DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01992

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2017/25:11 PP.1992-2001

Decision making: Based on the perspective of psychological distance

Decision making means the evaluating and choosing among alternatives which contains some outcomes. No matter what the results of the decision making refer to money, health, environment or others, all these outcomes may embrace multiple attributes, such as the probability, time and places of the occurrence. And these attributes, as well as the amount of outcome affect individuals' evaluation of outcome utility and their choices. Previous researches have proposed some models of evaluation, which associate the amount of outcome with its attributes respectively. However, theory of psychological distance has proposed that the probabilistic, temporal, spacial and social distance all can be represented by psychological distance. It indicates that the intertemporal choice, risky decision making and the other kinds of decision making may be unified by the perspective of psychological distance. Recently, a series of researches have been conducted to analyze the homogeneity of these four dimensions of psychological distance. Moreover, the researchers explored the phenomena and rules of discounting based on psychological distance. They also examined the effect of the time, probability, spacial and social distance on individuals' decision making. For the future research, more attention should be paid to the multi-attribute decision making. And more studies should focus on the common currency of four kinds of psychological distance and the way of integrating different psychological distance. At last, it is expected to construct a general model of decision making based on psychological distance.

Key words:decision making,psychological distance,construal level,discounting

ReleaseDate:2017-12-29 17:51:46

陈海贤. (2011). 心理距离对跨期选择和风险选择的影响(博士学位论文). 浙江大学, 杭州.

陈海贤, 何贵兵. (2014). 心理距离对跨期选择和风险选择的影响. 心理学报, 46, 677-690.

陈嘉欣, 陈楚倩, 何贵兵. (2014, 10). 环境结果的概率折扣及其影响因素:以碳排放为例. 见:第十七届全国心理学学术会议论文摘要集, 北京.

段婧, 刘永芳, 何琪. (2012). 决策者角色及相关变量对风险偏好的影响. 心理学报, 44, 369-376.

何贵兵, 蒋多. (2013). 任务框架及利他人格对社会折扣的影响. 心理学报, 45, 1131-1146.

蒋多, 徐艳萍, 何贵兵. (2014, 10). 环境结果的社会折扣. 见:第十七届全国心理学学术会议论文摘要集, 北京.

刘永芳, 陈雪娜, 卢光莉, 王怀勇. (2010). 决策者角色及相关因素对风险偏好的影响. 心理科学, 33, 548-551.

汪媛. (2012). 空间距离对跨期选择的影响(硕士学位论文). 浙江大学, 杭州.

王梦君. (2014). 跨期选择结果时距的分段与整合效应(硕士学位论文). 浙江大学, 杭州.

徐富明, 蒋多, 张慧, 李欧, 孔诗晓, 史燕伟. (2016). 心理距离对基线比例忽略的影响. 心理学报, 48, 1292-1301.

徐惊蛰, 谢晓非. (2011). 解释水平视角下的自己-他人决策差异. 心理学报, 43, 11-20.

Bar-Anan, Y., Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (2006). The association between psychological distance and construal level:Evidence from an implicit association test. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 135, 609-622.

Bar-Anan, Y., Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Algom, D. (2007). Automatic processing of psychological distance:Evidence from a stroop task. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 136, 610-622.

Chapman, G. B. (1996). Temporal discounting and utility for health and money. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 771-791.

Chapman, G. B., Nelson, R., & Hier, D. B. (1999). Familiarity and time preferences:Decision making about treatments for migraine headaches and Crohn's disease. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Applied, 5, 17-34.

Fiedler, K., Jung, J., Wänke, M., & Alexopoulos, T. (2012). On the relations between distinct aspects of psychological distance:An ecological basis of construal-level theory. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1014-1021.

Fiedler, K., Jung, J., Wänke, M., Alexopoulos, T., & de Molière, L. (2015). Toward a deeper understanding of the ecological origins of distance construal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 57, 78-86.

Frederick, S., Loewenstein, G., & O'Donoghue, T. (2002). Time discounting and time preference:A critical review. Journal of Economic Literature, 40, 351-401.

Green, L., & Myerson, J. (2004). A discounting framework for choice with delayed and probabilistic rewards. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 769-792.

Hardisty, D. J., & Weber, E. U. (2009). Discounting future green:Money versus the environment. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 138, 329-340.

