doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00627

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:4 PP.627-638

Changes and influential factors of male body ideal


Abstract:
There is a growing concern for men's body shape, and male body ideal has changed accordingly. Researches indicated that with the influence of biological and sociocultural factors, male body ideal changed from muscular to lean and muscular. Biological factor related research demonstrated that groups of different gender, age and sex orientation own different male body ideals; while research based on the sociocultural theory of body image development posited that family, peer and media are transmitters of sociocultural pressure on conforming to male body ideals. Future work should endeavor to establish a body fat and muscularity dual way model of male body ideal by using a longitudinal study to validate the influence of biological and sociocultural factors, consummating theory system of male body ideal, and these could help providing a cogent theoretical basis to formulate the body image related interventions and policies.

Key words:male body ideal,biological factors,sociocultural factors

ReleaseDate:2017-05-12 17:00:06



陈红. (2003). 青少年身体自我的理论与实证研究 (博士学位论文). 西南师范大学, 重庆.

Adams, G., Turner, H., & Bucks, R. (2005). The experience of body dissatisfaction in men. Body Image, 2(3), 271- 283.

Ata, R. N., Thompson, J. K., & Small, B. J. (2013). Effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body dissatisfaction: Testing the inclusion of a disclaimer versus warning label. Body Image, 10(4), 472-480.

Aubrey, J. S., & Taylor, L. D. (2009). The role of lad magazines in priming men's chronic and temporary appearance- related schemata: An investigation of longitudinal and experimental findings. Human Communication Research, 35(1), 28-58.

Baghurst, T., Carlston, D., Wood, J., & Wyatt, F. B. (2007). Preadolescent male perceptions of action figure physiques. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), 613-615.

Barlett, C. P., Vowels, C. L., & Saucier, D. A. (2008). Meta- analyses of the effects of media images on men's body- image concerns. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 27(3), 279-310.

Berge, J. M., Hanson-Bradley, C., Tate, A., & Neumark- Sztainer, D. (2016). Do parents or siblings engage in more negative weight-based talk with children and what does it sound like? A mixed-methods study. Body Image, 18, 27-33.

Boni, F. (2002). Framing media masculinities: Men's lifestyle magazines and the biopolitics of the male body. European Journal of Communication, 17(4), 465-478.

Bratland-Sanda, S., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2012). Symptoms of eating disorders, drive for muscularity and physical activity among Norwegian adolescents. European Eating Disorders Review, 20(4), 287-293.

Brechan, I., & Kvalem, I. L. (2015). Relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: Mediating role of self-esteem and depression. Eating Behaviors, 17, 49-58.

Brown, F. L., & Slaughter, V. (2011). Normal body, beautiful body: Discrepant perceptions reveal a pervasive 'thin ideal' from childhood to adulthood. Body Image, 8(2), 119-125.

Cash, T. F. (2012). Encyclopedia of body image and human appearance. San Diego: Academic Press.

Chang, F. C., Lee, C. M., Chen, P. H., Chiu, C. H., Pan, Y. C., & Huang, T. F. (2013). Association of thin-ideal media exposure, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents in Taiwan. Eating Behaviors, 14(3), 382-385.

Cho, A., & Lee, J. H. (2013). Body dissatisfaction levels and gender differences in attentional biases toward idealized bodies. Body Image, 10(1), 95-102.

Cohane, G. H., & Pope, H. G., Jr. (2001). Body image in boys: A review of the literature. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29(4), 373-379.

Cordes, M., Vocks, S., Düsing, R., Bauer, A., & Waldorf, M. (2016). Male body image and visual attention towards oneself and other men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 17, 243-254.

Cramblitt, B., & Pritchard, M. (2013). Media's influence on the drive for muscularity in undergraduates. Eating Behaviors, 14(4), 441-446.

Dallesasse, S. L., & Kluck, A. S. (2013). Reality television and the muscular male ideal. Body Image, 10(3), 309-315.

Diedrichs, P. C., & Lee, C. (2010). GI joe or average joe? The impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and advertisement effectiveness. Body Image, 7(3), 218-226.

Engeln, R., Sladek, M. R., & Waldron, H. (2013). Body talk among college men: Content, correlates, and effects. Body Image, 10(3), 300-308.

