DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00846

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:5 PP.846-856

The double-edged effect and mechanism of episodic future thinking on goal attainment

Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the psychological process of projecting oneself into thinking and experiencing future self-related episodes in advance. EFT affects goal attainment in a double-edged way: process simulation and the generation of negative thoughts or images would facilitate goal attainment, while experiencing positive thoughts or images about a desired future would have adverse effects. Motivation level and clarity of implementation intention may be crucial in determining whether the effect of EFT on goal attainment would be beneficial or not. Therefore, by promoting motivation and clarity of implementation intention, related interventions could be developed to turn the deleterious effect of EFT into a beneficial one. Future studies should explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms of effects of different types of EFT on goal attainment, and should discuss how factors such as goal features and personality moderate the effect of EFT on goal attainment.

Key words:episodic future thinking,goal attainment,beneficial,deleterious,motivation,implementation intentions,interventions

ReleaseDate:2017-05-31 14:49:42

郭永玉. (2016). 人格研究. 上海: 华东师范大学出版社.

胡小勇, 郭永玉. (2013). 执行意向对目标达成的促进及其作用过程. 心理科学进展, 21, 282–289.

李天然, 李晶, 俞国良. (2015). 自我抽离: 一种适应性的自我反省视角. 心理科学进展, 23, 1052–1060.

罗扬眉, 黄希庭, 李宝林, 张建人. (2013). 将来情节想象对事件发生主观可能性的影响. 西南大学学报: 社会科学版, 39, 79–85.

Pervin, L.-A. (2001). 人格科学 (周榕, 陈红, 杨炳均, 梁秀清 译). 上海: 华东师范大学出版社.

苏彦丽, 张进辅. (2008). 国外防御性悲观研究述评. 心理科学进展, 16, 745–752.

王彤, 李林, 袁祥勇, 黄希庭. (2016). 自我相关未来思考: 两种基本类型及其主要心理成分比较. 心理科学, 39, 593–599.

Anderson, C. A. (1983). Imagination and expectation: The effect of imagining behavioral scripts on personal influences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 293–305.

Armitage, C. J., & Reidy, J. G. (2008). Use of mental simulations to change theory of planned behaviour variables. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 513–524.

Aspinwall, L. G. (2005). The psychology of future-oriented thinking: From achievement to proactive coping, adaptation, and aging. Motivation and Emotion, 29, 203–235.

Atance, C. M., & O'Neill, D. K. (2001). Episodic future thinking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5, 533–539.

Bandura, A. (1989). Self-regulation of motivation and action through internal standards and goal systems. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Goal concepts in personality and social psychology (pp. 19–85). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bashir, N. Y., Wilson, A. E., Lockwood, P., Chasteen, A. L., & Alisat, S. (2014). The time for action is now: Subjective temporal proximity enhances pursuit of remote-future goals. Social Cognition, 32, 83–93.

Berntsen, D., & Jacobsen, A. S. (2008). Involuntary (spontaneous) mental time travel into the past and future. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1093–1104.

Bjørnebekk, G., & Gjesme, T. (2009). Motivation and temporal distance: Effect on cognitive and affective manifestations. Psychological Reports, 105, 339–360.

Brown, G. P., MacLeod, A. K., Tata, P., & Goddard, L. (2002). Worry and the simulation of future outcomes. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 15, 1–17.

Carroll, J. S. (1978). The effect of imagining an event on expectations for the event: An interpretation in terms of the availability heuristic. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 88–96.

Chan, C. K. Y., & Cameron, L. D. (2012). Promoting physical activity with goal-oriented mental imagery: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 347–363.

Cheema, A., & Bagchi, R. (2011). The effect of goal visualization on goal pursuit: Implications for consumers and managers. Journal of Marketing, 75, 109–123.

Christian, B. M., Miles, L. K., Kenyeri, S. T., Mattschey, J., & Macrae, C. N. (2016). Taming temptation: Visual perspective impacts consumption and willingness to pay for unhealthy foods. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22, 85–94.

Cole, S. N., & Berntsen, D. (2015). Do future thoughts reflect personal goals? Current concerns and mental time travel into the past and future. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 273–284.

Daniel, T. O., Said, M., Stanton, C. M., & Epstein, L. H. (2015). Episodic future thinking reduces delay discounting and energy intake in children. Eating Behaviors, 18, 20– 24.

