DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01360

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:8 PP.1360-1374

Nature connectedness:It's concept, measurement, function and intervention

Nature connectedness is an individual difference of people's sense of connection with nature, including nature perspectives, affection and experience. The measuring approaches include self-reported scales and Implicit Association Test. Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that engagement with nature can restore mental fatigue, improve cognitive performance, relieve physical and mental symptoms, enhance well-being, and increase prosociality. Researchers have developed series of interventions to boost nature connectedness. The future directions should further investigate its concept, methodology, conditions of positive effect, cultural variables and so on.

Key words:nature connectedness,measurement,restorativeness,well-being

ReleaseDate:2017-08-31 10:17:34

陈聪, 赖颖慧, 吴建平. (2011). 不同环境下有意注意恢复及反思的复愈性. 中国心理卫生杂志, 25, 681-685.

李娜, 吴建平. (2016). 自然联结对大学生主观幸福感的影响:正念的中介作用. 心理技术与应用, 4, 273-277, 283.

刘贤伟, 吴建平. (2012). 环境关心量表的信效度研究及应用. 中国健康心理学杂志, 20, 1006-1009.

蒙培元. (2003). 关于中国哲学生态观的几个问题. 中国哲学史, (4), 5-11.

苏谦, 辛自强. (2010). 恢复性环境研究:理论、方法与进展. 心理科学进展, 18, 177-184.

吴建平. (2013). "生态自我"理论探析. 新疆师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版), 34, 13-19.

吴建平, 訾非, 刘贤伟, 王广新, 杨智辉, 李明…李秋玲. (2012). 新生态范式的测量:NEP量表在中国的修订及应用. 北京林业大学学报(社会科学版), 11, 8-13.

赵欢, 吴建平. (2010). 复愈性环境的理论与评估研究. 中国健康心理学杂志, 18, 117-121.

周文君. (2013). 自然关联性与环境行为关系的研究(硕士学位论文). 南京大学.

Álvarez-García, O., Sureda-Negre, J., & Comas-Forgas, R. (2015). Environmental education in pre-service teacher training:A literature review of existing evidence. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 17, 72-85.

Alvarsson, J. J., Wiens, S., & Nilsson, M. E. (2010). Stress recovery during exposure to nature sound and environmental noise. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7, 1036-1046.

Aron, A., Aron, E. N., Tudor, M., & Nelson, G. (1991). Close relationships as including other in the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 241-253.

Atchley, R. A., Strayer, D. L., & Atchley, P. (2012). Creativity in the wild:Improving creative reasoning through immersion in natural settings. PLos One, 7, e51474.

Balmford, A., & Cowling, R. M. (2006). Fusion or failure? The future of conservation biology. Conservation Biology, 20, 692-695.

Barbaro, N., & Pickett, S. M. (2016). Mindfully green:Examining the effect of connectedness to nature on the relationship between mindfulness and engagement in pro-environmental behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 93, 137-142.

Barlett, P. F. (2008). Reason and reenchantment in cultural change:Sustainability in higher education. Current Anthropology, 49, 1077-1098.

Benfield, J. A., Derrick Taff, B., Newman, P., & Smyth, J. (2014). Natural sound facilitates mood recovery. Ecopsychology, 6, 183-188.

Berman, M. G., Jonides, J., & Kaplan, S. (2008). The cognitive benefits of interacting with nature. Psychological Science, 19, 1207-1212.

Berman, M. G., Kross, E., Krpan, K. M., Askren, M. K., Burson, A., Deldin, P. J., … Jonides, J. (2012). Interacting with nature improves cognition and affect for individuals with depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 140, 300-305.

Berry, M. S., Sweeney, M. M., Morath, J., Odum, A. L., & Jordan, K. E. (2014). The nature of impulsivity:Visual exposure to natural environments decreases impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task. PLoS One, 9, e97915.

Berto, R. (2005). Exposure to restorative environments helps restore attentional capacity. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 249-259.

Bragg, E. A. (1996). Towards ecological self:Deep ecology meets constructionist self-theory. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 93-108.

