doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00887

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:5 PP.887-902

Tight-loose culture: A new dimension of cross-cultural psychology


Abstract:
Tight-loose culture, a new dimension in empirical research in the field of cross-culture psychology, sheds some light on the interpretation of social norms and the tolerance of deviant behaviors in diverse cultures. This paper elaborates on the definition of tight-loose culture, its underlying causes as well as measurement method at the national, regional and individual level. This study finds out that tight-loose culture has been widely integrated into the research of self-consciousness, personality cultivation and mental state. It can also be applied to the study of judgment, decision-making and innovation. Besides, tight-loose culture has become an interdisciplinary research area that incorporates culture into cognitive neuroscience, biology (gene) and national safety (social harmony and terrorism). Taking the merits of relevant research perspectives into account, future research in this field (tight-loose culture) could orient the distinction of descriptive norms and injunctive norms.

Key words:tight-loose culture,cross-cultural psychology,social norms,cultural anthropology

ReleaseDate:2017-05-31 14:49:44



马欣然, 任孝鹏, 徐江. (2016). 中国人集体主义的南北方差异及其文化动力. 心理科学进展, 24, 1551–1555.

韦庆旺, 孙健敏. (2013). 对环保行为的心理学解读——规范焦点理论述评. 心理科学进展, 21, 751–760.

希罗多德. (1959). 历史 (王以铸 译). 北京: 商务印书馆.

薛婷, 陈浩, 赖凯声, 董颖红, 乐国安. (2015). 心理信息学: 网络信息时代下的心理学新发展. 心理科学进展, 23, 325–337.

乐国安. (1994). 越轨行为诱因辨析. 社会学研究, (5), 104–112.

张海钟, 姜永志, 赵文进, 安桂花, 张小龙, 胡志军, 张万里. (2012). 中国区域跨文化心理学理论探索与实证研究. 心理科学进展, 20, 1229–1236.

张积家. (2012). 加强民族心理学研究, 促进中国心理科学繁荣——民族心理学专栏前言. 心理科学进展, 20, 1139–1144.

Baumeister, R. F., & Heatherton, T. F. (1996). Self-regulation failure: An overview. Psychological Inquiry, 7, 1–15.

Benedict, R. (1934). Patterns of culture. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Boldt, E. D. (1978). Structural tightness and cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 9, 151–165.

Boldt, E. D., & Roberts, L. W. (1979). Structural tightness and social conformity: A methodological note with theoretical implications. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 10, 221–230.

Carpenter, S. (2000). Effects of cultural tightness and collectivism on self-concept and causal attributions. Cross-Cultural Research, 34, 38–56.

Chan, D. K. S., Gelfand, M. J., Triandis, H. C., & Tzeng, O. (1996). Tightness-looseness revisited: Some preliminary analyses in Japan and the United States. International Journal of Psychology, 31, 1–12.

Ching, C. M., Church, A. T., Katigbak, M. S., Locke, K. D., de Jesús Vargas-Flores, J., Ibáñez-Reyes, J., … Ortiz, F. A. (2013). Cross-cultural generalizability of the personality and role identity structural model (PRISM): Implications for trait and cultural psychology. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 894–907.

Chiu, C. Y., Gelfand, M. J., Yamagishi, T., Shteynberg, G., & Wan, C. (2010). Intersubjective culture: The role of intersubjective perceptions in cross-cultural research. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 482–493.

Chua, R. Y. J., Roth, Y., & Lemoine, J. F. (2015). The impact of culture on creativity: How cultural tightness and cultural distance affect global innovation crowdsourcing work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 60, 189–227.

Church, A. T., Alvarez, J. M., Katigbak, M. S., Mastor, K. A., Cabrera, H. F., Tanaka-Matsumi, J., ... Buchanan, A. L. (2012). Self-concept consistency and short-term stability in eight cultures. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 556–570.

Church, A. T., Katigbak, M. S., Locke, K. D., Zhang, H. S., Shen, J. L., de Jesús Vargas-Flores, J., ... Ching, C. M. (2013). Need satisfaction and well-being: Testing self-determination theory in eight cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 507–534.

Corral, M., & Arturo, J. (2015, July). Effectual decision- making explained through a perceived Loose Cultural Dimension in Potential Entrepreneurs. A case from the Netherlands. Paper presented at the 5th IBA Bachelor Thesis Conference, Enschede, The Netherlands.

de Wit, T. (2013). Tightness and uncertainty avoidance: The impact on new venture creation-The impact of culture on entrepreneurial processes (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Twente, Enschede.

