DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01058

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:6 PP.1058-1068

Collective guilt: Definition,psychological mechanisms,action tendency and interventions

When an important ingroup is considered responsible for immorality harm toward outgroup, individuals can experience collective guilt. This kind of emotion can result from past harmful events, current intergroup conflicts, unfair social relations and future harmful events. Group identity, ingroup responsibility and behavior illegitimacy are three key antecedents of collective guilt. Collective guilt could cause members of perpetrator group to perform positive behaviors toward the victimized group, such as friendly attitudes, reconciliations, compensations and intergroup supports. Methods for inducing collective guilt include group affirmation, self affirmation, promoting common identity, highlighting ingroup responsibility, showing existing compensation actions and so on. Future research should clarify genetic mechanism of collective guilt and further explore the complex relationship between collective guilt and reparation.

Key words:collective guilt,group identity,group affirmation,group-based emotions

ReleaseDate:2017-08-07 10:18:57

艾娟. (2016). 扩展群际接触:观点、机制与展望. 心理科学进展, 24, 836-843.

石伟, 闫现洋, 刘杰. (2011). 对不公正历史事件的情绪反应——群体内疚. 心理科学进展, 19, 224-232.

张琨, 方平, 姜媛, 于悦, 欧阳恒磊. (2014). 道德视野下的内疚. 心理科学进展, 22, 1628-1636.

Bahns, A. J., & Branscombe, N. R. (2011). Effects of legitimizing discrimination against homosexuals on gay bashing. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 388-396.

Blackwood, L. M., & Louis, W. R. (2012). If it matters for the group then it matters to me:Collective action outcomes for seasoned activists. British Journal of Social Psychology, 51, 72-92.

Caouette, J., Wohl, M. J. A., & Peetz, J. (2012). The future weighs heavier than the past:Collective guilt, perceived control and the influence of time. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 363-371.

Castano, E., & Giner-Sorolla, R. (2006). Not quite human:Infrahumanization in response to collective responsibility for intergroup killing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 804-818.

Čehajić-Clancy, S., Effron, D. A., Halperin, E., Liberman, V., & Ross, L. D. (2011). Affirmation, acknowledgment of in-group responsibility, group-based guilt, and support for reparative measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 256-270.

Dumont, K., & Waldzus, S. (2014). Group-based guilt and reparation in the context of social change. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44, 331-341.

Ferguson, M. A., & Branscombe, N. R. (2010). Collective guilt mediates the effect of beliefs about global warming on willingness to engage in mitigation behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 135-142.

Ferguson, M. A., & Branscombe, N. R. (2014). The social psychology of collective guilt. In C. von Scheve & M. Salmela (Eds.), Collective emotions (pp. 251-265). Oxford, England:Oxford University Press.

Figueiredo, A. M., Doosje, B., & Valentim, J. P. (2015). Group-based compunction and anger:Their antecedents and consequences in relation to colonial conflicts. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 9, 91-105.

Figueiredo, A. M., Doosje, B., Valentim, J. P., & Zebel, S. (2010). Dealing with past colonial conflicts:How perceived characteristics of the victimized outgroup can influence the experience of group-based guilt. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 4, 89-105.

Figueiredo, A. M., Valenti, J. P., & Doosje, B.(2015). Too long to compensate? Time perceptions, emotions, and compensation for colonial conflicts. Peace and Conflict:Journal of Peace Psychology, 21, 500-504.

Figueiredo, A. M., Valentim, J. P., & Doosje, B. (2011). A shared past and a common future:The portuguese colonial war and the dynamics of group-based guilt. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14, 163-171.

Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2012). Reducing intergroup bias:The common ingroup identity model. In P. A. M. van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (pp. 439-457). Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage.

Gausel, N. (2012). Facing in-group immorality:Differentiating expressed shame from expressed guilt. Review of European Studies, 4, doi:10.5539/res.v4n4p1.

Gunn, G. R., & Wilson, A. E. (2011). Acknowledging the skeletons in our closet:The effect of group affirmation on collective guilt, collective shame, and reparatory attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1474-1487.

Harth, N. S., Kessler, T., & Leach, C. W. (2008). Advantaged group's emotional reactions to intergroup inequality:The dynamics of pride, guilt, and sympathy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 115-129.

Harth, N. S., Leach, C. W., & Kessler, T. (2013). Guilt, anger, and pride about in-group environmental behaviour:Different emotions predict distinct intentions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 34, 18-26.

Hogg, M. A. (2000). Subjective uncertainty reduction through self-categorization:A motivational theory of social identity processes. European Review of Social Psychology, 11, 223-255.

Howell, A. J., Turowski, J. B., & Buro, K. (2012). Guilt, empathy, and apology. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 917-922.

Iyer, A., Schmader, T., & Lickel, B. (2007). Why individuals protest the perceived transgressions of their country:The role of anger, shame, and guilt. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 572-587.

Jelić, M., Biruski, D. C., & Ajduković, D. (2013). Predictors of collective guilt after the violent conflict. Collegium Antropologicum, 37, 1-10.

Kahn, D. T., Liberman, V., Halperin, E., & Ross, L. (2016). Intergroup sentiments, political identity, and their influence on responses to potentially ameliorative proposals in the context of an intractable conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 60, 61-88.

Klein, O., Licata, L., & Pierucci, S. (2011). Does group identification facilitate or prevent collective guilt about past misdeeds? Resolving the paradox. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 563-572.