Hsee, C. K., & Weber, E. U. (1997). A fundamental prediction error:Self-others discrepancies in risk preference. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 126, 45-53.

Huang, N., Burtch, G., Hong, Y. L., & Polman, E. (2016). Effects of multiple psychological distances on construal and consumer evaluation:A field study of online reviews. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 26, 474-482.

Jones, B., & Rachlin, H. (2006). Social discounting. Psychological Science, 17, 283-286.

Levy, D. J., & Glimcher, P. W. (2012). The root of all value:A neural common currency for choice. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 22, 1027-1038.

Li, S. (2004). A behavioral choice model when computational ability matters. Applied Intelligence, 20, 147-163.

Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (1998). The role of feasibility and desirability considerations in near and distant future decisions:A test of temporal construal theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 5-18.

Liberman, N., Sagristano, M. D., & Trope, Y. (2002). The effect of temporal distance on level of mental construal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 523-534.

Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (2008). The psychology of transcending the here and now. Science, 322, 1201-1205.

Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Stephan, E. (2007). Psychological distance. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Social psychology:Handbook of basic principles (Vol. 2, pp. 353-383). New York, NY:Guilford Press.

Maglio, S. J., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2013a). Distance from a distance:Psychological distance reduces sensitivity to any further psychological distance. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 142, 644-657.

Maglio, S. J., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2013b). The common currency of psychological distance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 278-282.

Nussbaum, S., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2003). Creeping dispositionism:The temporal dynamics of behavior prediction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 485-497.

Payne, J. W., Bettman, J. R., & Johnson, E. J. (1988). Adaptive strategy selection in decision making. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 534-552.

Perrings, C., & Hannon, B. (2001). An introduction to spatial discounting. Journal of Regional Science, 41, 23-38.

Prelec, D., & Loewenstein, G. (1991). Decision making over time and under uncertainty:A common approach. Management Science, 37, 770-786.

Pronin, E., Olivia, C. Y., & Kennedy, K. A. (2008). Doing unto future selves as you would do unto others:Psychological distance and decision making. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 224-236.

Rachlin, H. (2006). Notes on discounting. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 85, 425-435.

Samuelson, P. A. (1937). A note on measurement on utility. The Review of Economic Studies, 4, 155-161.

Scholten, M., & Read, D. (2010). The psychology of intertemporal tradeoffs. Psychological Review, 117, 925-944.

Smith, P. K., & Trope, Y. (2006). You focus on the forest when you're in charge of the trees:Power priming and abstract information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 578-596.

Spence, A., Poortinga, W., & Pidgeon, N. (2012). The psychological distance of climate change. Risk Analysis, 32, 957-972.

Sun, Y., & Li, S. (2010). The effect of risk on intertemporal choice. Journal of Risk Research, 13, 805-820.

Thaler, R. (1981). Some empirical evidence on dynamic inconsistency. Economics Letters, 8, 201-207.

Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-Level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review, 117, 440-463.

van Boven, L., Kane, J., McGraw, A., & Dale, J. (2010). Feeling close:Emotional intensity reduces perceived psychological distance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 872-885.

von Neumann, J., & Morgenstern, O. (1947). Theory of games and economic behavior. Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press.

Wakslak, C. J., Trope, Y., Liberman, N., & Alony, R. (2006). Seeing the forest when entry is unlikely:Probability and the mental representation of events. Journal of Experimental Psychology:General, 135, 641-653.

Wakslak, C. J. (2012). The where and when of likely and unlikely events. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 117, 150-157.

Wang, X. T. (2014, July). Social discounting over relational distance. Paper presented at the meeting of the 2nd International Symposium on Decision Making and Brain Research, Beijing, China.

Weatherly, J. N., & Derenne, A. (2013). Probability and delay discounting of gains and losses using the Multiple-choice method. The Psychological Record, 63, 563-582.

Zhang, W., He, G. B., Zhu, Y., & Cheng, L. (2014). Effects of psychological distance on assessment of severity of water pollution. Social Behavior and Personality:An International Journal, 42, 69-78.

Zia, A., Norton, B. G., Metcalf, S. S., Hirsch, P. D., & Hannon, B. M. (2014). Spatial discounting, place attachment, and environmental concern:Toward an ambit-based theory of sense of place. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40, 283-295.