. (2010). Emotion display rules at work in the global service economy:The special case of the customer. Journal of Service Management, 21(3), 388-412.

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA:Addison-Wesley.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources:A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513-524.

Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart:Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley, CA:University of California Press.

Humphrey, R. H., Ashforth, B. E., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2015). The bright side of emotional labor. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(6), 749-769.

Hülsheger, U. R., & Schewe, A. F. (2011). On the costs and benefits of emotional labor:A meta-analysis of three decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 361-389.

Hülsheger, U. R., Lang, J. W. B., Schewe, A. F., & Zijlstra, F. R. H. (2015). When regulating emotions at work pays off:A diary and an intervention study on emotion regulation and customer tips in service jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 263-277.

Johnson, H. A. M., & Spector, P. E. (2007). Service with a smile:Do emotional intelligence, gender, and autonomy moderate the emotional labor process? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(4), 319-333.

Joseph, D. L., Jin, J., Newman, D. A., & O'Boyle, E. H. (2015). Why does self-reported emotional intelligence predict job performance? A meta-analytic investigation of mixed EI. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 298-342.

Judge, T. A., Woolf, E. F., & Hurst, C. (2009). Is emotional labor more difficult for some than for others? A multilevel, experience-sampling study. Personnel Psychology, 62(1), 57-88.

Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., Rubenstein, A. L., Long, D. M., Odio, M. A., Buckman, B. R., Zhang, Y. W., & Halvorsen-Ganepola, M. D. K. (2013). A meta-analytic structural model of dispositonal affectivity and emotional labor. Personnel Psychology, 66(1), 47-90.

Kaplan, S., Cortina, J., Ruark, G., LaPort, K., & Nicolaides, V. (2014). The role of organizational leaders in employee emotion management:A theoretical model. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(3), 563-580.

Lam, C. K., Huang, X., & Janssen, O. (2010). Contextualizing emotional exhaustion and positive emotional display:The signaling effects of supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(2), 368-376.

Little, B. R. (2000). Free traits and personal contexts:Expanding a social ecological model of well-being. In W. B. Walsh, K. H. Craik, & R. H. Price (Eds.), Person-environment psychology:New directions and perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 87-116). Mahwah, NJ:Erlbaum.

Lu, X. J., & Guy, M. E. (2014). How emotional labor and ethical leadership affect job engagement for Chinese public servants? Public Personnel Management, 43(1), 3-24.

Mauss, I. B., Bunge, S. A., & Gross, J. J. (2008). Culture and automatic emotion regulation. In M. Vandekerckhove, C. von Scheve, S. Ismer, S. Jung, & S. Kronast (Eds.), Regulating emotions:Culture, social necessity, and biological inheritance (pp. 39-60). London, UK:Blackwell.

Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., DeChurch, L. A., & Wax, A. (2012). Moving emotional labor beyond surface and deep acting:A discordance-congruence perspective. Organizational Psychology Review, 2(1), 6-53.

Mesquita, B., & Delvaux, E. A. (2013). A cultural perspective on emotion labor. In A. A. Grandey, J. M. Diefendorff, & D. E. Rupp (Eds.), Emotional labor in the 21st century:Diverse perspectives on emotion regulation at work (pp. 251-272). New York:Psychology Press/Routledge.

Moran, C. M., Diefendorff, J. M., & Greguras, G. J. (2013). Understanding emotional display rules at work and outside of work:The effects of country and gender. Motivation and Emotion, 37(2), 323-334.

Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1996). The dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor. Academy of Management Review, 21(4), 986-1010.

Nguyen, H., Groth, M., & Johnson, A. (2016). When the going gets tough, the tough keep working:Impact of emotional labor on absenteeism. Journal of Management, 42(3), 615-643.

Ozcelik, H. (2013). An empirical analysis of surface acting in intra-organizational relationships. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(3), 291-309.

Pugh, S. D., Groth, M., & Hennig-Thurau, T. (2011). Willing and able to fake emotions:A closer examination of the link between emotional dissonance and employee well-being. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(2), 377-390.

Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. I. (1989). The expression of emotion in organizational life. In L. L. Cummings, & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 1-43). Greenwich, CT:JAI Press.

Schreurs, B., Guenter, H., Hülsheger, U., & van Emmerik, H. (2014). The role of punishment and reward sensitivity in the emotional labor process:A within-person perspective. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(1), 108-121.

Scott, B. A., & Barnes, C. M. (2011). A multilevel field investigation of emotional labor, affect, work withdrawal, and gender. Academy of Management Journal, 54(1), 116-136.

Scott, B. A., Barnes, C. M., & Wagner, D. T. (2012). Chameleonic or consistent? A multilevel investigation of emotional labor variability and self-monitoring. Academy of Management Journal, 55(4), 905-926.

Wang, M., Liao, H., Zhan, Y. J., & Shi, J. Q. (2011). Daily customer mistreatment and employee sabotage against customers:Examining emotion and resource perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 312-334.