Deetz, S. (2014, April). Cultural and national factors in nuclear safety. Paper presented at IAEA workshop on global safety culture: National factors relevant to safety culture, Vienna, Austria.

Embree, J. F. (1950). Thailand - a loosely structured social system. American Anthropologist, 52, 181–193.

Eom, K., & Kim, H. S. (2015). Intersubjective norms: Cultural and interpersonal perspective. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46, 1313–1316.

Feng, J. B., & Liu, L. A. (2016). How national cultures influence national rate of innovation. In K. Plangger (Ed.), Thriving in a new world economy (pp. 70–72). Springer International Publishing.

Fischer, R. (2013). Situational challenges: Putting biology, resources and multi-level constraints back into the picture. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 30–33.

Gelfand, M. J. (2012). Culture's constraints: International differences in the strength of social norms. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 420–424.

Gelfand, M. J., & Harrington, J. R. (2015). The motivational force of descriptive norms: For whom and when are descriptive norms most predictive of behavior? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46, 1273–1278.

Gelfand, M. J., Lafree, G., Fahey, S., & Feinberg, E. (2013). Culture and extremism. Journal of Social Issues, 69, 495–517.

Gelfand, M. J., Nishii, L. H., & Raver, J. L. (2006). On the nature and importance of cultural tightness-looseness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1225–1244.

Gelfand, M. J., Raver, J. L., Nishii, L., Leslie, L. M., Lun, J., Lim, B. C., ... Yamaguchi, S. (2011). Differences between tight and loose cultures: A 33-nation study. Science, 332, 1100–1104.

Guan, Y. J., Chen, S. X., Levin, N., Bond, M. H., Luo, N. F., Xu, J. W., ... Han, X. (2015). Differences in career decision-making profiles between American and Chinese university students: The relative strength of mediating mechanisms across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46, 856–872.

Han, H., Glover, G. H., & Jeong, C. (2014). Cultural influences on the neural correlate of moral decision making processes. Behavioural Brain Research, 259, 215–228.

Harrington, J. R., Boski, P., & Gelfand, M. J. (2015). Culture and national well-being: Should societies emphasize freedom or constraint? PLoS One, 10, e0127173.

Harrington, J. R., & Gelfand, M. J. (2014). Tightness– looseness across the 50 united states. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111, 7990–7995.

Higgins, E. T. (1998). Promotion and prevention: Regulatory focus as a motivational principle. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 1–46.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. London: Sage Publications.

House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. London: Sage Publications.

Hutter, M., & Pelto, P. J. (1972). The relationship of child rearing practices to societal "Tightness" and "Looseness". Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 3, 273–282.

Jiang, D., Li, T. Y., & Hamamura, T. (2015). Societies' tightness moderates age differences in perceived justifiability of morally debatable behaviors. European Journal of Ageing, 12, 333–340.

Katigbak, M. S., Church, A. T., Alvarez, J. M., Wang, C. C., de Jesús Vargas-Flores, J., Ibáñez-Reyes, J., ... Ortiz, F. A. (2013). Cross-observer agreement and self-concept consistency across cultures: Integrating trait and cultural psychology perspectives. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 78–89.

Katz, S. M., Casey, R., & Aiman-Smith, L. (2005). Optimizing ROI of time-to-market practices. Research-Technology Management, 48, 47–57.

Knutson, B., Westdorp, A., Kaiser, E., & Hommer, D. (2000). FMRI visualization of brain activity during a monetary incentive delay task. NeuroImage, 12, 20–27.

Li, C., Fock, H., & Mattila, A. S. (2012). The role of cultural tightness–looseness in the ethics of service recovery. Journal of Global Marketing, 25, 3–16.

Löckenhoff, C. E., Chan, W., McCrae, R. R., De Fruyt, F., Jussim, L., De Bolle, M., ... Terracciano, A. (2014). Gender stereotypes of personality: Universal and accurate? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 675–694.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.

Mead, M. (1937). Cooperation and competition among primitive peoples. New York, NJ: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Merriweather, K. A. (2014). College students' memory of the imposed social norm of their Texas high school: A replication of Gelfand's tightness-looseness study (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Texas, Austin.

Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2014). A replication of Hofstede's uncertainty avoidance dimension across nationally representative samples from Europe. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 14, 161–171.

Morris, M. W., Hong, Y. Y., Chiu, C. Y., & Liu, Z. (2015). Normology: Integrating insights about social norms to understand cultural dynamics. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 129, 1–13.

