DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01264

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2018/26:7 PP.1264-1271

Stereotype lift and stereotype boost

Stereotype lift means that the individuals who are aware of negative stereotype of outgroups can elevate self-efficacy and motivation after comparison with the denigrated outgroups, resulting in improving performance. While stereotype boost is the positive result of activation of positive stereotype, which refers to performance improvement of individuals in situations when their positive stereotype identities are activated. This paper is mainly focused on the relationships between moderators and results based on stereotype lift and stereotype boost. Meanwhile, their distinctions are discussed in terms of related concepts, the requirements of participants and psychological mechanisms. Finally, our paper points out that the further research in the future would pay more attention to these two concepts, and be attempt to eliminate the confusion of them. Also their psychological mechanisms and neural mechanisms would be further studied as well as combination with stereotype reactance to explore.

Key words:stereotype lift,negative stereotype,stereotype boost,positive stereotype

ReleaseDate:2018-08-06 13:54:54

管健, 柴民权. (2011). 刻板印象威胁:新议题与新争议. 心理科学进展, 19(12), 1842-1850.

阮小林, 张庆林, 杜秀敏, 崔茜. (2009). 刻板印象威胁效应研究回顾与展望. 心理科学进展, 17(4), 836-844.

张宝山, 袁菲, 徐靓鸽. (2014). 刻板印象威胁效应的消除:干预策略及其展望. 心理科学, 37(1), 197-204.

赵守良. (2010). 正性刻板印象下任务难度和领域认同对绩效的影响 (硕士学位论文). 西南大学, 重庆.

Armenta, B. E. (2010). Stereotype boost and stereotype threat effects:The moderating role of ethnic identification. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(1), 94-98.

Beasley, M. A., & Fischer, M. J. (2012). Why they leave:The impact of stereotype threat on the attrition of women and minorities from science, math and engineering majors. Social Psychology of Education, 15(4), 427-448.

Bowen, N. K., Wegmann, K. M., & Webber, K. C. (2013). Enhancing a brief writing intervention to combat stereotype threat among middle-school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 427-435.

Chalabaev, A., Sarrazin, P., & Brisswalter, J. (2013). Heart rate and heart rate variability responses to stereotype activation among non-stereotyped individuals:Stereotype lift in the motor domain. In B. Derks, D. Scheepers, & N. Ellemers (Eds.), Neuroscience of Prejudice and Intergroup Relations (pp. 146-163). New York:Psychology Press.

Chalabaev, A., Stone, J., Sarrazin, P., & Croizet, J. C. (2008). Investigating physiological and self-reported mediators of stereotype lift effects on a motor task. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30(1), 18-26.

Cheryan, S., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2000). When positive stereotypes threaten intellectual performance:The psychological hazards of "model minority" status. Psychological Science, 11(5), 399-402.

Cotner, C. C., & Burkley, M. (2013). Queer eye for the straight guy:Sexual orientation and stereotype lift effects on performance in the fashion domain. Journal of Homosexuality, 60(9), 1336-1348.

Davies, P. G., Spencer, S. J., & Steele, C. M. (2005). Clearing the air:Identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 88(2), 276-287.

Derks, B., Inzlicht, M., & Kang, S. (2008). The neuroscience of stigma and stereotype threat. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11(2), 163-181.

Dijksterhuis, A., & Bargh, J. A. (2001). The perception-behavior expressway:Automatic effects of social perception on social behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 1-40.

Franceschini, G., Galli, S., Chiesi, F., & Primi, C. (2014). Implicit gender-math stereotype and women's susceptibility to stereotype threat and stereotype lift. Learning and Individual Differences, 32, 273-277.

Froehlich, L., Martiny, S. E., Deaux, K., Goetz, T., & Mok, S. Y. (2016). Being smart or getting smarter:Implicit theory of intelligence moderates stereotype threat and stereotype lift effects. British Journal of Social Psychology, 55(3), 564-587.

Gaither, S. E., Remedios, J. D., Schultz, J. R., & Sommers, S. R. (2015). Priming White identity elicits stereotype boost for biracial Black-White individuals. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 18(6), 778-787.

Gibson, C. E., Losee, J., & Vitiello, C. (2014). A replication attempt of stereotype susceptibility (Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady, 1999). Social Psychology, 45(3), 194-198.

