DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01552

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:9 PP.1552-1564

Narcissism and social networking sites use

Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by inflated self-concept and desire for others' continuous attention and admiration. Narcissists are fond of social networking sites (SNSs) because SNSs encourage different types of self-promoting behaviors. Previous studies have found that narcissism could significantly predict SNSs use behaviors (i.e. the self-selection effect), including overall use of SNSs, use behaviors on different social networking platforms, different types of use behaviors (active usage vs. passive usage), and specific forms of use behaviors (selfies, status update, social feedback, and privacy control). SNSs use behaviors could also promote individuals' narcissism (i.e. the media effect). Therefore, narcissism and SNSs use may interact and mutually reinforce each other (i.e. the reinforcing spirals model). In addition, the association between narcissism and SNSs use behaviors can be affected by gender, age and generation gap as well as culture. Future studies should further address the issues like the definition and measurement of narcissism and SNSs use. The direction of the two interacting constructs and research methods in this area should also be explored and improved by future research.

Key words:social networking sites (SNSs),use behaviors,narcissism

ReleaseDate:2017-10-20 02:12:52

邓林园, 方晓义, 万晶晶, 张锦涛, 夏翠翠. (2012). 大学生心理需求及其满足与网络成瘾的关系. 心理科学, 35, 123-128.

丁倩, 张永欣, 魏华, 牛更枫, 周宗奎. (2016). 大学生自恋人格、自拍行为与积极情绪的关系. 中国临床心理学杂志, 24, 519-522.

葛红宁, 周宗奎, 牛更枫, 陈武. (2016). 社交网站使用能带来社会资本吗? 心理科学进展, 24, 454-463.

郭丰波, 张振, 原胜, 敬一鸣, 王益文. (2016). 自恋型人格的理论模型与神经生理机制. 心理科学进展, 24, 1246-1256.

牛更枫, 孙晓军, 周宗奎, 孔繁昌, 田媛. (2016). 基于QQ空间的社交网站使用对青少年抑郁的影响:上行社会比较和自尊的序列中介作用. 心理学报, 48, 1282-1291.

姚琦, 马华维, 阎欢, 陈琦. (2014). 心理学视角下社交网络用户个体行为分析. 心理科学进展, 22, 1647-1659.

郑涌, 黄藜. (2005). 显性自恋与隐性自恋:自恋人格的心理学探析. 心理科学, 28, 1259-1262.

中国互联网络信息中心. (2016). 第38次中国互联网络发展状况统计报告. 取自

Ahn, H., Kwolek, E. A., & Bowman, N. D. (2015). Two faces of narcissism on SNS:The distinct effects of vulnerable and grandiose narcissism on SNS privacy control. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 375-381.

Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem:Findings from a large national survey. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 287-293.

Barry, C. T., & Kauten, R. L. (2014). Nonpathological and pathological narcissism:Which self-reported characteristics are most problematic in adolescents? Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 212-219.

Barry, C. T., Doucette, H., Loflin, D. C., Rivera-Hudson, N., & Herrington, L. L. (2017). "Let me take a selfie":Associations between self-photography, narcissism, and self-esteem. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 6, 48-60.

Bergman, S. M., Fearrington, M. E., Davenport, S. W., & Bergman, J. Z. (2011). Millennials, narcissism, and social networking:What narcissists do on social networking sites and why. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 706-711.

Błachnio, A., Przepiorka, A., & Rudnicka, P. (2016). Narcissism and self-esteem as predictors of dimensions of Facebook use. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 296-301.

Buffardi, L. E., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Narcissism and social networking web sites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1303-1314.

Campbell, W. K., & Campbell, S. M. (2009). On the self-regulatory dynamics created by the peculiar benefits and costs of narcissism:A contextual reinforcement model and examination of leadership. Self and Identity, 8, 214-232.

Campbell, W. K., Rudich, E. A., & Sedikides, C. (2002). Narcissism, self-esteem, and the positivity of self-views:Two portraits of self-love. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 358-368.

Carpenter, C. J. (2012). Narcissism on Facebook:Self-promotional and anti-social behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 482-486.

Choi, M., Panek, E. T., Nardis, Y., & Toma, C. L. (2015). When social media isn't social:Friends' responsiveness to narcissists on Facebook. Personality and Individual Differences, 77, 209-214.

