doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01012

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:6 PP.1012-1024

Self-uncertainty: Concepts,structures,and theories


Abstract:
Self-uncertainty, which is induced by confusion/suspicion of important regarding one's psychological characteristics, is defined as a feeling of inconsistency and discontinuity, when contradictions or conflicts arise among one's cognitions, experiences, and behaviors. This article summarizes the literature on self-uncertainty and proposes a conceptual model, suggesting that its structure is composed of three dimensions:cognitive, affective and motivational. This article then introduces and integrates related theories and models in terms of uncertainty management. Future research should a) clearly define the concept of self-uncertainty and focus on the cultural difference factor; b) test different uncertainty management strategies with multiple perspectives; c) explore the mechanisms of self-uncertainty inducement and management; and d) explore how best to instruct people to take precautions against self-uncertainty and its management, instead of passively accepting the experience.

Key words:self-uncertainty,self,meaning-making,self-actualization,cultural worldview defense

ReleaseDate:2017-08-07 10:18:55



郭金山, 车文博. (2004). 自我同一性与相关概念的辨析. 心理科学, 27, 1266-1267.

梁娟, 马红宇, 高记. (2013). 自我不确定感对程序公正效应的调节作用:回顾与展望. 心理科学进展, 21, 530-538.

杨国枢, 陆洛. (2009). 中国人的自我:心理学的分析. 重庆:重庆大学出版社.

杨慊, 程巍, 贺文洁, 韩布新, 杨昭宁. (2016). 追求意义能带来幸福吗. 心理科学进展, 24, 1496-1503.

殷融. (2010). 不确定感管理模型视角下的死亡凸显效应:争论与整合. 心理科学进展, 18, 1747-1755.

Bal, M., & van den Bos, K. (2012). Blaming for a better future:Future orientation and associated intolerance of personal uncertainty lead to harsher reactions toward innocent victims. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 835-844.

Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., Aaker, J. L., & Garbinsky, E. N. (2013). Some key differences between a happy life and a meaningful life. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8, 505-516.

Brown, J. D. (2004). The self. New York:McGraw-Hill. (Original work published 1998)

[布朗, J. D. (2004). 自我 (陈浩莺 译). 北京:人民邮电出版社.]

Buhr, K., & Dugas, M. J. (2002). The intolerance of uncertainty scale:Psychometric properties of the English version. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 931-945.

Butzer, B., & Kuiper, N. A. (2006). Relationships between the frequency of social comparisons and self-concept clarity, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety, and depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 167-176.

Campbell, J. D., Trapnell, P. D., Heine, S. J., Katz, I. M., Lavallee, L. F., & Lehman, D. R. (1996). Self-concept clarity:Measurement, personality correlates, and cultural boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 141-156.

Cohen, K., & Cairns, D. (2012). Is searching for meaning in life associated with reduced subjective well-being? Confirmation and possible moderators. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13, 313-331.

De Cremer, D., Brebels, L., & Sedikides, C. (2008). Being uncertain about what? Procedural fairness effects as a function of general uncertainty and belongingness uncertainty. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1520-1525.

Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA:Stanford University Press.

Fitts, W. H. (1965). Manual for the Tennessee self concept scale. Nashville, TN:Counselor Recordings and Tests.

Gawronski, B. (2012). Meaning, violation of meaning, and meaninglessness in meaning maintenance. Psychological Inquiry, 23, 346-349.

Grant, F., & Hogg, M. A. (2012). Self-uncertainty, social identity prominence and group identification. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 538-542.

Greco, V., & Roger, D. (2001). Coping with uncertainty:The construction and validation of a new measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 519-534.

Heine, S. J., Proulx, T., & Vohs, K. D. (2006). The meaning maintenance model:On the coherence of social motivations. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 88-110.

Hirsh, J. B., Mar, R. A., & Peterson, J. B. (2012). Psychological entropy:A framework for understanding uncertainty-related anxiety. Psychological Review, 119, 304-320.