Frederick, D. A., Buchanan, G. M., Sadehgi-Azar, L., Peplau, L. A., Haselton, M. G., Berezovskaya, A., & Lipinski, R. E. (2007). Desiring the muscular ideal: Men's body satisfaction in the United States, Ukraine, and Ghana. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(2), 103-117.

Frederick, D. A., Fessler, D. M. T., & Haselton, M. G. (2005). Do representations of male muscularity differ in men's and women's magazines? Body Image, 2(1), 81-86.

Frederick, D. A., & Haselton, M. G. (2003). Muscularity as a communicative signal. Paper presentation at the International Communications Association Annual Conference, San Diego, CA.

Furnham, A., Badmin, N., & Sneade, I. (2002). Body image dissatisfaction: Gender differences in eating attitudes, self-esteem, and reasons for exercise. Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary & Applied, 136(6), 581-596.

Galioto, R., Karazsia, B. T., & Crowther, J. H. (2012). Familial and peer modeling and verbal commentary: Associations with muscularity-oriented body dissatisfaction and body change behaviors. Body Image, 9(2), 293-297.

Gendall, P. J., & Michaels, V. (2008). Sport and Leisure in New Zealand: International Social Survey Programme [Data file]. Department of Communication, Journalism & Marketing, Massey University, International Social Survey Programme.

Gigi, I., Bachner-Melman, R., & Lev-Ari, L. (2016). The association between sexual orientation, susceptibility to social messages and disordered eating in men. Appetite, 99, 25-33.

Gillen, M. M. (2015). Associations between positive body image and indicators of men's and women's mental and physical health. Body Image, 13, 67-74.

Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: A meta- analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 134(3), 460-476.

Greenberg, B. S., Eastin, M., Hofschire, L., Lachlan, K., & Brownell, K. D. (2003). Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television. American Journal of Public Health, 93(8), 1342-1348.

Grogan, S., & Richards, H. (2002). Body image: Focus groups with boys and men. Men and Masculinities, 4(3), 219-133.

Hargreaves, D. A., & Tiggemann, M. (2009). Muscular ideal media images and men's body image: Social comparison processing and individual vulnerability. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 10(2), 109-119.

Harrison, K., & Hefner, V. (2014). Virtually perfect: Image retouching and adolescent body image. Media Psychology, 17(2), 134-153.

Helfert, S., & Warschburger, P. (2011). A prospective study on the impact of peer and parental pressure on body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys. Body Image, 8(2), 101-109.

Jenssen, I. H., & Johannessen, K. B. (2015). Aggression and body image concerns among anabolic androgenic steroid users, contemplators, and controls in Norway. Body Image, 12, 6-13.

Johnson, P. J., McCreary, D. R., & Mills, J. S. (2007). Effects of exposure to objectified male and female media images on men's psychological well-being. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(2), 95-102.

Jones, D. C. (2004). Body image among adolescent girls and boys: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 40(5), 823-835.

Jones, D. C., Bain, N., & King, S. (2008). Weight and muscularity concerns as longitudinal predictors of body image among early adolescent boys: A test of the dual pathways model. Body Image, 5(2), 195-204.

Jones, D. C., & Crawford, J. K. (2005). Adolescent boys and body image: Weight and muscularity concerns as dual pathways to body dissatisfaction. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 34(6), 629-636.

Jung, J. (2011). Advertising images of men: Body size and muscularity of men depicted in Men's Health magazine. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 2(4), 181-187.

Jung, J., Forbes, G. B., & Chan, P. (2010). Global body and muscle satisfaction among college men in the United States and Hong Kong-China. Sex Roles, 63(1-2), 104- 117.

Karazsia, B. T., & Crowther, J. H. (2009). Social body comparison and internalization: Mediators of social influences on men's muscularity-oriented body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 6(2), 105-112.

Karazsia, B. T., & Crowther, J. H. (2010). Sociocultural and psychological links to men's engagement in risky body change behaviors. Sex Roles, 63(9-10), 747-756.

Keel, P. K., Baxter, M. G., Heatherton, T. F., & Joiner, T. E., Jr. (2007). A 20-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and eating disorder symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(2), 422-432.

Kelley, C. C., Neufeld, J. M., & Musher-Eizenman, D. R. (2010). Drive for thinness and drive for muscularity: Opposite ends of the continuum or separate constructs? Body Image, 7(1), 74-77.

