DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00788

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:5 PP.788-798

Self-esteem and brain: A social neuroscience approach

Accumulating research has approached self-esteem from the perspective of social neuroscience. A review of relevant research indicates that: 1) self-esteem is related to brain physiologically with high self-esteem associating with larger hippocampus volume and regional gray matter volume of anterior cingulate cortex; 2) self-esteem is also related to the resting state of default mode network and functional connectivity among some specific brain areas; 3) self-esteem modulates brain activities to threats such that individuals with low self-esteem exhibit stronger neural responses to self-threatening stimuli; 4) self-esteem modulates brain activities during self-evaluation process. Overall, these findings shed light on the neural basis of self-esteem as well as its adaptive functions.

Key words:self-esteem,self-evaluation,threat,medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC),anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)

ReleaseDate:2017-05-31 14:49:39

杨娟, 张庆林. (2010). 从社会认知神经科学角度谈自尊研究. 心理学探新, 30(2), 15–18.

杨帅, 黄希庭, 傅于玲. (2012). 内侧前额叶皮质——“自我”的神经基础. 心理科学进展, 20(6), 853–862.

Agroskin, D., Klackl, J., & Jonas, E. (2014). The self-liking brain: A VBM study on the structural substrate of self- esteem. PLoS One, 9(1), e86430.

Alicke, M. D., & Govorun, O. (2005). The better-than-average effect. In M. D. Alicke, D. A. Dunning, & J. Krueger (Eds.), The self in social judgment (pp. 85–106). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Baumeister, R. F. (1998). The self. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (4th ed., pp. 680–740). Boston, MA: McGraw- Hill.

Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1–44.

Beer, J. S. (2014). Exaggerated Positivity in self-evaluation: A social neuroscience approach to reconciling the role of self-esteem protection and cognitive bias. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8(10), 583–594.

Bengtsson, S. L., Dolan, R. J., & Passingham, R. E. (2011). Priming for self-esteem influences the monitoring of one's own performance. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6(4), 417–425.

Brown, J. D. (2010). High self-esteem buffers negative feedback: Once more with feeling. Cognition and Emotion, 24(8), 1389–1404.

Brown, J. D. (2014). Self-esteem and self-evaluation: Feeling is believing. In Psychological perspectives on the self (pp. 27–58). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cai, H. J., Sedikides, C., Gaertner, L., Wang, C. J., Carvallo, M., Xu, Y. Y., ... Jackson, L. E. (2011). Tactical self-enhancement in China: Is modesty at the service of self-enhancement in East Asian culture? Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(1), 59–64.

Cai, H. J., Wu, Q. P., & Brown, J. D. (2009). Is self-esteem a universal need? Evidence from The People's Republic of China. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 12(2), 104–120.

Cai, H. J., Wu, L. L., Shi, Y. Y., Gu, R. L., & Sedikides, C. (2016). Self-enhancement among westerners and easterners: A cultural neuroscience approach. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11, 1569–1578.

Cavallo, J. V., Holmes, J. G., Fitzsimons, G. M., Murray, S. L., & Wood, J. V. (2012). Managing motivational conflict: How self-esteem and executive resources influence self- regulatory responses to risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(3), 430–451.

Chavez, R. S., & Heatherton, T. F. (2015). Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(3), 364–370.

Cooley, C. H. (1992). Human nature and the social order. Piscataway Township: Transaction Publishers.

Eisenberger, N. I., Inagaki, T. K., Muscatell, K. A., Haltom, K. E. B., & Leary, M. R. (2011). The neural sociometer: Brain mechanisms underlying state self-esteem. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(11), 3448–3455.

Eisenberger, N. I., Lieberman, M. D., & Williams, K. D. (2003). Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302(5643), 290–292.

Epley, N., & Whitchurch, E. (2008). Mirror, mirror on the wall: Enhancement in self-recognition. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(9), 1159–1170.

Fang, Z., Zhu, S., Shi, H., Hu, S., Cai, H., Korczykowski, M., & Rao, H. (2015). Default mode network CBF predicts individual differences in self-esteem. Unpublished manuscript.

Folstein, J. R., & van Petten, C. (2008). Influence of cognitive control and mismatch on the N2 component of the ERP: A review. Psychophysiology, 45(1), 152–170.

Ford, M. B., & Collins, N. L. (2010). Self-esteem moderates neuroendocrine and psychological responses to interpersonal rejection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(3), 405–419.

Fox, M. D., Snyder, A. Z., Vincent, J. L., Corbetta, M., van Essen, D. C., & Raichle, M. E. (2005). The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(27), 9673– 9678.

Gorgolewski, K. J., Lurie, D., Urchs, S., Kipping, J. A., Craddock, R. C., Milham, M. P., ... Smallwood, J. (2014). A correspondence between individual differences in the brain's intrinsic functional architecture and the content and form of self-generated thoughts. PLoS One, 9(5), e97176.

Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Solomon, S. (1986). The causes and consequences of a need for self-esteem: A terror management theory. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Public self and private self (pp. 189–212). New York: Springer.

Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Pyszczynski, T., Rosenblatt, A., Burling, J., Lyon, D., ... Pinel, E. (1992). Why do people need self-esteem? Converging evidence that self-esteem serves an anxiety-buffering function. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(6), 913–922.

Gyurak, A., Hooker, C. I., Miyakawa, A., Verosky, S., Luerssen, A., & Ayduk, O. N. (2012). Individual differences in neural responses to social rejection: The joint effect of self-esteem and attentional control. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7(3), 322–331.

Hanson, J. L., Chandra, A., Wolfe, B. L., & Pollak, S. D. (2011). Association between income and the hippocampus. PLoS One, 6(5), e18712.

Heller, A. S., Johnstone, T., Light, S. N., Peterson, M. J., Kolden, G. G., Kalin, N. H., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Relationships between changes in sustained fronto-striatal connectivity and positive affect in major depression resulting from antidepressant treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(2), 197–206.

Hughes, B. L., & Beer, J. S. (2013). Protecting the self: The effect of social-evaluative threat on neural representations of self. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25(4), 613–622.

Jonas, E., McGregor, I., Klackl, J., Agroskin, D., Fritsche, I., Holbrook, C., ... Quirin, M. (2014). Threat and defense: From anxiety to approach. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 219–286.

Kashdan, T. B., DeWall, C. N., Masten, C. L., Pond, R. S., Jr., Powell, C., Combs, D., ... Farmer, A. S. (2014). Who is most vulnerable to social rejection? The toxic combination of low self-esteem and lack of negative emotion differentiation on neural responses to rejection. PLoS One, 9(3), e90651.

Kim, Y.-H., Chiu, C.-Y., Peng, S. Q., Cai, H. J., & Tov, W. (2010). Explaining East-West differences in the likelihood of making favorable self-evaluations: The role of evaluation apprehension and directness of expression. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41(1), 62–75.

Klackl, J., Jonas, E., & Kronbichler, M. (2014). Existential neuroscience: Self-esteem moderates neuronal responses to mortality-related stimuli. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(11), 1754–1761.

Kong, F., Ding, K., Yang, Z. T., Dang, X. B., Hu, S. Y., Song, Y. Y., & Liu, J. (2014). Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(7), 952–960.

Korsten, N., Fragopanagos, N., & Taylor, J. G. (2007). Neural substructures for appraisal in emotion: Self-esteem and depression. In Artificial neural networks–ICANN 2007 (pp. 850–858). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.

Kuster, F., & Orth, U. (2013). The long-term stability of self-esteem: Its time-dependent decay and nonzero asymptote. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(5), 677–690.

Leary, M. R., Tambor, E. S., Terdal, S. K., & Downs, D. L. (1995). Self-esteem as an interpersonal monitor: The sociometer hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(3), 518–530.

Li, H. J., Li, W. F., Wei, D. T., Chen, Q. L., Jackson, T., Zhang, Q. L., & Qiu, J. (2014). Examining brain structures associated with perceived stress in a large sample of young adults via voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage, 92, 1–7.

Li, H. J., & Yang, J. (2013). Low self-esteem elicits greater mobilization of attentional resources toward emotional stimuli. Neuroscience Letters, 548, 286–290.

Li, H. J., Zeigler-Hill, V., Luo, J. L., Yang, J., & Zhang, Q. L. (2012). Self-esteem modulates attentional responses to rejection: Evidence from event-related brain potentials. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(5), 459–464.

Moran, J. M., Macrae, C. N., Heatherton, T. F., Wyland, C. L., & Kelley, W. M. (2006). Neuroanatomical evidence for distinct cognitive and affective components of self. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(9), 1586–1594.

Murty, V. P., Ritchey, M., Adcock, R. A., & LaBar, K. S. (2010). fMRI studies of successful emotional memory encoding: A quantitative meta-analysis. Neuropsychologia, 48(12), 3459–3469.

Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., de Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., & Panksepp, J. (2006). Self-referential processing in our brain—A meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self. Neuroimage, 31(1), 440–457.

Oba, K., Noriuchi, M., Atomi, T., Moriguchi, Y., & Kikuchi, Y. (2015). Memory and reward systems coproduce ‘nostalgic'experiences in the brain. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11, 1069–1077.

Oikawa, H., Sugiura, M., Sekiguchi, A., Tsukiura, T., Miyauchi, C. M., Hashimoto, T., ... Kawashima, R. (2012). Self-face evaluation and self-esteem in young females: An fMRI study using contrast effect. NeuroImage, 59(4), 3668–3676.

Onoda, K., Okamoto, Y., Nakashima, K., Nittono, H., Yoshimura, S., Yamawaki, S., ... Ura, M. (2010). Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(4), 385–391.

Orth, U., & Robins, R. W. (2014). The development of self-esteem. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(5), 381–387.

Orth, U., Robins, R. W., & Widaman, K. F. (2012). Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(6), 1271–1288.

Pan, W. G., Liu, C. C., Yang, Q., Gu, Y., Yin, S. H., & Chen, A. T. (2016). The neural basis of trait self-esteem revealed by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and resting state functional connectivity. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(3), 367–376.

