doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00538

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2018/26:3 PP.538-548

Does parenthood increase well-being?


Abstract:
The relationship between parenthood and well-being is an important topic which concerns the individuals, families and the society as a whole. Now, it has become a hot research area in psychology and involves many factors to be taken into consideration, such as the basic human needs,the development of personality and different growing environments. Regarding this issue, common people around the world have some shared beliefs,while psychologists have different views.To date, empirical research that has focused on the well-being of parents has reported inconsistent results which may be explained by different definitions and measures of well-being used, and a variety of factors that may moderate the complex relationship between parenthood and well-being. Further, as society changes due to for example government policies and values, this relationship and the moderating variables may have changed over time.In this paper, we review the research in this area and the theories that have been used to explain the relationship between parenthood and well-being.Future research should aim to deepen our understanding of human nature, pay more attention to the heterogeneity of people, and do more empirical studies from the view of psychology.Such research has the potential to inform both mental health service provision and family-related policy.

Key words:parenthood,well-being,happiness,life-satisfaction,meaning

ReleaseDate:2018-03-29 16:57:04



黄希庭, 李继波, 刘杰. (2012). 城市幸福指数之思考. 西南大学学报(社会科学版), 38(5), 83-91.

李婷, 范文婷. (2016). 生育与主观幸福感——基于生命周期和生命历程的视角. 人口研究, 40(5), 6-19.

陆可心, 沈可汗, 李虹. (2017). 恐惧管理理论中情绪的作用. 心理科学进展, 25(1), 76-85.

穆峥, 谢宇. (2014). 生育对父母主观幸福感的影响. 社会学研究, 29(6), 124-147.

潘哲, 郭永玉, 徐步霄, 杨沈龙. (2017). 人格研究中的"能动"与"共生"及其关系. 心理科学进展, 25(1), 99-110.

王钦池. (2015). 生育行为如何影响幸福感. 人口学刊, 37(4), 12-24.

王伟, 景红桥, 张鹏. (2013). 计划生育政策降低了居民的幸福感吗——80后一代视角的研究. 人口研究, 37(2), 102-112.

徐华春, 黄希庭. (2007). 国外心理健康服务及其启示. 心理科学, 30(4), 1006-1009.

徐晓波, 孙超, 汪凤炎. (2017). 精神幸福感:概念、测量、相关变量及干预. 心理科学进展, 25(2), 275-289.

张茂杨, 彭小凡, 胡朝兵, 张兴瑜. (2015). 宠物与人类的关系:心理学视角的探讨. 心理科学进展, 23(1), 142-149.

Aassve, A., Goisis, A., & Sironi, M. (2012). Happiness and childbearing across Europe. Social Indicators Research, 108, 65-86.

Aassve, A., Mencarini, L., & Sironi, M. (2015). Institutional change, happiness, and fertility. European Sociological Review, 31(6), 749-765.

Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Regalia, C., & Scabini, E. (2011). Impact of family efficacy beliefs on quality of family functioning and satisfaction with family life. Applied Psychology, 60, 421-448.

Carter, T. J., & Gilovich, T. (2012). I am what I do, not what I have:The differential centrality of experiential and material purchases to the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(6), 1304-1317.

Clark, A. E., Diener, E., Georgellis, Y., & Lucas, R. E. (2008). Lags and leads in life satisfaction:A test of the baseline hypothesis. The Economic Journal, 118(529), F222-F243.

Clark, A. E., & Georgellis, Y. (2013). Back to baseline in Britain:Adaptation in the BHPS. Economica, 80(319), 496-512.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory:A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49, 182-185.

Delle Fave, A., & Massimini, F. (2004). Parenthood and the quality of experience in daily life:A longitudinal study. Social Indicators Research, 67, 75-106.

DeVoe, S. E., & Pfeffer, J. (2011). Time is tight:How higher economic value of time increases feelings of time pressure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 665-676.

Dyrdal, G. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2013). Reaction and adaptation to the birth of a child:A couple-level analysis. Developmental Psychology, 49, 749-761.

Easterlin, R. A., Morgan, R., Switek, M., & Wang, F. (2012). China's life satisfaction, 1990-2010. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(25), 9775-9780.

Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood & society. New York:Norton.

Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Mazursky, H., Mancini, A. D., & Bonanno, G. A. (2011). What we don't expect when expecting:Evidence for heterogeneity in subjective well-being in response to parenthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(3), 384-392.

Hahn-Holbrook, J., Holbrook, C., & Haselton, M. G. (2011). Parental precaution:Neurobiological means and adaptive ends. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1052-1066.

Hansen, T. (2012). Parenthood and happiness:A review of folk theories versus empirical evidence. Social Indicators Research, 108(1), 29-64.

Hartas, D. (2014). The social context of parenting:Mothers' inner resources and social structures. Research Papers in Education, 30(5), 609-634.

Headey, B. (2010). The set point theory of well-being has serious flaws:On the eve of a scientific revolution?. Social Indicators Research, 97(1), 7-21.

Kahneman, D., Krueger, A. B., Schkade, D. A., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. A. (2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience:The day reconstruction method. Science, 306(5702), 1776-1780.