Lastrego, S., & Licata, L. (2010). "Should a country's leaders apologize for its past misdeeds?" An analysis of the effects of both public apologies from a Belgian official and perception of Congolese victims' continued suffering on Belgians' representations of colonial action, support for reparation, and attitudes towards the Congolese. Revista de Psicología Social, 25, 61-72.

Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York, USA:Oxford University Press.

Leach, C. W., Iyer, A., & Pedersen, A. (2006). Anger and guilt about ingroup advantage explain the willingness for political action. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1232-1245.

Leonard, M. A., Yung, S. M., & Cairns, E.(2015). Predicting intergroup forgiveness from in-group identification and collective guilt in adolescent and adult affiliates of a northern irish cross-community organization. Peace and Conflict:Journal of Peace Psychology, 21, 155-167.

Mashuri, A., & Zaduqisti, E. (2014). National identification and collective emotions as predictors of pro-social attitudes toward islamic minority groups in indonesia. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 10, 255-276.

Miron, A. M., Branscombe, N. R., & Biernat, M. (2010). Motivated shifting of justice standards. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 768-779.

Myers, E., Hewstone, M., & Cairns, E. (2009). Impact of conflict on mental health in Northern Ireland:The mediating role of intergroup forgiveness and collective guilt. Political Psychology, 30, 269-290.

Paladino, M. P., Zaniboni, S., Fasoli, F., Vaes, J., & Volpato, C. (2014). Why did Italians protest against Berlusconi's sexist behaviour? The role of sexist beliefs and emotional reactions in explaining women and men's pathways to protest. British Journal of Social Psychology, 53, 201-216.

Peetz, J., Gunn, G. R., & Wilson, A. E. (2010). Crimes of the past:Defensive temporal distancing in the face of past in-group wrongdoing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 598-611.

Penic, S., Elcheroth, G., & Spini, D. (2016). When is collective exposure to war events related to more acceptance of collective guilt? Journal of Conflict Resolution, in press.

Pensini, P. M., & Caltabiano, N. J. (2012). Collective guilt and attitudes toward recycling:Data from a north queensland sample. Journal of Tropical Psychology, 2, 1-7.

Pivetti, M., Camodeca, M., & Rapino, M. (2016). Shame, guilt, and anger:Their cognitive, physiological, and behavioral correlates. Current Psychology, 35, 690-699.

Roccas, S., Klar, Y., & Liviatan, I. (2006). The paradox of group-based guilt:Modes of national identification, conflict vehemence, and reactions to the in-group's moral violations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 698-711.

Rotella, K. N., & Richeson, J. A. (2013). Motivated to "Forget":The effects of in-group wrongdoing on memory and collective guilt. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 730-737.

Saguy, T., Chernyak-Hai, L., Andrighetto, L., & Bryson, J. (2013). When the powerful feels wronged:The legitimization effects of advantaged group members' sense of being accused for harboring racial or ethnic biases. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 292-298.

Schori-Eyal, N., Tagar, M. R., Saguy, T., & Halperin, E. (2015). The benefits of group-based pride:Pride can motivate guilt in intergroup conflicts among high glorifiers. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 61, 79-83.

Sharvit, K., Brambilla, M., Babush, M., & Colucci, F. P. (2015). To feel or not to feel when my group harms others? The regulation of collective guilt as motivated reasoning. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41, 1223-1235.

Shepherd, L., Spears, R., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2013). ‘This will bring shame on our nation’:The role of anticipated group-based emotions on collective action. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 42-57.

Smith, E. R. (1993). Social identity and social emotions:Toward new conceptualizations of prejudice. In D. M. Mackie & D. L. Hamilton (Eds.), Affect, cognition and stereotyping:Interactive processes in group perception (pp. 297-315). San Diego, CA:Academic Press.

Smith, E. R., Seger, C. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Can emotions be truly group level? Evidence regarding four conceptual criteria. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 431-446.

Solak, N., Reifen Tagar, M., Cohen-Chen, S., Saguy, T., & Halperin, E. (2016). Disappointment expression evokes collective guilt and collective action in intergroup conflict:The moderating role of legitimacy perceptions. Cognition and Emotion, in press.

Solomatina, I., & Austers, I. (2014). Collective guilt makes conflicting parties more collaborative:Quasi-experimental study of the israeli-palestinian conflict. Psychology Research, 4, 271-284.

Stewart, T. L., Latu, I. M., Branscombe, N. R., & Denney, H. T. (2010). Yes we can:Prejudice reduction through seeing (inequality) and believing (in social change). Psychological Science, 21, 1557-1562.

Sullivan, D., Landau, M. J., Branscombe, N. R., & Rothschild, Z. K. (2012). Competitive victimhood as a response to accusations of ingroup harm doing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 778-795.

Sullivan, D., Landau, M. J., Branscombe, N. R., Rothschild, Z. K., & Cronin, T. J. (2013). Self-harm focus leads to greater collective guilt:The case of the U.S.-Iraq conflict. Political Psychology, 34, 573-587.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33-48). Monterey, CA:Brooks/Cole.

Wohl, M. J. A., & Branscombe, N. R. (2008). Remembering historical victimization:Collective guilt for current ingroup transgressions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 988-1006.

Wohl, M. J. A., Matheson, K., Branscombe, N. R., & Anisman, H. (2013). Victim and perpetrator groups' responses to the Canadian Government's apology for the Head Tax on Chinese Immigrants and the moderating influence of collective guilt. Political Psychology, 34, 713-729.

Zebel, S., Zimmermann, A., Viki, G. T., & Doosje, B. (2008). Dehumanization and guilt as distinct but related predictors of support for reparation policies. Political Psychology, 29, 193-219.