D'Argembeau, A. (2015). Knolwedge structures involved in episodic future thinking. In A. Feeney & V. A. Thompson (Eds.), Reasoning as memory (pp. 128–145). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

D'Argembeau, A., & Mathy, A. (2011). Tracking the construction of episodic future thoughts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140, 258–271.

D'Argembeau, A., Renaud, O., & van der Linden, M. (2011). Frequency, characteristics and functions of future-oriented thoughts in daily life. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 96–103.

D'Argembeau, A., Stawarczyk, D., Majerus, S., Collette, F., van der Linden, M., Feyers, D., … Salmon, E. (2010). The neural basis of personal goal processing when envisioning future events. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 1701–1713.

D'Argembeau, A., & van der Linden, M. (2004). Phenomenal characteristics associated with projecting oneself back into the past and forward into the future: Influence of valence and temporal distance. Consciousness and Cognition, 13, 844–858.

Dörnyei, Z., Ibrahim, Z., & Muir, C. (2015). Directed motivational currents: Regulating complex dynamic systems through motivational surges. In Z. Dörnyei, P. D. MacIntyre & A. Henry (Eds.), Motivational dynamics in language learning (pp. 95–105). New York, USA: Multilingual Matters.

Eftekhari, E. (2015). Effects of self-distancing and mindfulness instructions on anxiety and approach motivation (Unpublished master's thesis). York University.

Escalas, J. E., & Luce, M. F. (2003). Process versus outcome thought-focus and advertising. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13, 246–254.

Escalas, J. E., & Luce, M. F. (2004). Understanding the effects of process-focused versus outcome-focused thought in response to advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 31, 274–285.

Fishbach, A., Dhar, R., & Zhang, Y. (2006). Subgoals as substitutes or complements: The role of goal accessibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 232– 242.

Gerlach, K. D., Spreng, R. N., Madore, K. P., & Schacter, D. L. (2014). Future planning: Default network activity couples with frontoparietal control network and reward- processing regions during process and outcome simulations. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 1942–1951.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1993). Goal achievement: The role of intentions. European Review of Social Psychology, 4, 141–185.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1996). The volitional benefits of planning. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 287–312). New York, USA: Guilford Press.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493– 503.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Brandstätter, V. (1997). Implementation intentions and effective goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 186–199.

Gollwitzer, P. M., Fujita, K., & Oettingen, G. (2004). Planning and the implementation of goals. In K. D. Vohs, & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 211–228). New York, USA: Guilford Press.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettiingen, G. (2015). Motivation and actions, psychology of. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (2nd ed., pp. 887–893). New York: Elsevier.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69–119.

Gregory, W. L., Cialdini, R. B., & Carpenter, K. M. (1982). Self-relevant scenarios as mediators of likelihood estimates and compliance: Does imagining make it so?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 89–99.

Greitemeyer, T., & Würz, D. (2006). Mental simulation and the achievement of health goals: The role of goal difficulty. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 25, 239–251.

Hassabis, D., Kumaran, D., Vann, S. D., & Maguire, E. A. (2007). Patients with hippocampal amnesia cannot imagine new experiences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 1726–1731.

Johnson, C. S., Smeesters, D., & Wheeler, S. C. (2012). Visual perspective influences the use of metacognitive information in temporal comparisons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 32–50.

Kappes, H. B., & Oettingen, G. (2011). Positive fantasies about idealized futures sap energy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 719–729.

Knäuper, B., Roseman, M., Johnson, P. J., & Krantz, L. H. (2009). Using mental imagery to enhance the effectiveness of implementation intentions. Current Psychology, 28, 181–186.

Koka, A. (2016, June). Effectiveness of a brief intervention using process-based mental simulations in promoting muscular strength in physical education. European Physical Education Review, doi: 10.1177/1356336X1­66­53086

Libby, L. K., & Eibach, R. P. (2011). Visual perspective in mental imagery: A representational tool that functions in judgment, emotion, and self-insight. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 185–245.

Libby, L. K., Shaeffer, E. M., Eibach, R. P., & Slemmer, J. A. (2007). Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science, 18, 199–203.

Liu, L., Feng, T. Y., Chen, J., & Li, H. (2013). The value of emotion: How does episodic prospection modulate delay discounting? PLoS One, 8, e81717.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 265–268.

Miles, L. K., Christian, B. M., Masilamani, N., Volpi, L., & Macrae, C. N. (2013). Not so close encounters of the third kind: Visual perspective and imagined social interaction. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, 558–565.