Bratman, G. N., Hamilton, J. P., & Daily, G. C. (2012). The impacts of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1249, 118-136.

Bratman, G. N., Hamilton, J. P., Hahn, K. S., Daily, G. C., & Gross, J. J. (2015). Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal cortex activation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, 8567-7572.

Brügger, A., Kaiser, F. G., & Roczen, N. (2011). One for all? Connectedness to nature, inclusion of nature, environmental identity, and implicit association with nature. European Psychologist, 16, 324-333.

Burns, G. W. (1999). Nature-guided therapy:A case example of ecopsychology in clinical practice. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 3, 9-14.

Capaldi, C. A., Dopko, R. L., & Zelenski, J. M. (2014). The relationship between nature connectedness and happiness:A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 976.

Capaldi, C. A., Passmore, H. A., Nisbet, E. K., Zelenski, J. M., & Dopko, R. L. (2015). Flourishing in nature:A review of the benefits of connecting with nature and its application as a wellbeing intervention. International Journal of Wellbeing, 5, 1-16.

Clatworthy, J., Hinds, J., & Camic, P. M. (2013). Gardening as a mental health intervention:A review. Mental Health Review Journal, 18, 214-225

Clayton, S. (2003). Environmental identity:A conceptual and an operational definition. In S. Clayton & S. Opotow (Eds.), Identity and the natural environment:The psychological significance of nature (pp. 45-65). Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.

Clements, R. (2004). An investigation of the status of outdoor play. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 5, 68-80.

Daniel, J. B., & James, T. N. (2013). A meta-analysis of adventure therapy outcomes and moderators. The Open Psychology Journal, 6, 28-53.

Davis, J. L., Green, J. D., & Reed, A. (2009). Interdependence with the environment:Commitment, interconnectedness, and environmental behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 173-180.

Dutcher, D. D., Finley, J. C., Luloff, A. E., & Johnson, J. B. (2007). Connectivity with nature as a measure of environmental values. Environment and Behavior, 39, 474-493.

Dye, C. (2008). Health and urban living. Science, 319, 766-769.

Erdogan, M. (2015). The effect of summer environmental education program (SEEP) on elementary school students' environmental literacy. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 10, 165-181.

Evans, G. W., & McCoy, J. M. (1998). When buildings don't work:The role of architecture in human health. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 85-94.

Geng, L. N., Xu, J. K., Ye, L. J., Zhou, W. J., & Zhou, K. X. (2015). Connections with nature and environmental behaviors. PLoS One, 10, e0127247.

Hartig, T., Evans, G. W., Jamner, L. D., Davis, D. S., & Gärling, T. (2003). Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 109-123.

Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 61-135.

Holden, L. J., & Mercer, T. (2014). Nature in the learning environment:Exploring the relationship between nature, memory, and mood. Ecopsychology, 6, 234-240.

Howell, A. J., Dopko, R. L., Passmore, H. A., & Buro, K. (2011). Nature connectedness:Associations with well-being and mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 166-171.

Howell, A. J., Passmore, H. A., & Buro, K. (2013). Meaning in nature:Meaning in life as a mediator of the relationship between nature connectedness and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 1681-1696.

Ingulli, K., & Lindbloom, G. (2013). Connection to nature and psychological resilience. Ecopsychology, 5, 52-55.

Jiang, B., Chang, C. Y., & Sullivan, W. C. (2014). A dose of nature:Tree cover, stress reduction, and gender differences. Landscape and Urban Planning, 132, 26-36.

Joye, Y., & Bolderdijk, J. W. (2014). An exploratory study into the effects of extraordinary nature on emotions, mood, and prosociality. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1577.

Kals, E., Schumacher, D., & Montada, L. (1999). Emotional affinity toward nature as a motivational basis to protect nature. Environment and Behavior, 31, 178-202.

Kaplan, S. (1995). The restorative benefits of nature:Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 169-182.

Kaplan, S. (2001). Meditation, restoration, and the management of mental fatigue. Environment and Behavior, 33, 480-506.

