DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.01307

Advances in Psychological Science (心理科学进展) 2018/26:7 PP.1307-1318

An analysis of the reverse mechanism how the victim turn into an instigator on workplace incivility

We reviewed and summarized organizational events that can potentially affect how victims of workplace incivility become instigators, including supervisor inaction, supervisor incivility, and coworker incivility. Based on the event system theory, we explained the cognitive process through which victims of workplace incivility become instigators. Specifically, if organizational events are strong enough to influence victims' controlled information processing, the victims might change their original behavioral pattern and engage uncivil behaviors. Based on the social information processing theory, victims' controlled information processing includes three different paths, including social learning, attribution, and moral judgment. We suggest future studies explore the role of other factors in the process of transmission from victims of workplace incivility to instigators, such as emotion, cognition, and factors outside the workplace. Daily diary method can be used to examine these processes. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to explore how witnesses of workplace incivility might also become instigators.

Key words:workplace incivility,event system theory,social learning,attribution,moral judgment

ReleaseDate:2018-08-06 13:54:55

王怀勇, 刘永芳. (2010). 归因特性对组织公正感的影响. 心理科学, 33(1), 83-86.

严瑜, 李佳丽. (2017). 超越不文明:从消极无礼的恶化升级到积极的文明干预. 心理科学进展, 25(2), 319-330.

严瑜, 王轶鸣. (2016). 工作场所无礼行为的溢出和交叉效应:超越职场范围的负性作用机制. 心理科学进展, 24(12), 1934-1945.

郑建君, 金盛华. (2009). 领导领域中归因理论的研究述评. 心理科学进展, 17(2), 432-441.

Akers, R. L., Krohn, M. D., Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Radosevich, M. (1979). Social learning and deviant behavior:A specific test of a general theory. American Sociological Review, 44(4), 636-655.

Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 452-471.

Avramova, Y. R., & Inbar, Y. (2013). Emotion and moral judgment. WIREs Cognitive Science, 4(2), 169-178.

Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. M. (1998). Ego depletion:Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1252-1265.

Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self-regulation, ego depletion, and motivation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1(1), 115-128.

Birkeland, I. K., & Nerstad, C. (2016). Incivility is (not) the very essence of love:Passion for work and incivility instigation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 21(1), 77-90.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York, NY:Wiley.

Bunk, J. A., & Magley, V. J. (2013). The role of appraisals and emotions in understanding experiences of workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(1), 87-105.

Cortina, L. M. (2008). Unseen injustice:Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 55-75.

Cortina, L. M., Kabat-Farr, D., Leskinen, E. A., Huerta, M., & Magley, V. J. (2013). Selective incivility as modern discrimination in organizations:Evidence and impact. Journal of Management, 39(6), 1579-1605.

Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2009). Patterns and profiles of response to incivility in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(3), 272-288.

Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace:Incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6(1), 64-80.

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory:An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874-900.

Douglas, S. C., Kiewitz, C., Martinko, M. J., Harvey, P., Kim, Y., & Chun, J. U. (2008). Cognitions, emotions, and evaluations:An elaboration likelihood model for workplace aggression. Academy of Management Review, 33(2), 425-451.

Evans, J. S. B. T., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Dual-process theories of higher cognition:Advancing the debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(3), 223-241.

Felson, R. B., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1993). Aggression and violence:Social interactionist perspectives. Washington, DC:American Psychological Association.

Ferguson, M. (2012). You cannot leave it at the office:Spillover and crossover of coworker incivility. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(4), 571-588.

Ferguson, T. J., & Rule, B. G. (1988). Children's evaluations of retaliatory aggression. Child Development, 59(4), 961-968.

Gallus, J. A., Bunk, J. A., Matthews, R. A., Barnes-Farrell, J. L., & Magley, V. J. (2014). An eye for an eye? Exploring the relationship between workplace incivility experiences and perpetration. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(2), 143-154.

Giumetti, G. W., Hatfield, A. L., Scisco, J. L., Schroeder, A. N., Muth, E. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (2013). What a rude e-mail! Examining the differential effects of incivility versus support on mood, energy, engagement, and performance in an online context. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(3), 297-309.

Harold, C. M., & Holtz, B. C. (2015). The effects of passive leadership on workplace incivility. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(1), 16-38.

Hershcovis, M. S. (2011). "Incivility, social undermining, bullying…Oh My!":A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(3), 499-519.

Hershcovis, M. S., Reich, T. C., Parker, S. K., & Bozeman, J. (2012). The relationship between workplace aggression and target deviant behaviour:The moderating roles of power and task interdependence. Work & Stress, 26(1), 1-20.

Keaveney, S. M. (2008). The blame game:An attribution theory approach to marketer-engineer conflict in high-technology companies. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(6), 653-663.

Laschinger, H. K. S., Leiter, M., Day, A., & Gilin, D. (2009). Workplace empowerment, incivility, and burnout:Impact on staff nurse recruitment and retention outcomes. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(3), 302-311.

Laschinger, H. K., Wong, C., Regan, S., Young-Ritchie, C., & Bushell, P. (2013). Workplace incivility and new graduate nurses' mental health:The protective role of resiliency. Journal of Nursing Administration, 43(7-8), 415-421.