Klein, H., & Shiffman, K. S. (2005). Thin is 'in' and stout is 'out': What animated cartoons tell viewers about body weight. Eating and Weight Disorders, 10(2), 107-116.

Krawitz, M. (2014). Beauty is only photoshop deep: Legislating models' BMIs and photoshopping images. Journal of Law & Medicine, 21(4), 859-874.

Lamb, C. S., Jackson, L., Cassiday, P. B., & Priest, D. J. (1993). Body figure preferences of men and women: A comparison of two generations. Sex Roles, 28(5-6), 345- 358.

Lanzieri, N., & Cook, B. J. (2013). Examination of muscularity and body fat depictions in magazines that target heterosexual and gay men. Body Image, 10(2), 251-254.

Li, N. P., Smith, A. S., Griskevicius, V., Cason, M. J., & Bryan, A. (2010). Intrasexual competition and eating restriction in heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(5), 365-372.

Lynch, S. M., & Zellner, D. A. (1999). Figure preferences in two generations of men: The use of figure drawings illustrating differences in muscle mass. Sex Roles, 40(9-10), 833-843.

Magallares, A. (2013). Masculinity, drive for muscularity and eating concerns in men. Suma Psicológica, 20(1), 83-88.

Maloney, M. J., McGuire, J., Daniels, S. R., & Specker, B. (1989). Dieting behavior and eating attitudes in children. Pediatrics, 84(3), 482-489.

Martins, Y., Tiggemann, M., & Churchett, L. (2008). The shape of things to come: Gay men's satisfaction with specific body parts. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 9(4), 248-256.

McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2001). Body image and body change techniques among young adolescent boys. European Eating Disorders Review, 9(5), 335-347.

McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2003). Sociocultural influences on body image and body changes among adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Social Psychology, 143(1), 5-26.

McCreary, D. R., & Sasse, D. K. (2000). An exploration of the drive for muscularity in adolescent boys and girls. Journal of American College Health, 48(6), 297-304.

McFarland, M. B., & Petrie, T. A. (2012). Male body satisfaction: Factorial and construct validity of the body parts satisfaction scale for men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(2), 329-337.

Mcneill, L. S., & Firman, J. L. (2014). Ideal body image: A male perspective on self. Australasian Marketing Journal, 22(2), 136-143.

Neighbors, L. A., & Sobal, J. (2007). Prevalence and magnitude of body weight and shape dissatisfaction among university students. Eating Behaviors, 8(4), 429- 439.

Oehlhof, M. E. W., Musher-Eizenman, D. R., Neufeld, J. M., & Hauser, J. C. (2009). Self-objectification and ideal body shape for men and women. Body Image, 6(4), 308-310.

Olivardia, R., Pope, H. G., Jr., Borowiecki, J. J., III., & Cohane, G. H. (2004). Biceps and body image: The relationship between muscularity and self-esteem, depression, and eating disorder symptoms. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5(2), 112-120.

Phillips, N., & De Man, A. F. (2010). Weight status and body image satisfaction in adult men and women. North American Journal of Psychology, 12(1), 171-184.

Pliner, P., Chaiken, S., & Flett, G. L. (1990). Gender differences in concern with body weight and physical appearance over the life span. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16(2), 263-273.

Pope, H. G., Jr., Gruber, A. J., Mangweth, B., Bureau, B., deCol, C., Jouvent, R., & Hudson, J. I. (2000). Body image perception among men in three countries. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(8), 1297-1301.

Pope, H. G., Jr., Olivardia, R., Borowiecki, J. J., III., & Cohane, G. H. (2001). The growing commercial value of the male body: A longitudinal survey of advertising in women's magazines. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 70(4), 189-192.

Ricciardelli, L. A., McCabe, M. P., & Banfield, S. (2000). Body image and body change methods in adolescent boys: Role of parents, friends, and the media. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49(3), 189-197

Ricciardelli, L. A., McCabe, M. P., Lillis, J., & Thomas, K. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of the development of weight and muscle concerns among preadolescent boys. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(2), 168-178.

Rodgers, R. F., Ganchou, C., Franko, D. L., & Chabrol, H. (2012). Drive for muscularity and disordered eating among French adolescent boys: A sociocultural model. Body Image, 9(3), 318-323.