Kellert, S. R. (1997). Kinship to mastery:Biophilia in human evolution and development. Washington, DC:Island Press.

Kellert, S. R., & Wilson, E. O. (1993). The biophilia hypothesis. Washington, DC:Island Press.

Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap:Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research, 8, 239-260.

Koole, S. L., & van den Berg, A. E. (2005). Lost in the wilderness:Terror management, action orientation, and nature evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 1014-1028.

Kossack, A., & Bogner, F. X. (2012). How does a one-day environmental education programme support individual connectedness with nature? Journal of Biological Education, 46, 180-187.

Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C. (2001). Environment and crime in the inner city:Does vegetation reduce crime? Environment and Behavior, 33, 343-367.

Kuo, F. E., & Taylor, A. F. (2004). A potential natural treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder:Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 1580-1586.

Leong, L. Y. C., Fischer, R., & McClure, J. (2014). Are nature lovers more innovative? The relationship between connectedness with nature and cognitive styles. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40, 57-63.

Liefländer, A. K., Fröhlich, G., Bogner, F. X., & Schultz, P. W. (2013). Promoting connectedness with nature through environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 19, 370-384.

Martyn, P., & Brymer, E. (2016). The relationship between nature relatedness and anxiety. Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 1436-1445.

Mayer, F. S., & Frantz, C. M. (2004). The connectedness to nature scale:A measure of individuals' feeling in community with nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 503-515.

Mayer, F. S., Frantz, C. M., Bruehlman-Senecal, E., & Dolliver, K. (2009). Why is nature beneficial? The role of connectedness to nature. Environment and Behavior, 41, 607-643.

McClean, C. (2015). Forest schools:When every day is a field trip day. Today's Parent.

Mood Walks (2015). Mood Walks for older adults:An Ontario pilot project.

Naess, A. (1985). Identification as a source of deep ecological attitudes. In M. Tobias (Ed.), Deep ecology. San Diego:Avant Books.

Newell, P. B. (1997). A cross-cultural examination of favorite places. Environment and Behavior, 29, 495-514.

Nisbet, E. K. (2014). Canadians connect with nature and increase their well-being:Results of the 2014 David Suzuki foundation 30x30 nature challenge.

Nisbet, E. K., & Zelenski, J. M. (2011). Underestimating nearby nature:Affective forecasting errors obscure the happy path to sustainability. Psychological Science, 22, 1101-1106.

Nisbet, E. K., & Zelenski, J. M. (2013). The NR-6:A new brief measure of nature relatedness. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 813.

Nisbet, E. K., Zelenski, J. M., & Murphy, S. A. (2009). The nature relatedness scale:Linking individuals' connection with nature to environmental concern and behavior. Environment and Behavior, 41, 715-740.

Nisbet, E. K., Zelenski, J. M., & Murphy, S. A. (2011). Happiness is in our nature:Exploring nature relatedness as a contributor to subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 303-322.

O'Brien, L., & Murray, R. (2007). Forest School and its impacts on young children:Case studies in Britain. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 6, 249-265.

Passmore, H. A., & Howell, A. J. (2014). Nature involvement increases hedonic and eudaimonic well-being:a two-week experimental study. Ecopsychology, 6, 148-154.

Passmore, H. A., & Holder, M. D. (in press). Noticing nature:Individual and social benefits of a two-week intervention. The Journal of Positive Psychology, doi:10.1080/17439760.2016.1221126.

Perkins, H. E. (2010). Measuring love and care for nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 455-463.

Perrin, J. L., & Benassi, V. A. (2009). The connectedness to nature scale:A measure of emotional connection to nature? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 434-440.

Poon, K. T., Teng, F., Wong, W. Y., & Chen, Z. S. (2016). When nature heals:Nature exposure moderates the relationship between ostracism and aggression. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 48, 159-168.

Purcell, T., Peron, E., & Berto, R. (2001). Why do preferences differ between scene types? Environment and Behavior, 33, 93-106.

