doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01942

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:11 PP.1942-1954

Anthropomorphism: Antecedents and consequences


Abstract:
Anthropomorphism refers to the psychological process or individual difference of imbuing nonhuman agents with humanlike characteristics, motivations, intentions, or mental states. Elicited agent knowledge, effectance motivation, and sociality motivation have been found as the three key determinants of anthropomorphism. Existing research mainly focused on anthropomorphism of nature, super-nature, animals, machines, brands, and products. Previous research found that, anthropomorphizing nature contributed to pro-environment behavior, while anthropomorphism of animals, machines, brands or products had diversified forms and ambiguous consequences. Future research might be mainly conducted in human-robot interaction area, as well as the relationship between anthropomorphism and cuteness.

Key words:anthropomorphism,humanization,brand,human-robot interaction,mind perception

ReleaseDate:2017-12-29 17:51:43



汪涛, 谢志鹏. (2014). 拟人化营销研究综述. 外国经济与管理, 36(1), 38-45.

Aggarwal, P., & McGill, A. L. (2007). Is that car smiling at me? Schema congruity as a basis for evaluating anthropomorphized products. Journal of Consumer Research, 34, 468-479.

Aggarwal, P., & McGill, A. L. (2012). When brands seem human, do humans act like brands? Automatic behavioral priming effects of brand anthropomorphism. Journal of Consumer Research, 39, 307-323.

Atran, S., Medin, D., Lynch, E., Vapnarsky, V., Ucan Ek', E., & Sousa, P. (2001). Folkbiology doesn't come from folkpsychology:Evidence from Yukatek Maya in cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 1, 3-42.

Atran, S., & Norenzayan, A. (2004). Religion's evolutionary landscape:Counterintuition, commitment, compassion, communion. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 713-730.

Barrett, J. L., & Keil, F.C. (1996). Conceptualizing a non-natural entity:Anthropomorphism in God concepts. Cognitive Psychology, 31, 219-247.

Barrett, J. L., Newman, R. M., & Richert, R. A. (2003). When seeing is not believing:Children's understanding of humans' and non-humans' use of background knowledge in interpreting visual displays. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 3, 91-108.

Bartz, J. A., Tchalova, K., & Fenerci, C. (2016). Reminders of social connection can attenuate anthropomorphism:A replication and extension of Epley, Akalis, Waytz, and Cacioppo (2008). Psychological Science, 27, 1644-1650.

Boyer, P. (2003). Religious thought and behaviour as by-products of brain function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 119-124.

Brandt, M. J., & Reyna, C. (2011). The chain of being:A hierarchy of morality. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 428-446.

Broadbent, E. (2017). Interactions with robots:The truths we reveal about ourselves. Annual Review of Psychology, 68, 627-652.

Butterfield, M. E., Hill, S. E., & Lord, C. G. (2012). Mangy mutt or furry friend? Anthropomorphism promotes animal welfare. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 957-960.

Chen, R. P., Wan, E. W., & Levy, E. (2017). The effect of social exclusion on consumer preference for anthropomorphized brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 27, 23-34.

Connell, P. M. (2013). The role of baseline physical similarity to humans in consumer responses to anthropomorphic animal images. Psychology & Marketing, 30, 461-468.

Davidson, A., & Laroche, M. (2016). Connecting the dots:How personal need for structure produces false consumer pattern perceptions. Marketing Letters, 27, 337-350.

de Visser, E. J., Monfort, S. S., Mckendrick, R., Smith, M. A. B., Mcknight, P. E., Krueger, F., & Parasuraman, R. (2016). Almost human:Anthropomorphism increases trust resilience in cognitive agents. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Applied, 22, 331-349.

Demoulin, S., Leyens, J. P., Paladino, M. P., Rodriguez-Torres, R., Rodriguez-Perez, A., & Dovidio, J. (2004). Dimensions of "uniquely" and "non-uniquely" human emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 18, 71-96.

Epley, N., Akalis, S., Waytz, A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). Creating social connection through inferential reproduction:Loneliness and perceived agency in gadgets, gods, and greyhounds. Psychological Science, 19, 114-120.

Epley, N., Converse, B. A., Delbosc, A., Monteleone, G. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2009). Believers' estimates of God's beliefs are more egocentric than estimates of other people's beliefs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 21533-21538.

Epley, N., & Gilovich, T. (2005). When effortful thinking influences judgmental anchoring:Differential effects of forewarning and incentives on self-generated and externally provided anchors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 18, 199-212.