Hogg, M. A. (2004). Uncertainty and extremism:Identification with high entitativity groups under conditions of uncertainty. In V. Yzerbyt, C. M. Judd, & O. Corneille (Eds.), The psychology of group perception:Perceived variability, entitativity, and essentialism (pp. 401-418). New York:Psychology Press.

Hogg, M. A. (2007). Uncertainty-identity theory. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (vol. 39, pp. 69-126). San Diego, CA:Academic Press.

Hogg, M. A. (2009). Managing self-uncertainty through group identification. Psychological Inquiry, 20, 221-224.

Hogg, M. A. (2014). From uncertainty to extremism:Social categorization and identity processes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 338-342.

Hogg, M. A., & Adelman, J. (2013). Uncertainty-identity theory:Extreme groups, radical behavior, and authoritarian leadership. Journal of Social Issues, 69, 436-454.

Hogg, M. A., Kruglanski, A., & van den Bos, K. (2013). Uncertainty and the roots of extremism. Journal of Social Issues, 69, 407-418.

Hogg, M. A., Meehan, C., & Farquharson, J. (2010). The solace of radicalism:Self-uncertainty and group identification in the face of threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 1061-1066.

Hogg, M. A., Sherman, D. K., Dierselhuis, J., Maitner, A. T., & Moffitt, G. (2007). Uncertainty, entitativity, and group identification. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 135-142.

Hohman, Z. P., & Hogg, M. A. (2011). Fear and uncertainty in the face of death:The role of life after death in group identification. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 751-760.

Hohman, Z. P., & Hogg, M. A. (2015). Fearing the uncertain:Self-uncertainty plays a role in mortality salience. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 57, 31-42.

Inzlicht, M., McGregor, I., Hirsh, J. B., & Nash, K. (2009). Neural markers of religious conviction. Psychological Science, 20, 385-392.

James, W. (1950). The principles of psychology. New York:Dover. (Original work published 1890)

Kagan, J. (1972). Motives and development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22, 51-66.

Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. (Eds.). (2013). Judgment under uncertainty:Heuristics and biases. New York:Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1982)

[卡尼曼, D., 斯洛维奇, P., 特沃斯基, A. (2013). 不确定状况下的判断:启发式和偏差 (方文, 吴新利, 张擘译). 北京:中国人民大学出版社.]

Kierkegaard, S. (1997). The sickness unto death. In H. V. Hong & E. Hong (Eds.), The essential Kierkegaard (pp. 350-372). Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1848)

Kruglanski, A. W. (2004). The psychology of closed mindedness. New York:Psychology Press.

Linville, P. W. (1987). Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress-related illness and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 663-676.

Maslow, A. H. (1987). Motivation and personality (3rd ed.). New York:Harper & Row.

McGregor, I., & Marigold, D. C. (2003). Defensive zeal and the uncertain self:What makes you so sure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 838-852.

McGregor, I., Nash, K. A., & Inzlicht, M. (2009). Threat, high self-esteem, and reactive approach-motivation:Electroencephalographic evidence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1003-1007.

McGregor, I., Nash, K., Mann, N., & Phills, C. E. (2010). Anxious uncertainty and reactive approach motivation (RAM). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 133-147.

McGregor, I., Prentice, M. S., & Nash, K. A. (2009). Personal uncertainty management by reactive approach motivation. Psychological Inquiry, 20, 225-229.

McGregor, I., Zanna, M. P., Holmes, J. G., & Spencer, S. J. (2001). Compensatory conviction in the face of personal uncertainty:Going to extremes and being oneself. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 472-488.

Mullin, B.-A., & Hogg, M. A. (1998). Dimensions of subjective uncertainty in social identification and minimal intergroup discrimination. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 345-365.

Nash, K., Prentice, M., Hirsh, J., McGregor, I., & Inzlicht, M. (2014). Muted neural response to distress among securely attached people. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 1239-1245.

