DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01193

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2018/26:7 PP.1193-1203

The effects of early life stress on emotion regulation and the underlying mechanisms

Individuals experiencing early life stress (ELS) are at a higher risk of mental/behavioral disorders such as depression and violence, the difficulties of emotion regulation might be one of the underlying mechanisms. ELS individuals use maladaptive strategies (such as avoidance and rumination) more frequently than normal individuals. And most of the studies found that ELS impaired the ability of emotion regulation. However, moderate ELS may enhance the ability of emotion regulation. Besides, emotion regulation moderated the relationship between ELS and mental/behavior disorders. Furthermore, we explored the neural mechanisms of how ELS influences emotion regulation. Finally, we made a summary and pointed out future directions.

Key words:early life stress,emotion regulation,reappraisal,prefrontal cortex,amygdala

ReleaseDate:2018-08-06 13:54:49

段成荣, 吕利丹, 郭静, 王宗萍. (2013). 我国农村留守儿童生存和发展基本状况——基于第六次人口普查数据的分析. 人口学刊, 35(3), 37-49.

Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology:A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217-237.

Alexander, N., Klucken, T., Koppe, G., Osinsky, R., Walter, B., Vaitl, D.,... Hennig, J. (2012). Interaction of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region and environmental adversity:Increased amygdala-hypothalamus connectivity as a potential mechanism linking neural and endocrine hyperreactivity. Biological Psychiatry, 72(1), 49-56.

Bernstein, D. P., Stein, J. A., Newcomb, M. D., Walker, E., Pogge, D., Ahluvalia, T.,... Zule, W. (2003). Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(2), 169-190.

Bick, J., & Nelson, C. A. (2016). Early adverse experiences and the developing brain. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(1), 177-196.

Bremner, J. D., Bolus, R., & Mayer, E. A. (2007). Psychometric properties of the Early Trauma Inventory-Self Report. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 195(3), 211-218.

Buhle, J. T., Silvers, J. A., Wager, T. D., Lopez, R., Onyemekwu, C., Kober, H.,... Ochsner, K. N. (2014). Cognitive reappraisal of emotion:A meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex, 24(11), 2981-2990.

Burghy, C. A., Stodola, D. E., Ruttle, P. L., Molloy, E. K., Armstrong, J. M., Oler, J. A.,... Birn, R. M. (2012). Developmental pathways to amygdala-prefrontal function and internalizing symptoms in adolescence. Nature Neuroscience, 15(12), 1736-1741.

Carvalho Fernando, S., Beblo, T., Schlosser, N., Terfehr, K., Otte, C., Lowe, B.,... Wingenfeld, K. (2014). The impact of self-reported childhood trauma on emotion regulation in borderline personality disorder and major depression. Journal of Trauma Dissociation, 15(4), 384-401.

Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H.,... Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression:Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301(5631), 386-389.

Chen, Y. C., & Baram, T. Z. (2016). Toward understanding how early-life stress reprograms cognitive and emotional brain networks. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(1), 197-206.

Cohen, R. A., Grieve, S., Hoth, K. F., Paul, R. H., Sweet, L., Tate, D.,... Williams, L. M. (2006). Early life stress and morphometry of the adult anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nuclei. Biological Psychiatry, 59(10), 975-982.

Conway, M., Mendelson, M., Giannopoulos, C., Csank, P. A. R., & Holm, S. L. (2004). Childhood and adult sexual abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28(4), 393-410.

Crow, T., Cross, D., Powers, A., & Bradley, B. (2014). Emotion dysregulation as a mediator between childhood emotional abuse and current depression in a low-income african-american sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(10), 1590-1598.

Dannlowski, U., Kugel, H., Huber, F., Stuhrmann, A., Redlich, R., Grotegerd, D.,... Suslow, T. (2013). Childhood maltreatment is associated with an automatic negative emotion processing bias in the amygdala. Human Brain Mapping, 34(11), 2899-2909.

Davidson, R. J., Putnam, K. M., & Larson, C. L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation——a possible prelude to violence. Science, 289(5479), 591-594.

Dörfel, D., Lamke, J.-P., Hummel, F., Wagner, U., Erk, S., & Walter, H. (2014). Common and differential neural networks of emotion regulation by Detachment, Reinterpretation, Distraction, and Expressive Suppression:A comparative fMRI investigation. NeuroImage, 101, 298-309.

Eden, A. S., Schreiber, J., Anwander, A., Keuper, K., Laeger, I., Zwanzger, P.,... Dobel, C. (2015). Emotion regulation and trait anxiety are predicted by the microstructure of fibers between amygdala and prefrontal cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 35(15), 6020-6027.