Leiter, M. P., Laschinger, H. K. S., Day, A., & Oore, D. G. (2011). The impact of civility interventions on employee social behavior, distress, and attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6), 1258-1274.

Lim, S., Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2008). Personal and workgroup incivility:Impact on work and health outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 95-107.

Lim, S., & Lee, A. (2011). Work and nonwork outcomes of workplace incivility:Does family support help? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(1), 95-111.

Lim, S., & Tai, K. (2014). Family incivility and job performance:A moderated mediation model of psychological distress and core self-evaluation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(2), 351-359.

Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R. (1988). The social psychology of procedural justice. New York:Plenum Press.

Liu, W., Chi, S. C. S., Friedman, R., & Tsai, M. H. (2009). Explaining incivility in the workplace:The effects of personality and culture. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 2(2), 164-184.

Meier, L. L., & Gross, S. (2015). Episodes of incivility between subordinates and supervisors:Examining the role of self-control and time with an interaction-record diary study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(8), 1096-1113.

Milam, A. C., Spitzmueller, C., & Penney, L. M. (2009). Investigating individual differences among targets of workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(1), 58-69.

Miner, K. N., & Cortina, L. M. (2016). Observed workplace incivility toward women, perceptions of interpersonal injustice, and observer occupational well-being:Differential effects for gender of the observer. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 482.

Miner, K. N., & Eischeid, A. (2012). Observing incivility toward coworkers and negative emotions:Do gender of the target and observer matter?. Sex Roles, 66(7-8), 492-505.

Morgeson, F. P., Mitchell, T. R., & Liu, D. (2015). Event system theory:An event-oriented approach to the organizational sciences. Academy of Management Review, 40(4), 515-537.

O'Reilly, J., & Aquino, K. (2011). A model of third parties' morally motivated responses to mistreatment in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 36(3), 526-543.

Paulin, D., & Griffin, B. (2016). The relationships between incivility, team climate for incivility and job-related employee well-being:A multilevel analysis. Work & Stress, 30(2), 132-151.

Pearson, C. M., & Porath, C. L. (2004). On incivility, its impact, and directions for future research. In R. W. Griffin & A. M. O'Leary-Kelly (Eds.), The dark side of organizational behavior (pp. 403-425). San Francisco, CA:Jossey-Bass.

Porath, C. L., & Erez, A. (2007). Does rudeness really matter? The effects of rudeness on task performance and helpfulness. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1181-1197.

Porath, C. L., & Erez, A. (2009). Overlooked but not untouched:How rudeness reduces onlookers' performance on routine and creative tasks. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 109(1), 29-44.

Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2010). The cost of bad behavior. Organizational Dynamics, 39(1), 64-71.

Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2012). Emotional and behavioral responses to workplace incivility and the impact of hierarchical status. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(Suppl.), E326-E357.

Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2013). The price of incivility:Lack of respect hurts morale and the bottom line. Harvard Business Review, 115-121.

Reich, T. C., & Hershcovis, M. S. (2015). Observing workplace incivility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 203-215.

Rosen, C. C., Koopman, J., Gabriel, A. S., & Johnson, R. E. (2016). Who strikes back? A daily investigation of when and why incivility begets incivility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(11), 1620-1634.

Sakurai, K., & Jex, S. M. (2012). Coworker incivility and incivility targets' work effort and counterproductive work behaviors:The moderating role of supervisor social support. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(2), 150-161.

Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23(2), 224-253.

Scott, K. L., Restubog, S. L. D., & Zagenczyk, T. J. (2013). A social exchange-based model of the antecedents of workplace exclusion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), 37-48.

Skarlicki, D. P., & Rupp, D. E. (2010). Dual processing and organizational justice:The role of rational versus experiential processing in third-party reactions to workplace mistreatment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 944-952.

Sliter, M., Withrow, S., & Jex, S. M. (2015). It happened, or you thought it happened? Examining the perception of workplace incivility based on personality characteristics. International Journal of Stress Management, 22(1), 24-45.

Smith, C. A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Appraisal components, core relational themes, and the emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 7(3-4), 233-269.

Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2015). Recovery from job stress:The stressor-detachment model as an integrative framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(S1), S72-S103.

Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002). An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior:Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 12(2), 269-292.

Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), 548-573.

Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory:Theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 18(3), 1-74.

Welbourne, J. L., Gangadharan, A., & Esparza, C. A. (2016). Coping style and gender effects on attitudinal responses to incivility. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(3), 720-738.

Welbourne, J. L., & Sariol, A. M. (2017). When does incivility lead to counterproductive work behavior? Roles of job involvement, task interdependence, and gender. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(2), 194-206.

Zalesny, M. D., & Ford, J. K. (1990). Extending the social information processing perspective:New links to attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 47(2), 205-246.

Zhou, Z. E., Yan, Y., Che, X. X., & Meier, L. L. (2015). Effect of workplace incivility on end-of-work negative affect:Examining individual and organizational moderators in a daily diary study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 20(1), 117-130.