Piaget, J. (1960). The child's conception of the world. London:Routledge.

Proulx, T., & Heine, S. J. (2010). The Frog in Kierkegaard's Beer:Finding Meaning in the Threat-Compensation Literature. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 889-905.

Proulx, T., & Inzlicht, M. (2012). The five "A" s of meaning maintenance:Finding meaning in the theories of sense-making. Psychological Inquiry, 23, 317-335.

Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., & Greenberg, J. (2015). Chapter one-thirty years of terror management theory:From genesis to revelation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 52, 1-70.

Randles, D., Inzlicht, M., Proulx, T., Tullett, A. M., & Heine, S. J. (2015). Is dissonance reduction a special case of fluid compensation? Evidence that dissonant cognitions cause compensatory affirmation and abstraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108, 697-710.

Rast Ⅲ, D. E., Gaffney, A. M., Hogg, M. A., & Crisp, R. J. (2012). Leadership under uncertainty:When leaders who are non-prototypical group members can gain support. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 646-653.

Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology:A study of a science. Vol. 3:Formulations of the person and the social context. New York:McGraw Hill.

Schumann, K., McGregor, I., Nash, K. A., & Ross, M. (2014). Religious magnanimity:Reminding people of their religious belief system reduces hostility after threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 432-453.

Seligman, M. E. P. (2012). Flourish:A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York:Simon and Schuster.

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Positive psychology:An introduction. In M. Csikszentmihalyi (Ed.), Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 279-298). Netherlands:Springer.

Sorrentino, R. M., Szeto, A. C. H., Chen, X. Y., & Wang, Z. Y. (2013). Uncertainty regulation across cultures:An exploration of individual differences in Chinese and Canadian children in the classroom. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 378-382.

Sorrentino, R. M., Ye, Y., & Szeto, A. C. H. (2009). Uncertainty management:To fear of not to fear. Psychological Inquiry, 20, 240-244.

Steger, M. F. (2012). Making meaning in life. Psychological Inquiry, 23, 381-385.

van den Bos, K. (2001). Uncertainty management:The influence of uncertainty salience on reactions to perceived procedural fairness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 931-941.

van den Bos, K. (2009). Making sense of life:The existential self trying to deal with personal uncertainty. Psychological Inquiry, 20, 197-217.

van den Bos, K., Euwema, M. C., Poortvliet, P. M., & Maas, M. (2007). Uncertainty management and social issues:Uncertainty as an important determinant of reactions to socially deviating people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 1726-1756.

van den Bos, K., & Lind, E. A. (2002). Uncertainty management by means of fairness judgments. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (vol. 34, pp. 1-60). San Diego, CA:Academic Press.

van den Bos, K., McGregor, I., & Martin, L. L. (2015). Security and uncertainty in contemporary delayed-return cultures:Coping with the blockage of personal goals. In P. J. Carroll, R. M. Arkin, & D. A. L. Wichman (Eds.), Handbook of Personal Security. New York:Psychology Press.

van den Bos, K., van Ameijde, J., & van Gorp, H. (2006). On the psychology of religion:The role of personal uncertainty in religious worldview defense. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 28, 333-341.

Webster, D. M., & Kruglanski, A. W. (1994). Individual differences in need for cognitive closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1049-1062.

Wichman, A. L., Brunner, R. P., & Weary, G. (2014). Uncertainty threat and inhibition of compensatory behaviors:A goal conflict management perspective. Self and Identity, 13, 178-196.

Yang, Q., Ybarra, O., Zhao, Y. F., Cao, Y. F., & Huang, X. T. (Under review). Self-uncertainty improves high but not low self-esteem related performances:Mediating role of performance monitoring.

Yang, Q., Zhao, Y. F., Huang, X. T., & Ybarra, O. (Under review). Restoring meaning:Self-uncertainty salience increases subjective distance between the past and present self.