Davenport, S. W., Bergman, S. M., Bergman, J. Z., & Fearrington, M. E. (2014). Twitter versus Facebook:Exploring the role of narcissism in the motives and usage of different social media platforms. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 212-220.

Deters, F. G., Mehl, M. R., & Eid, M. (2014). Narcissistic power poster? On the relationship between narcissism and status updating activity on Facebook. Journal of Research in Personality, 53, 165-174.

Deters, F. G., Mehl, M. R., & Eid, M. (2016). Social responses to Facebook status updates:The role of extraversion and social anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 1-13.

DeWall, C. N., Buffardi, L. E., Bonser, I., & Campbell, W. K. (2011). Narcissism and implicit attention seeking:Evidence from linguistic analyses of social networking and online presentation. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 57-62.

Facebook. (2015). Company info. Retrieved from

Foster, J. D., Campbell, W. K., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism:Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 469-486.

Fox, J., & Rooney, M. C. (2015). The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men's use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 161-165.

Garcia, D., & Sikström, S. (2014). The dark side of Facebook:Semantic representations of status updates predict the dark triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 92-96.

Gentile, B., Twenge, J. M., Freeman, E. C., & Campbell, W. K. (2012). The effect of social networking websites on positive self-views:An experimental investigation. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1929-1933.

Greitemeyer, T., Mügge, D. O., & Bollermann, I. (2014). Having responsive Facebook friends affects the satisfaction of psychological needs more than having many Facebook friends. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 36, 252-258.

Halpern, D., Valenzuela, S., & Katz, J. E. (2016). "Selfie-ists" or "Narci-selfiers"?:A cross-lagged panel analysis of selfie taking and narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 98-101.

Hollenbaugh, E. E., & Ferris, A. L. (2014). Facebook self-disclosure:Examining the role of traits, social cohesion, and motives. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 50-58.

Horton, R. S., Reid, C. A., Barber, J. M., Miracle, J., & Green, J. D. (2014). An experimental investigation of the influence of agentic and communal Facebook use on grandiose narcissism. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 93-98.

Hu, Y. H., Manikonda, L., & Kambhampati, S. (2014). What we instagram:A first analysis of instagram photo content and user types. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, ICWSM 2014 (pp. 595-598). The AAAI Press.

Kapidzic, S. (2013). Narcissism as a predictor of motivations behind Facebook profile picture selection. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 14-19.

Kauten, R. L., Lui, J. H. L., Stary, A. K., & Barry, C. T. (2015). "Purging my friends list. Good luck making the cut":Perceptions of narcissism on Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 244-254.

Leung, L. (2013). Generational differences in content generation in social media:The roles of the gratifications sought and of narcissism. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 997-1006.

Liu, D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2016). Social networking online and personality of self-worth:A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 64, 79-89.

Mäntymäki, M., & Islam, A. K. M. N. (2016). The Janus face of Facebook:Positive and negative sides of social networking site use. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 14-26.

Marshall, T. C., Lefringhausen, K., & Ferenczi, N. (2015). The Big Five, self-esteem, and narcissism as predictors of the topics people write about in Facebook status updates. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 35-40.

McKinney, B. C., Kelly, L., & Duran, R. L. (2012). Narcissism or openness?:College students' use of Facebook and Twitter. Communication Research Reports, 29, 108-118.

Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Self-presentation 2.0:Narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13, 357-364.

Miller, J. D., Hoffman, B. J., Gaughan, E. T., Gentile, B., Maples, J., & Campbell, W. K. (2011). Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism:A nomological network analysis. Journal of Personality, 79, 1013-1042.

Miller, J. D., Maples, J. L., Buffardi, L., Cai, H. J., Gentile, B., Kisbu-Sakarya, Y.,... Campbell, W. K. (2015). Narcissism and United States' culture:The view from home and around the world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 1068-1089.

Moller, A. C., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Self-determination theory and public policy:Improving the quality of consumer decisions without using coercion. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 25, 104-116.

Moon, J. H., Lee, E., Lee, J. A., Choi, T. R., & Sung, Y. (2016). The role of narcissism in self-promotion on Instagram. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 22-25.

Morf, C. C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism:A dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 177-196.

Morris, M., & Ogan, C. (1996). The Internet as mass medium. Journal of Communication, 46, 39-50.