Epley, N., Morewedge, C. K., & Keysar, B. (2004). Perspective taking in children and adults:Equivalent egocentrism but differential correction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 760-768.

Epley, N., & Waytz, A. (2010). Mind perception. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.) Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, 5th ed., pp. 498-541). Hoboken, NJ:John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Epley, N., Waytz, A., Akalis, S., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). When we need a human:Motivational determinants of anthropomorphism. Social Cognition, 26, 143-155.

Epley, N., Waytz, A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007). On seeing human:A three-factor theory of anthropomorphism. Psychological Review, 114, 864-886.

Eyssel, F., & Kuchenbrandt, D. (2012). Social categorization of social robots:Anthropomorphism as a function of robot group membership. British Journal of Social Psychology, 51, 724-731.

Eyssel, F., & Reich, N. (2013). Loneliness makes the heart grow fonder (of robots):On the effects of loneliness on psychological anthropomorphism. In H. Kuzuoka (Ed.), Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (pp. 121-122). Piscataway, NJ:IEEE Press.

Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content:Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878-902.

Franklin, R. G., Jr., Nelson, A. J., Baker, M., Beeney, J. E., Vescio, T. K., Lenz-Watson, A., & Adams, R. B., Jr. (2013). Neural responses to perceiving suffering in humans and animals. Social Neuroscience, 8, 217-227.

Frimer, J. A., Tell, C. E., & Haidt, J. (2015). Liberals condemn sacrilege too:The harmless desecration of Cerro Torre. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 878-886.

Gray, H. M., Gray, K., & Wegner, D. M. (2007). Dimensions of mind perception. Science, 315, 619.

Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization:An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 252-264.

Haslam, N., Bain, P., Douge, L., Lee, M., & Bastian, B. (2005). More human than you:Attributing humanness to self and others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 937-950.

Haslam, N., & Loughnan, S. (2014). Dehumanization and infrahumanization. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 399-423.

Heiphetz, L., Lane, J. D., Waytz, A., & Young, L. L. (2016). How children and adults represent god's mind. Cognitive Science, 40, 121-144.

Hoenen, M., Lübke, K. T., & Pause, B. M. (2016). Non-anthropomorphic robots as social entities on a neurophysiological level. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 182-186.

Hume, D. (1957). The natural history of religion. Stanford, CA:Stanford University Press. (Original work published 1757)

Hur, J. D., Koo, M., & Hofmann, W. (2015). When temptations come alive:How anthropomorphism undermines self-control. Journal of Consumer Research, 42, 340-358.

Kiesler, S., & Goetz, J. (2002). Mental models and cooperation with robotic assistants. In:Proceedings of the ACM conference on human factors in computer systems (pp. 576-577). Minneapolis, MN:ACM Press.

Kiesler, S., Powers, A., Fussell, S. R., & Torrey, C. (2008). Anthropomorphic interactions with a robot and robot-like agent. Social Cognition, 26, 169-181.

Kim, S., Chen, R. P., & Zhang, K. (2016). Anthropomorphized helpers undermine autonomy and enjoyment in computer games. Journal of Consumer Research, 43, 282-302.

Kim, H. C., & Kramer, T. (2015). Do materialists prefer the "brand-as-servant"? The interactive effect of anthropomorphized brand roles and materialism on consumer responses. Journal of Consumer Research, 42, 284-299.

Kim, S., & McGill, A. L. (2011). Gaming with Mr. Slot or gaming the slot machine? Power, anthropomorphism, and risk perception. Journal of Consumer Research, 38, 94-107.

Kwak, H., Puzakova, M., & Rocereto, J. F. (2015). Better not smile at the price:The differential role of brand anthropomorphization on perceived price fairness. Journal of Marketing, 79, 56-76.

Lesher, J. H. (1992). Xenophanes of colophon:Fragments. Toronto:University of Toronto Press.

Lorenz, K. (1971). Studies in animal and human behaviour, Vol. 2. (R. Martin, Trans.). Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1950)

MacInnis, D. J., & Folkes, V. S. (2017). Humanizing brands:When brands seem to be like me, part of me, and in a relationship with me. Journal of Consumer Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2016.12.003.

Morewedge, C. K., & Clear, M. E. (2008). Anthropomorphic god concepts engender moral judgment. Social Cognition, 26, 182-189.

Morewedge, C. K., Preston, J., & Wegner, D. M. (2007). Timescale bias in the attribution of mind. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 1-11.

Mori, M. (1970). The uncanny valley. Energy, 7, 33-35.

Neave, N., Jackson, R., Saxton, T., & Hönekopp, J. (2015). The influence of anthropomorphic tendencies on human hoarding behaviours. Personality and Individual Differences, 72, 214-219.