Edge, M. D., Ramel, W., Drabant, E. M., Kuo, J. R., Parker, K. J., & Gross, J. J. (2009). For better or worse? Stress inoculation effects for implicit but not explicit anxiety. Depression & Anxiety, 26(9), 831-837.

Ehring, T., & Quack, D. (2010). Emotion regulation difficulties in trauma survivors:The role of trauma type and PTSD symptom severity. Behavior Therapy, 41(4), 587-598.

Enoch, M. A. (2011). The role of early life stress as a predictor for alcohol and drug dependence. Psychopharmacology, 214(1), 17-31.

Etkin, A., Büchel, C., & Gross, J. J. (2015). The neural bases of emotion regulation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(11), 693-700.

Etkin, A., Egner, T., Peraza, D. M., Kandel, E. R., & Hirsch, J. (2006). Resolving emotional conflict:A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron, 51(6), 871-882.

Fan, F., Su, L. Y., Gill, M. K., & Birmaher, B. (2010). Emotional and behavioral problems of Chinese left-behind children:A preliminary study. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(6), 655-664.

Fareri, D. S., & Tottenham, N. (2016). Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 233-247.

Fonzo, G. A., Ramsawh, H. J., Flagan, T. M., Simmons, A. N., Sullivan, S. G., Allard, C. B.,... Stein, M. B. (2016). Early life stress and the anxious brain:Evidence for a neural mechanism linking childhood emotional maltreatment to anxiety in adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 46(5), 1037-1054.

Frank, D. W., Dewitt, M., Hudgens-Haney, M., Schaeffer, D. J., Ball, B. H., Schwarz, N. F.,... Sabatinelli, D. (2014). Emotion regulation:Quantitative meta-analysis of functional activation and deactivation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 45, 202-211.

Goldin, P. R., McRae, K., Ramel, W., & Gross, J. J. (2008). The neural bases of emotion regulation:Reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion. Biological Psychiatry, 63(6), 577-586.

Gratz, K. L., Bornovalova, M. A., Delany-Brumsey, A., Nick, B., & Lejuez, C. W. (2007). A laboratory-based study of the relationship between childhood abuse and experiential avoidance among inner-city substance users:The role of emotional nonacceptance. Behavior Therapy, 38(3), 256-268.

Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation:Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 41-54.

Gross, J. J. (1998). Antecedent-and response-focused emotion regulation:Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74(1), 224-237.

Gyurak, A., Gross, J. J., & Etkin, A. (2011). Explicit and implicit emotion regulation:A dual-process framework. Cognition and Emotion, 25(3), 400-412.

Haller, J., Harold, G., Sandi, C., & Neumann, I. D. (2014). Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 26(10), 724-738.

Hanson, J. L., Chung, M. K., Avants, B. B., Shirtcliff, E. A., Gee, J. C., Davidson, R. J., & Pollak, S. D. (2010). Early stress is associated with alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex:A tensor-based morphometry investigation of brain structure and behavioral risk. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(22), 7466-7472.

Hanson, J. L., Nacewicz, B. M., Sutterer, M. J., Cayo, A. A., Schaefer, S. M., Rudolph, K. D.,... Davidson, R. J. (2015). Behavioral problems after early life stress:Contributions of the hippocampus and amygdala. Biological Psychiatry, 77(4), 314-323.

Hariri, A. R., Mattay, V. S., Tessitore, A., Kolachana, B., Fera, F., Goldman, D., … Weinberger, D. R. (2002). Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science, 297(5580), 400-403.

Hart, H., & Rubia, K. (2012). Neuroimaging of child abuse:A critical review. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 52.

Heim, C., & Binder, E. B. (2012). Current research trends in early life stress and depression:Review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetics. Experimental Neurology, 233(1), 102-111.

Heim, C., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2001). The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders:Preclinical and clinical studies. Biological Psychiatry, 49(12), 1023-1039.

Heinz, A., Braus, D. F., Smolka, M. N., Wrase, J., Puls, I., Hermann, D.,... Büchel, C. (2005). Amygdala-prefrontal coupling depends on a genetic variation of the serotonin transporter. Nature Neuroscience, 8(1), 20-21.

Hermann, A., Küpper, Y., Schmitz, A., Walter, B., Vaitl, D., Hennig, J.,... Tabbert, K. (2012). Functional gene polymorphisms in the serotonin system and traumatic life events modulate the neural basis of fear acquisition and extinction. PLoS One, 7(9), e44352.

Hodel, A. S., Hunt, R. H., Cowell, R. A., van Den Heuvel, S. E., Gunnar, M. R., & Thomas, K. M. (2015). Duration of early adversity and structural brain development in post-institutionalized adolescents. NeuroImage, 105, 112-119.