Hausmann, M. (2014). Arts versus science-academic background implicitly activates gender stereotypes on cognitive abilities with threat raising men's (but lowering women's) performance. Intelligence, 46, 235-245.

Joanisse, M., Gagnon, S., & Voloaca, M. (2013). The impact of Stereotype Threat on the simulated driving performance of older drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 50, 530-538.

Johnson, H. J., Barnard-Brak, L., Saxon, T. F., & Johnson, M. K. (2012). An experimental study of the effects of stereotype threat and stereotype lift on men and women's performance in mathematics. The Journal of Experimental Education, 80(2), 137-149.

Kray, L. J., Thompson, L., & Galinsky, A. (2001). Battle of the sexes:Gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80(6), 942-58.

Krendl, A. C., Gainsburg, I., & Ambady, N. (2012). The effects of stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34(1), 3-15.

Krendl, A. C., Richeson, J. A., Kelley, W. M., & Heatherton, T. F. (2008). The negative consequences of threat. Psychological Science, 19(2), 168-175.

Laurin, R. (2013). Stereotype threat and lift effects in motor task performance:The mediating role of somatic and cognitive anxiety. Journal of Social Psychology, 153(6), 687-699.

Levy, B. R. (1996). Improving memory in old age through implicit self-stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(6), 1092-1107.

Lin, C. H. (2014). Stereotype threat versus stereotype boost. Proposal for the 2014 Great Lakes Conference, West Lafayette, Indiana.

Marx, D. M., & Stapel, D. A. (2006). Understanding stereotype lift:On the role of the social self. Social Cognition, 24(6), 776-792.

Mazerolle, M., Régner, I., Morisset, P., Rigalleau, F., & Huguet, P. (2012). Stereotype threat strengthens automatic recall and undermines controlled processes in older adults. Psychological Science, 23(7), 723-727.

Moon, A., & Roeder, S. S. (2014). A secondary replication attempt of stereotype susceptibility (Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady, 1999). Social Psychology, 45(3), 199-201.

Régner, I., Smeding, A., Gimmig, D., Thinus-Blanc, C., Monteil, J. M., & Huguet, P. (2010). Individual differences in working memory moderate stereotype-threat effects. Psychological Science, 21(11), 1646-1648.

Ruback, R. B., & Juieng, D. (1997). Territorial defense in parking lots:Retaliation against waiting drivers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27(9), 821-834.

Seunanden, T. C. (2011). The impact of inter-group conflict on stereotype threat or lift (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg.

Shapiro, J. R., & Williams, A. M. (2012). The role of stereotype threats in undermining girls' and women's performance and interest in stem fields. Sex Roles, 66(3-4), 175-183.

Shih, M. J., Ambady, N., Richeson, J. A., Fujita, K., & Gray, H. M. (2002). Stereotype performance boosts:The impact of self-relevance and the manner of stereotype activation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83(3), 638-647.

Shih, M. J., Pittinsky, T. L., & Ambady, N. (1999). Stereotype susceptibility:Identity salience and shifts in quantitative performance. Psychological Science, 10(1), 80-83.

Shih, M. J., Pittinsky, T. L., & Ho, G. C. (2012). Stereotype boost:Positive outcomes from the activation of positive stereotypes. In M. Inzlicht & T. Schmader (Eds.), Stereotype threat:Theory, process, and application (pp. 141-158). New York, NY:Oxford University Press.

Shih, M. J., Pittinsky, T. L., & Trahan, A. (2006). Domain specific effects of stereotypes on performance. Self and Identity, 5(1), 1-14.

Smith, J. L., & Johnson, C. S. (2006). A stereotype boost or choking under pressure? Positive gender stereotypes and men who are low in domain identification. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 28(1), 51-63.

Spencer, S. J., Logel, C., & Davies, P. G. (2016). Stereotype threat. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 415-437.

Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 69(5), 797-811.

Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image:The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 379-440.

Swift, H. J., Abrams, D., & Marques, S. (2013). Threat or boost? Social comparison affects older people's performance differently depending on task domain. Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68(1), 23-30.

Tagler, M. J. (2012). Choking under the pressure of a positive stereotype:Gender identification and self-consciousness moderate men's math test performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 152(4), 401-416.

Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2003). Stereotype lift. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(5), 456-467.

Wheeler, S. C., & Petty, R. E. (2001). The effects of stereotype activation on behavior:A review of possible mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 127(6), 797-826.