Nenkov, G. Y., & Scott, M. L. (2014). "So cute I could eat it up":Priming effects of cute products on indulgent consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 41, 326-341.

Norenzayan, A., Hansen, I. G., & Cady, J. (2008). An angry volcano? Reminders of death and anthropomorphizing nature. Social Cognition, 26, 190-197.

Puzakova, M., Kwak, H., & Rocereto, J. F. (2009). Pushing the envelope of brand and personality:Antecedents and moderators of anthropomorphized brands. In:A. L. McGill & S. Shavitt (Eds.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 36, pp. 413-420). Shavitt, Duluth, MN:Association for Consumer Research.

Puzakova, M., Kwak, H., & Rocereto, J. F. (2013). When humanizing brands goes wrong:The detrimental effect of brand anthropomorphization amid product wrongdoings. Journal of Marketing, 77, 81-100.

Puzakova, M., Rocereto, J. F., & Kwak, H. (2013). Ads are watching me-a view from the interplay between anthropomorphism and customisation. International Journal of Advertising, 32, 513-538.

Riva, P., Sacchi, S., & Brambilla, M. (2015). Humanizing machines:Anthropomorphization of slot machines increases gambling. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Applied, 21, 313-325.

Ross, N., Medin, D., Coley, J. D., & Atran, S. (2003). Cultural and experiential differences in the development of folkbiological induction. Cognitive Development, 18, 25-47.

Schroeder, J., & Epley, N. (2016). Mistaking minds and machines:How speech affects dehumanization and anthropomorphism. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 145, 1427-1437.

Severson, R. L., & Lemm, K. M. (2016). Kids see human too:Adapting an individual differences measure of anthropomorphism for a child sample. Journal of Cognition and Development, 17, 122-141.

Sherman, G. D., & Haidt, J. (2011). Cuteness and disgust:The humanizing and dehumanizing effects of emotion. Emotion Review, 3, 245-251.

Shtulman, A. (2008). Variation in the anthropomorphization of supernatural beings and its implications for cognitive theories of religion. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 1123-1138.

Tam, K. P. (2014). Anthropomorphism of nature and efficacy in coping with the environmental crisis. Social Cognition, 32, 276-296.

Tam, K. P. (2015). Are anthropomorphic persuasive appeals effective? The role of the recipient's motivations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54, 187-200.

Tam, K. P., Lee, S. L., & Chao, M. M. (2013). Saving Mr. Nature:Anthropomorphism enhances connectedness to and protectiveness toward nature. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 514-521.

Touré-Tillery, M., & McGill, A. L. (2015). Who or what to believe:Trust and the differential persuasiveness of human and anthropomorphized messengers. Journal of Marketing, 79, 94-110.

Vaes, J., Paladino, M. P., Castelli, L., Leyens, J. P., & Giovanazzi, A. (2003). On the behavioral consequences of infrahumanization:The implicit role of uniquely human emotions in intergroup relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 1016-1034.

van den Hende, E. A., & Mugge, R. (2014). Investigating gender-schema congruity effects on consumers' evaluation of anthropomorphized products. Psychology & Marketing, 31, 264-277.

Wan, E. W., Chen, R. P., & Jin, L. Y. (2017). Judging a book by its cover? The effect of anthropomorphism on product attribute processing and consumer preference. Journal of Consumer Research, 43, 1008-1030.

Waytz, A. (2016). Anthropomorphism is consequential; Not cute. International Journal of Psychology, 51, 1043.

Waytz, A., Cacioppo, J., & Epley, N. (2010). Who sees human? The stability and importance of individual differences in anthropomorphism. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 219-232.

Waytz, A., Epley, N., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Social cognition unbound:Insights into anthropomorphism and dehumanization. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 58-62.

Waytz, A., Heafner, J., & Epley, N. (2014). The mind in the machine:Anthropomorphism increases trust in an autonomous vehicle. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 52, 113-117.

Waytz, A., Morewedge, C. K., Epley, N., Monteleone, G., Gao, J. H., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Making sense by making sentient:Effectance motivation increases anthropomorphism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 410-435.

White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered:The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297-333.

Wynne, C. D. L. (2004). The perils of anthropomorphism. Nature, 428, 606.

Yogeeswaran, K., Złotowski, J., Livingstone, M., Bartneck, C., Sumioka, H., & Ishiguro, H. (2016). The interactive effects of robot anthropomorphism and robot ability on perceived threat and support for robotics research. Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, 5, 29-47.