Karlsen, E., Dybdahl, R., & Vittersø, J. (2006). The possible benefits of difficulty:How stress can increase and decrease subjective well-being. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 47(5), 411-417.

Keizer, R., Dykstra, P. A., & Poortman, A.-R. (2010). Life outcomes of childless men and fathers. European Sociological Review, 26, 1-15.

Kenrick, D. T., & Griskevicius, V. (2015). Life history, fundamental motives, and sexual competition. Current Opinion in Psychology, 1, 40-44.

Kenrick, D. T., Griskevicius, V., Neuberg, S. L., & Schaller, M. (2010). Renovating the pyramid of needs:Contemporary extensions built upon ancient foundations. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 292-314.

Kesebir, S., Graham, J., & Oishi, S. (2010). A theory of human needs should be human-centered, not animal-centered:Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 315-318.

Kiecolt, K. J., Blieszner, R., & Savla, J. (2011). Long-term influences of intergenerational ambivalence on midlife parents' psychological wellbeing. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 369-382.

Kim, P., Strathearn, L., & Swain, J. E. (2016). The maternal brain and its plasticity in humans. Hormones and Behavior, 77, 113-123.

Kumar, A., Killingsworth, M. A., & Gilovich, T. (2014). Waiting for merlot:Anticipatory consumption of experiential and material purchases. Psychological Science, 25(10), 1924-1931.

Kushlev, K., Dunn, E. W., & Ashton-James, C. (2012). Does affluence impoverish the experience of parenting?. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1381-1384.

Lucas, R. E. (2007). Adaptation and the set-point model of subjective well-being:Does happiness change after major life events?. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(2), 75-79.

Luhmann, M., Hofmann, W., Eid, M., & Lucas, R. E. (2012). Subjective well-being and adaptation to life events:a meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 592-615.

Lyubomirsky, S., & Boehm, J. (2010). Human motives, happiness, and the puzzle of parenthood:Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 327-334.

Marks, G. N., & Fleming, N. (1999). Influences and consequences of well-being among Australian young people:1980-1995. Social Indicators Research, 46(3), 301-323.

Minagawa-Kawai, Y., Matsuoka, S., Dan, I., Naoi, N., Nakamura, K., & Kojima, S. (2009). Prefrontal activation associated with social attachment:Facial-emotion recognition in mothers and infants. Cerebral Cortex, 19(2), 284-292.

Myrskylä, M., & Margolis, R. (2014). Happiness:Before and after the kids. Demography, 51(5), 1843-1866.

Nauck, B. (2007). Value of children and the framing of fertility:Results from a cross-cultural comparative survey in 10 societies. European Sociological Review, 23(5), 615-629.

Nauck, B. (2014). Value of children and the social production of welfare. Demographic Research, 30, 1793-1824.

Nelson, S. K., Kushlev, K., English, T., Dunn, E. W., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). In defense of parenthood:Children are associated with more joy than misery. Psychological Science, 24, 3-10.

Nelson, S. K., Kushlev, K., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2014). The pains and pleasures of parenting:When, why, and how is parenthood associated with more or less well-being?. Psychological Bulletin, 140(3), 846-95.

Nomaguchi, K. M., & Milkie, M. A. (2003). Costs and rewards of children:The effects of becoming a parent on adults' lives. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(2), 356-374.

Parsons, C. E., Young, K. S., Murray, L., Stein, A., & Kringelbach, M. L. (2010). The functional neuroanatomy of the evolving parent-infant relationship. Progress in Neurobiology, 91(3), 220-241.

Plagnol, A. C., & Easterlin, R. A. (2008). Aspirations, attainments, and satisfaction:Life cycle differences between American women and men. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9(4), 601-619.

Peterson, C., & Park, N. (2010). What happened to self-actualization? Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 320-322.

Pollmann-Schult, M. (2014). Parenthood and life satisfaction:Why don't children make people happy?. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(2), 319-336.

Schaller, M., Neuberg, S. L., Griskevicius, V., & Kenrick, D. T. (2010). Pyramid power:A reply to commentaries. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 335-337.

Strathearn, L., Fonagy, P., Amico, J., & Montague, P. R., (2009). Adult attachment predicts maternal brain and oxytocin response to infant cues. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34(13), 2655-2666.

Wenger, G. C., Dykstra, P. A., Melkas, T., & Knipscheer, K. C. P. M. (2007). Social embeddedness and late-life parenthood-Community activity, close ties, and support networks. Journal of Family Issues, 28(11), 1419-1456.

Wisman, A., & Goldenberg, J. L. (2005). From the grave to the cradle:Evidence that mortality salience engenders a desire for offspring. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(1), 46-61.

Zhou, X. Y., Lei, Q. J., Marley, S. C., & Chen, J. S. (2009). Existential function of babies:Babies as a buffer of death-related anxiety. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 12, 40-46.

Zhou, X. Y., Liu, J., Chen, C. C., & Yu, Z. H. (2008). Do children transcend death? An examination of the terror management function of offspring. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49(5), 413-418.