Hopfinger, L., Berking, M., Bockting, C. L. H., & Ebert, D. D. (2016). Emotion regulation mediates the effect of childhood trauma on depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 198, 189-197.

Javanbakht, A., King, A. P., Evans, G. W., Swain, J. E., Angstadt, M., Phan, K. L., & Liberzon, I. (2015). Childhood poverty predicts adult amygdala and frontal activity and connectivity in response to emotional faces. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 154.

Karg, K., Burmeister, M., Shedden, K., & Sen, S. (2011). The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR), stress, and depression meta-analysis revisited:Evidence of genetic moderation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(5), 444-454.

Kendler, K. S., Kuhn, J. W., Vittum, J., Prescott, C. A., & Riley, B. (2005). The interaction of stressful life events and a serotonin transporter polymorphism in the prediction of episodes of major depression:A replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(5), 529-535.

Kim, P., Evans, G. W., Angstadt, M., Ho, S. S., Sripada, C. S., Swain, J. E.,... Phan, K. L. (2013). Effects of childhood poverty and chronic stress on emotion regulatory brain function in adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(46), 18442-18447.

Kohn, N., Eickhoff, S. B., Scheller, M., Laird, A. R., Fox, P. T., & Habel, U. (2014). Neural network of cognitive emotion regulation-an ALE meta-analysis and MACM analysis. NeuroImage, 87, 345-355.

Krause, E. D., Mendelson, T., & Lynch, T. R. (2003). Childhood emotional invalidation and adult psychological distress:The mediating role of emotional inhibition. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(2), 199-213.

Krugers, H. J., & Joëls, M. (2014). Long-lasting consequences of early life stress on brain structure, emotion and cognition. In C. Pariante & M. Lapiz-Bluhm (Eds.), Behavioral neurobiology of stress-related disorders (pp. 81-92). Berlin, Heidelberg:Springer.

Lake, S., Wood, E., Dong, H. R., Dobrer, S., Montaner, J., & Kerr, T. (2015). The impact of childhood emotional abuse on violence among people who inject drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 34(1), 4-9.

Lee, V., & Hoaken, P. N. S. (2007). Cognition, emotion, and neurobiological development:Mediating the relation between maltreatment and aggression. Child Maltreatment, 12(3), 281-298.

Lovallo, W. R. (2013). Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior:Implications for health behaviors. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 90(1), 8-16.

Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(6), 434-445.

Macinnes, M., Macpherson, G., Austin, J., & Schwannauer, M. (2016). Examining the effect of childhood trauma on psychological distress, risk of violence and engagement, in forensic mental health. Psychiatry Research, 246, 314-320.

Malter Cohen, M., Jing, D. Q., Yang, R. R., Tottenham, N., Lee, F. S., & Casey, B. J. (2013). Early-life stress has persistent effects on amygdala function and development in mice and humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(45), 18274-18278.

Manly, J. T., Kim, J. E., Rogosch, F. A., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Dimensions of child maltreatment and children's adjustment:Contributions of developmental timing and subtype. Development and Psychopathology, 13(4), 759-782.

Marusak, H. A., Martin, K. R., Etkin, A., & Thomason, M. E. (2015). Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing. Neuropsychopharmacology, 40(5), 1250-1258.

Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Parker, K. J. (2011). Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging:Moving towards a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 137(6), 959-997.

O'Mahen, H. A., Karl, A., Moberly, N., & Fedock, G. (2015). The association between childhood maltreatment and emotion regulation:Two different mechanisms contributing to depression?. Journal of Affective Disorders, 174, 287-295.

Ochsner, K. N., Bunge, S. A., Gross, J. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2002). Rethinking feelings:An fMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(8), 1215-1229.

Ochsner, K. N., Silvers, J. A., & Buhle, J. T. (2012). Functional imaging studies of emotion regulation:A synthetic review and evolving model of the cognitive control of emotion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1251, E1-E24.

Parihar, V. K., Hattiangady, B., Kuruba, R., Shuai, B., & Shetty, A. K. (2011). Predictable chronic mild stress improves mood, hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Molecular Psychiatry, 16(2), 171-183.

Parker, K. J., & Maestripieri, D. (2011). Identifying key features of early stressful experiences that produce stress vulnerability and resilience in primates. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(7), 1466-1483.

Pechtel, P., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2011). Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function:An integrated review of human literature. Psychopharmacology, 214(1), 55-70.

Philip, N. S., Sweet, L. H., Tyrka, A. R., Price, L. H., Bloom, R. F., & Carpenter, L. L. (2013). Decreased default network connectivity is associated with early life stress in medication-free healthy adults. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 23(1), 24-32.