Mrazek, A. J., Chiao, J. Y., Blizinsky, K. D., Lun, J., & Gelfand, M. J. (2013). The role of culture–gene coevolution in morality judgment: Examining the interplay between tightness–looseness and allelic variation of the serotonin transporter gene. Culture and Brain, 1, 100–117.

Muthukrishna, M., & Henrich, J. (2016). Innovation in the collective brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371, 20150192.

Ng, B. W., Morris, J. P., & Oishi, S. (2013). Cultural neuroscience: The current state of affairs. Psychological Inquiry, 24, 53–57.

Norenzayan, A. (2011). Explaining human behavioral diversity. Science, 332, 1041–1042.

Oedewald, P., Gotcheva, N., Viitanen, K., & Wahlström, M. (2015). Safety culture and organisational resilience in the nuclear industry throughout the different phases. Finland: VTT Technology Research Center.

Oliver, S. C. (1965). Individuality, freedom of choice, and cultural flexibility of the Kamba. American Anthropologist, 67, 421–428.

Oyserman, D., Sorensen, N., Reber, R., & Chen, S. X. (2009). Connecting and separating mind-sets: Culture as situated cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 217–235.

Parks-Leduc, L., Feldman, G., & Bardi, A. (2014). Personality traits and personal values: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19, 3–29.

Pelto, P. J. (1968). The differences between “tight” and “loose” societies. Trans-action, 5, 37–40.

Peltokorpi, V., & Froese, F. (2014). Expatriate personality and cultural fit: The moderating role of host country context on job satisfaction. International Business Review, 23, 293–302.

Plaut, V. C., Markus, H. R., Treadway, J. R., & Fu, A. S. (2012). The cultural construction of self and well-being: A tale of two cities. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1644–1658.

Potts, G. F., George, M. R. M., Martin, L. E., & Barratt, E. S. (2006). Reduced punishment sensitivity in neural systems of behavior monitoring in impulsive individuals. Neuroscience Letters, 397, 130–134.

Roos, P., Gelfand, M., Nau, D., & Lun, J. (2015). Societal threat and cultural variation in the strength of social norms: An evolutionary basis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 129, 14–23.

Ryan, B. F., & Straus, M. A. (1954). The integration of Sinhalese society. Research Studies of the State College of Washington, 22, 179–227.

Sarasvathy, S. D. (2001). Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. The Academy of Management Review, 26, 243–263.

Schwartz, S. H. (2014). Rethinking the concept and measurement of societal culture in light of empirical findings. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 5–13.

Shteynberg, G., Gelfand, M. J., & Kim, K. (2009). Peering into the “magnum mysterium” of culture: The explanatory power of descriptive norms. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 46–69.

Singelis, T. M., Triandis, H. C., Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Gelfand, M. J. (1995). Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement. Cross-Cultural Research, 29, 240–275.

Sortheix, F. M., Olakivi, A., & Helkama, K. (2013). Values, life events, and health: A Study in a Finnish rural community. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 23, 331–346.

Stankov, L. (2013). Depression and life satisfaction among European and Confucian adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 25, 1220–1234.

Tam, K. P. (2015). Understanding intergenerational cultural transmission through the role of perceived norms. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46, 1260–1266.

Tang, X. J. (2013). Exploring on-line societal risk perception for harmonious society measurement. Journal of Systems Science and System Engineering, 22, 469–486.

Templer, K. J. (2012). Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction: The importance of agreeableness in a tight and collectivistic Asian society. Applied Psychology, 61, 114–129.

Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 96, 506–520.

Triandis, H. C. (2004). The many dimensions of culture. Academy of Management Executive, 18, 88–93.

Triandis, H. C. (2011). Culture and self-deception: A theoretical perspective. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39, 3–13.

Triandis, H. C. (2013). Toward understanding violence in Islam. Acta de Investigación Psicológica, 3, 969–985.

Unger, K., Heintz, S., & Kray, J. (2012). Punishment sensitivity modulates the processing of negative feedback but not error-induced learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 186.

Uz, I. (2015). The index of cultural tightness and looseness among 68 countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46, 319–335.

Wan, C., Chiu, C. Y., Tam, K. P., Lee, S. L., Lau, Y. M., & Peng, S. Q. (2007). Perceived cultural importance and actual self-importance of values in cultural identification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 337–354.

Yamagishi, T., Hashimoto, H., & Schug, J. (2008). Preferences versus strategies as explanations for culture-specific behavior. Psychological Science, 19, 579–584.