Perlmutter, R., Kuman, J., & Tssory, S. S. (2015, July). A Neuro-cultural perspective on self-enhancement. Paper Presented at 14th European Congress of Psychology, Milan, Italy.

Pruessner, J. C., Baldwin, M. W., Dedovic, K., Renwick, R., Mahani, N. K., Lord, C., ... Lupien, S. (2005). Self-esteem, locus of control, hippocampal volume, and cortisol regulation in young and old adulthood. NeuroImage, 28(4), 815–826.

Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Arndt, J., & Schimel, J. (2004). Why do people need self-esteem? A theoretical and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 435–468.

Qin, P. M., & Northoff, G. (2011). How is our self related to midline regions and the default-mode network? NeuroImage, 57(3), 1221–1233.

Quirin, M., Loktyushin, A., Arndt, J., Küstermann, E., Lo, Y. Y., Kuhl, J., & Eggert, L. (2012). Existential neuroscience: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of neural responses to reminders of one's mortality. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 193–198.

Raichle, M. E., & Snyder, A. Z. (2007). A default mode of brain function: A brief history of an evolving idea. NeuroImage, 37(4), 1083–1090.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Measures Package, 61, 52.

Rotge, J.-Y., Lemogne, C., Hinfray, S., Huguet, P., Grynszpan, O., Tartour, E., ... Fossati, P. (2014). A meta-analysis of the anterior cingulate contribution to social pain. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 19–27.

Sheline, Y. I., Barch, D. M., Price, J. L., Rundle, M. M., Vaishnavi, S. N., Snyder, A. Z., ... Raichle, M. E. (2009). The default mode network and self-referential processes in depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(6), 1942–1947.

Shi, Z. H., & Han, S. H. (2013). Transient and sustained neural responses to death-related linguistic cues. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(5), 573–578.

Somerville, L. H., Jones, R. M., Ruberry, E. J., Dyke, J. P., Glover, G., & Casey, B. J. (2013). The medial prefrontal cortex and the emergence of self-conscious emotion in adolescence. Psychological Science, 24(8), 1554–1562.

Somerville, L. H., Kelley, W. M., & Heatherton, T. F. (2010). Self-esteem modulates medial prefrontal cortical responses to evaluative social feedback. Cerebral Cortex, 20(12), 3005–3013.

Sowislo, J. F., & Orth, U. (2013). Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 139(1), 213–240.

Tesser, A. (2000). On the confluence of self-esteem maintenance mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(4), 290–299.

Trzesniewski, K. H., Donnellan, M. B., & Robins, R. W. (2003). Stability of self-esteem across the life span. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 205–220.

Ulrich-Lai, Y. M., & Herman, J. P. (2009). Neural regulation of endocrine and autonomic stress responses. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(6), 397–409.

van Dellen, M. R., Campbell, W. K., Hoyle, R. H., & Bradfield, E. K. (2011). Compensating, resisting, and breaking: A meta- analytic examination of reactions to self-esteem threat. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15(1), 51–74.

Wang, Y., Kong, F., Huang, L. J., & Liu, J. (2016). Neural correlates of biased responses: The negative method effect in the rosenberg self-esteem scale is associated with right amygdala Volume. Journal of Personality, 84(5), 623–632.

Wang, Y., Zhang, L., Kong, X. Z., Hong, Y. Y., Cheon, B., & Liu, J. (2016). Pathway to neural resilience: Self-esteem buffers against deleterious effects of poverty on the hippocampus. Human Brain Mapping, 37, 3757–3766.

Yanagisawa, K., Abe, N., Kashima, E. S., & Nomura, M. (2016). Self-esteem modulates amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex connectivity in response to mortality threats. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(3), 273–283.

Yang, J., Dedovic, K., Chen, W. H., & Zhang, Q. L. (2012). Self-esteem modulates dorsal anterior cingulate cortical response in self-referential processing. Neuropsychologia, 50(7), 1267–1270.

Yang, J., Dedovic, K., Guan, L. L., Chen, Y., & Qi, M. M. (2014). Self-esteem modulates dorsal medial prefrontal cortical response to self-positivity bias in implicit self-relevant processing. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 1814–1818.

Yang, J., Guan, L. L., Dedovic, K., Qi, M. M., & Zhang, Q. L. (2012). The neural correlates of implicit self-relevant processing in low self-esteem: An ERP study. Brain Research, 1471, 75–80.

Yang, J., Qi, M. M., & Guan, L. L. (2014). Self-esteem modulates the latency of P2 component in implicit self- relevant processing. Biological Psychology, 97, 22–26.

Yang, J., Xu, X. F., Chen, Y., Shi, Z. H., & Han, S. H. (2016). Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self- evaluation and social feedback. Scientific Reports, 6, 20274.

Yang, J., Zhao, R. F., Zhang, Q. L., & Pruessner, J. C. (2013). Effects of self-esteem on electrophysiological correlates of easy and difficult math. Neurocase, 19(5), 470–477.

Zhang, H., Guan, L. L., Qi, M. M., & Yang, J. (2013). Self-esteem modulates the time course of self-positivity bias in explicit self-evaluation. PLoS One, 8(12), e81169.