Raymond, C. M., Brown G., & Weber, D. (2010). The measurement of place attachment:Personal, community, and environmental connections. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 422-434.

Saunders, C. D. (2003). The emerging field of conservation psychology. Human Ecology Review, 10, 137-149.

Schultz, P. W. (2001). Assessing the structure of environmental concern:Concern for self, other people, and the biosphere. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 327-339.

Schultz, P. W. (2002). Inclusion with nature:The psychology of human-nature relations. In P. Schmuck & W. P. Schultz (Eds.), Psychology of sustainable development (pp. 61-78). New York:Springer.

Schultz, P. W., Shriver, C., Tabanico, J. J., & Khazian, A. M. (2004). Implicit connections with nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 31-42.

Schultz, P. W., & Tabanico, J. (2007). Self, identity, and the natural environment:Exploring implicit connections with nature. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 1219-1247.

Tam, K. P. (2013a). Concepts and measures related to connection to nature:Similarities and differences. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 34, 64-78.

Tam, K. P. (2013b). Dispositional empathy with nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 35, 92-104.

Tam, K. P., Lee, S. L., & Chao, M. M. (2013). Saving Mr. nature:Anthropomorphism enhances connectedness to and protectiveness toward nature. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 514-521.

Taylor, A. F., Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C. (2002). Views of nature and self-discipline:Evidence from inner city children. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22, 49-63.

The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. (2015). Fact sheet:Launching the every kid in a park initiative and designating new national monuments[Press Release].

Thompson, C. W., Roe, J., Aspinall, P., Mitchell, R., Clow, A., & Miller, D. (2012). More green space is linked to less stress in deprived communities:Evidence from salivary cortisol patterns. Landscape and Urban Planning, 105, 221-229.

Tidball, K. G. (2012). Urgent biophilia:Human-nature interactions and biological attractions in disaster resilience. Ecology and Society, 17, 5.

Tsunetsugu, Y., Park, B. J., & Miyazaki, Y. (2010). Trends in research related to "Shinrin-yoku" (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing) in Japan. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 15, 27-37.

Ulrich, R. S., Simons, R. F., Losito, B. D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M. A., & Zelson, M. (1991). Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11, 201-230.

Unsworth, S., Palicki, S. K., & Lustig, J. (2016). The impact of mindful meditation in nature on self-nature interconnectedness. Mindfulness, 7, 1052-1060.

van den Berg, A. E., Maas, J., Verheij, R. A., & Groenewegen, P. P. (2010). Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health. Social Science & Medicine, 70, 1203-1210.

Vining, J., Merrick, M. S., & Price, E. A. (2008). The distinction between humans and nature:Human perceptions of connectedness to nature and elements of the natural and unnatural. Human Ecology Review, 15, 1-11.

Wang, X., Geng, L. N., Zhou, K. X., Ye, L. J., Ma, Y. L., & Zhang, S. H. (2016). Mindful learning can promote connectedness to nature:Implicit and explicit evidence. Consciousness and Cognition, 44, 1-7.

Weinstein, N., Przybylski, A. K., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1315-1329.

White, M. P., Alcock, I., Wheeler, B. W., & Depledge, M. H. (2013). Would you be happier living in a greener urban area? A fixed-effects analysis of panel data. Psychological Science, 24, 920-928.

White, M. P., Pahl, S., Ashbullby, K., Herbert, S., & Depledge, M. H. (2013). Feelings of restoration from recent nature visits. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 35, 40-51.

Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.

Zelenski, J. M., Dopko, R. L., & Capaldi, C. A. (2015). Cooperation is in our nature:Nature exposure may promote cooperative and environmentally sustainable behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, 24-31.

Zelenski, J. M., & Nisbet, E. K. (2014). Happiness and feeling connected:The distinct role of nature relatedness. Environment and Behavior, 46, 3-23.

Zylstra, M. J., Esler, K. J., & Le Grange, L. L. L. (2014). Connectedness as a core conservation concern:An interdisciplinary review of theory and a call for practice. Springer Science Reviews, 2, 119-143.