Pollak, S. D. (2008). Mechanisms linking early experience and the emergence of emotions:Illustrations from the study of maltreated children. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(6), 370-375.

Pollak, S. D., & Tolley-Schell, S. A. (2003). Selective attention to facial emotion in physically abused children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(3), 323-338.

Powers, A., Etkin, A., Gyurak, A., Bradley, B., & Jovanovic, T. (2015). Associations between childhood abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder, and implicit emotion regulation deficits:Evidence from a low-income, inner-city population. Psychiatry, 78(3), 251-264.

Provencal, N., & Binder, E. B. (2015). The effects of early life stress on the epigenome:From the womb to adulthood and even before. Experimental Neurology, 268, 10-20.

Roberton, T., Daffern, M., & Bucks, R. S. (2012). Emotion regulation and aggression. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(1), 72-82.

Rocha, T. B. M., Hutz, M. H., Salatino-Oliveira, A., Genro, J. P., Polanczyk, G. V., Sato, J. R.,... Kieling, C. (2015). Gene-environment interaction in youth depression:Replication of the 5-HTTLPR moderation in a diverse setting. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(10), 978-985.

Rosenthal, M. Z., Rasmussen Hall, M. L., Palm, K. M., Batten, S. V., & Follette, V. M. (2005). Chronic avoidance helps explain the relationship between severity of childhood sexual abuse and psychological distress in adulthood. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 14(4), 25-41.

Schilling, E. A., Aseltine, R. H., Jr., & Gore, S. (2007). Adverse childhood experiences and mental health in young adults:A longitudinal survey. BMC Public Health, 7, 30.

Schweizer, S., Walsh, N. D., Stretton, J., Dunn, V. J., Goodyer, I. M., & Dalgleish, T. (2016). Enhanced emotion regulation capacity and its neural substrates in those exposed to moderate childhood adversity. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 11(2), 272-281.

Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1998). Reactive aggression among maltreated children:The contributions of attention and emotion dysregulation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(4), 381-395.

Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Parental maltreatment and emotion dysregulation as risk factors for bullying and victimization in middle childhood. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 30(3), 349-363.

Shonkoff, J. P., Garner, A. S., Siegel, B. S., Dobbins, M. I., Earls, M. F., Garner, A. S.,... Wood, D. L. (2012). The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129(1), e232-e246

Silvers, J., Buhle, J. T., & Ochsner, K. N. (2013). The neuroscience of emotion regulation:Basic mechanisms and their role in development, aging, and psychopathology. In K. N. Ochsner & S. Kosslyn (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of cognitive neuroscience. Oxford:Oxford University Press.

Taylor, S. E., Lehman, B. J., Kiefe, C. I., & Seeman, T. E. (2006). Relationship of early life stress and psychological functioning to adult C-reactive protein in the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. Biological Psychiatry, 60(8), 819-824.

Teicher, M. H., Samson, J. A., Anderson, C. M., & Ohashi, K. (2016). The effects of childhood maltreatment on brain structure, function and connectivity. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 17(10), 652-666.

Tottenham, N., Hare, T. A., Quinn, B. T., McCarry, T. W., Nurse, M., Gilhooly, T.,... Casey, B. J. (2010). Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically large amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation. Developmental Science, 13(1), 46-61.

Troy, A. S., & Mauss, I. B. (2011). Resilience in the face of stress:Emotion regulation as a protective factor. In Resilience and mental health:Challenges across the lifespan (pp. 30-44). Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

van Harmelen, A.-L., van Tol, M.-J., Dalgleish, T., van der Wee, N. J. A., Veltman, D. J., Aleman, A.,... Elzinga, B. M. (2014). Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(12), 2026-2033.

van Harmelen, A. L., van Tol, M. J., Demenescu, L. R., van der Wee, N. J. A., Veltman, D. J., Aleman, A.,... Elzinga, B. M. (2013). Enhanced amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 8(4), 362-369.

van Harmelen, A.-L., van Tol, M.-J., van der Wee, N. J. A., Veltman, D. J., Aleman, A., Spinhoven, P.,... Elzinga, B. M. (2010). Reduced medial prefrontal cortex volume in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. Biological Psychiatry, 68(9), 832-838.

Veenema, A. H., Blume, A., Niederle, D., Buwalda, B., & Neumann, I. D. (2006). Effects of early life stress on adult male aggression and hypothalamic vasopressin and serotonin. European Journal of Neuroscience, 24(6), 1711-1720.

Widom, C. S. (1989). The cycle of violence. Science, 244(4901), 160-166.