Ong, E. Y. L., Ang, R. P., Ho, J. C. M., Lim, J. C. Y., Goh, D. H., Lee, C. S., & Chua, A. Y. K. (2011). Narcissism, extraversion and adolescents' self-presentation on Facebook. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 180-185.

Panek, E. T., Nardis, Y., & Konrath, S. (2013). Mirror or megaphone?:How relationships between narcissism and social networking site use differ on Facebook and Twitter. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 2004-2012.

Pincus, A. L., Ansell, E. B., Pimentel, C. A., Cain, N. M., Wright, A. G., & Levy, K. N. (2009). Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 21, 365-379.

Pincus, A. L., & Roche, M. J. (2011). Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability. In W. K. Campbell & J. D. Miller (Eds.), The handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder:Theoretical approaches, empirical findings, and treatments (pp. 31-40). Hoboken, New Jersey:John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890-902.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.

Ryan, T., & Xenos, S. (2011). Who uses Facebook? An investigation into the relationship between the Big Five, shyness, narcissism, loneliness, and Facebook usage. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1658-1664.

Sheldon, P., & Bryant, K. (2016). Instagram:Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 89-97.

Slater, M. D. (2007). Reinforcing spirals:The mutual influence of media selectivity and media effects and their impact on individual behavior and social identity. Communication Theory, 17, 281-303.

Smock, A. D., Ellison, N. B., Lampe, C., & Wohn, D. Y. (2011). Facebook as a toolkit:A uses and gratification approach to unbundling feature use. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 2322-2329.

Sorokowski, P., Sorokowska, A., Oleszkiewicz, A., Frackowiak, T., Huk, A., & Pisanski, K. (2015). Selfie posting behaviors are associated with narcissism among men. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 123-127.

Stoeber, J., Sherry, S. B., & Nealis, L. J. (2015). Multidimensional perfectionism and narcissism:Grandiose or vulnerable? Personality and Individual Differences, 80, 85-90.

Trepte, S., & Reinecke, L. (2013). The reciprocal effects of social network site use and the disposition for self-disclosure:A longitudinal study. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1102-1112.

Twenge, J. M. (2011). Narcissism and culture. In W. K. Campbell & J. D. Miller (Eds.), The handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder:Theoretical approaches, empirical findings, and treatments (pp. 202-209). Hoboken, New Jersey:John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Twenge, J. M., & Foster, J. D. (2010). Birth cohort increases in narcissistic personality traits among American college students, 1982-2009. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 99-106.

Twenge, J. M., Konrath, S., Foster, J. D., Campbell, W. K., & Bushman, B. J. (2008). Egos inflating over time:A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality, 76, 875-902.

Utz, S., & Krämer, N. (2009). The privacy paradox on social network sites revisited:The role of individual characteristics and group norms. Cyberpsychology:Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 3, 2.

Walters, N. T., & Horton, R. (2015). A diary study of the influence of Facebook use on narcissism among male college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 326-330.

Wang, D. (2017). A study of the relationship between narcissism, extraversion, drive for entertainment, and narcissistic behavior on social networking sites. Computers in Human Behavior, 66, 138-148.

Wang, J.-L., Jackson, L. A., Zhang, D.-J., & Su, Z.-Q. (2012). The relationships among the Big Five Personality factors, self-esteem, narcissism, and sensation-seeking to Chinese University students' uses of social networking sites (SNSs). Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 2313-2319.

Wang, S. S., & Stefanone, M. A. (2013). Showing off? Human mobility and the interplay of traits, self-disclosure, and Facebook check-ins. Social Science Computer Review, 31, 437-457.

Watson, P. J., & Biderman, M. D. (1993). Narcissistic personality inventory factors, splitting, and self-consciousness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 61, 41-57.

Weiser, E. B. (2015). #Me:Narcissism and its facets as predictors of selfie-posting frequency. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 477-481.

Wink, P. (1991). Two faces of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 590-597.

Winter, S., Neubaum, G., Eimler, S. C., Gordon, V., Theil, J., Herrmann, J.,... Krämer, N. C. (2014). Another brick in the Facebook wall-how personality traits relate to the content of status updates. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 194-202.

Zillman, D., & Bryant, J. (1985). Selective exposure to communication. Mahwah, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.