Rozin, P., & Fallon, A. (1988). Body image, attitudes to weight, and misperceptions of figure preferences of the opposite sex: A comparison of men and women in two generations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97(3), 342- 345.

Schaefer, L. M., Burke, N. L., Thompson, J. K., Dedrick, R. F., Heinberg, L. J., Calogero, R. M., ... Swami, V. (2015). Development and validation of the sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4). Psychological Assessment, 27(1), 54-67.

Schur, E. A., Sanders, M., & Steiner, H. (2000). Body dissatisfaction and dieting in young children. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 27(1), 74-82.

Slater, A., & Tiggemann, M. (2014). Media matters for boys too! The role of specific magazine types and television programs in the drive for thinness and muscularity in adolescent boys. Eating Behaviors, 15(4), 679-682.

Smith, A. R., Hawkeswood, S. E., Bodell, L. P., & Joiner, T. E. (2011). Muscularity versus leanness: An examination of body ideals and predictors of disordered eating in heterosexual and gay college students. Body Image, 8(3), 232-236.

Smolak, L., Levine, M. P., & Schermer, F. (1999). Parental input and weight concerns among elementary school children. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 25(3), 263-271.

Smolak, L., & Murnen, S. K. (2008). Drive for leanness: Assessment and relationship to gender, gender role and objectification. Body Image, 5(3), 251-260.

Stanford, J. N., & McCabe, M. P. (2005). Sociocultural influences on adolescent boys' body image and body change strategies. Body Image, 2(2), 105-113.

Stratton, R., Donovan, C., Bramwell, S., & Loxton, N. J. (2015). Don't stop till you get enough: Factors driving men towards muscularity. Body Image, 15, 72-80.

Sylvia, Z., King, T. K., & Morse, B. J. (2014). Virtual ideals: The effect of video game play on male body image. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 183-188.

Tiggemann, M., Martins, Y., & Kirkbride, A. (2007). Oh to be lean and muscular: Body image ideals in gay and heterosexual men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(1), 15-24.

Tod, D., & Edwards, C. (2013). Predicting drive for muscularity behavioural engagement from body image attitudes and emotions. Body Image, 10(1), 135-138.

Tylka, T. L. (2011). Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: Dual body image pathways to body change behaviors. Body Image, 8(3), 199-207.

Ussher, J. (1997). Body talk: The material and discursive regulation of sexuality, madness and reproduction. London: Routledge.

Valls, M., Bonvin, P., & Chabrol, H. (2013). Association between muscularity dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction among normal-weight French men. Journal of Men's Health, 10(4), 139-145.

vandenBerg, P., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Cafri, G., & Wall, M. (2007). Steroid use among adolescents: Longitudinal findings from project eat. Pediatrics, 119(3), 476-486.

Veldhuis, J., Konijn, E. A., & Seidell, J. C. (2014). Counteracting media's thin-body ideal for adolescent girls: Informing is more effective than warning. Media Psychology, 17(2), 154-184.

Wang, S. S., Houshyar, S., & Prinstein, M. J. (2006). Adolescent girls' and boys' weight-related health behaviors and cognitions: Associations with reputation- and preference- based peer status. Health Psychology, 25(5), 658-663.

Williamson, I., & Hartley, P. (1998). British research into the increased vulnerability of young gay men to eating disturbance and body dissatisfaction. European Eating Disorders Review, 6(3), 160-170.

Xie, B., Chou, C. P., Spruijt-Metz, D., Reynolds, K., Clark, F., Palmer, P. H., … Johnson, C. A. (2006). Weight perception and weight-related sociocultural and behavioral factors in Chinese adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 42(3), 229-234.

Xu, X. Y., Mellor, D., Kiehne, M., Ricciardelli, L. A., Mccabe, M. P., & Xu, Y. (2010). Body dissatisfaction, engagement in body change behaviors and sociocultural influences on body image among Chinese adolescents. Body Image, 7(2), 156-164.

Yang, C. F. J., Gray, P., & Pope, H. G., Jr. (2005). Male body image in Taiwan versus the West: Yanggang Zhiqi meets the adonis complex. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(2), 263-269.

Yelland, C., & Tiggemann, M. (2003). Muscularity and the gay ideal: Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in homosexual men. Eating Behaviors, 4(2), 107-116.