Miloyan, B., Pachana, N. A., & Suddendorf, T. (2014). The future is here: A review of foresight systems in anxiety and depression. Cognition & Emotion, 28, 795–810.

Oettingen, G. (2012). Future thought and behaviour change. European Review of Social Psychology, 23, 1–63.

Oettingen, G., & Kappes, A. (2009). Mental contrasting of the future and reality to master negative feedback. In K. D. Markman, W. M. P. Klein, & J. A. Suhr (Eds.), Handbook of imagination and mental stimulation (pp. 395–412). New York, USA: Psychology Press.

Oettingen, G., & Mayer, D. (2002). The motivating function of thinking about the future: Expectations versus fantasies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1198–1212.

Oettingen, G., & Wadden, T. A. (1991). Expectation, fantasy, and weight loss: Is the impact of positive thinking always positive?. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 15, 167–175.

O'Neill, J., Daniel, T. O., & Epstein, L. H. (2016). Episodic future thinking reduces eating in a food court. Eating Behaviors, 20, 9–13.

Peetz, J., Wilson, A. E., & Strahan, E. J. (2009). So far away: The role of subjective temporal distance to future goals in motivation and behavior. Social Cognition, 27, 475–495.

Pham, L. B., & Taylor, S. E. (1997). The effects of mental simulation on exam performance. Unpublished manuscript.

Pham, L. B., & Taylor, S. E. (1999). From thought to action: Effects of process-versus outcome-based mental simulations on performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 250–260.

Rennie, L., Uskul, A. K., Adams, C., & Appleton, K. (2014). Visualisation for increasing health intentions: Enhanced effects following a health message and when using a first-person perspective. Psychology & Health, 29, 237–252.

Rennie, L. J., Harris, P. R., & Webb, T. L. (2014). The impact of perspective in visualizing health-related behaviors: First-person perspective increases motivation to adopt health-related behaviors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44, 806–812.

Schacter, D. L. (2012). Adaptive constructive processes and the future of memory. The American Psychologist, 67, 603–613.

Showers, C. (1992). The motivational and emotional consequences of considering positive or negative possibilities for an upcoming event. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 474–484.

Spencer, S. M., & Norem, J. K. (1996). Reflection and distraction: Defensive pessimism, strategic optimism, and performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 354–365.

Spreng, R. N., Stevens, W. D., Chamberlain, J. P., Gilmore, A. W., & Schacter, D. L. (2010). Default network activity, coupled with the frontoparietal control network, supports goal-directed cognition. NeuroImage, 53, 303–317.

Stawarczyk, D., & D'Argembeau, A. (2015). Neural correlates of personal goal processing during episodic future thinking and mind-wandering: An ALE meta- analysis. Human Brain Mapping, 36, 2928–2947.

Sze, Y. Y., Daniel, T. O., Kilanowski, C. K., Collins, R. L., & Epstein, L. H. (2015). Web-based and mobile delivery of an episodic future thinking intervention for overweight and obese families: A feasibility study. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 3, e97.

Szpunar, K. K. (2010). Episodic future thought: An emerging concept. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 142– 162.

Szpunar, K. K., & Schacter, D. L. (2013). Get real: Effects of repeated simulation and emotion on the perceived plausibility of future experiences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 323–327.

Taylor, S. E. (2011). Envisioning the future and self- regulation. In M. Bar (Ed.), Predictions in the brain: Using our past to generate a future (pp. 134–143). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Taylor, S. E., & Pham L. B. (1996). Mental simulation, motivation, and action. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 219–235). New York, USA: Guilford Press.

Taylor, S. E., & Pham, L. B. (1999). The effect of mental simulation on goal-directed performance. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 18, 253–268.

Taylor, S. E., Pham, L. B., Rivkin, I. D., & Armor, D. A. (1998). Harnessing the imagination: Mental simulation, self-regulation, and coping. American Psychologist, 53, 429–439.

Taylor, S. E., & Schneider, S. K. (1989). Coping and the simulation of events. Social Cognition, 7, 174–194.

Uskul, A. K., & Kikutani, M. (2014). Concerns about losing face moderate the effect of visual perspective on health-related intentions and behaviors. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 201–209.

Vasquez, N. A., & Buehler, R. (2007). Seeing future success: Does imagery perspective influence achievement motivation?. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1392–1405.