Arid Zone Research (干旱区研究) 2011/28:1 PP.25-30
Distribution patterns of biodiversity at large scale and their affecting factors are one of the focal issues of ecology. Xinjiang is located in an extremely arid area in northwest China, where there are ideal places to explore the distribution patterns of species richness and their affecting factors under extreme conditions because of the complicated topographical and climatic conditions and the diversity of habitats. In this study, the relationships between the distribution patterns of species richness of vascular plants and the climatic factors in Xinjiang are analyzed based on the available data of vascular plants and climatic factors. The results reveal that the species richness increases with the increase of annual precipitation (AP) and actual evapotranspiration (AET), and the curve of species richness of vascular plants with the increase of MAT and PET is unimodal. In all the subregions, species richness increases significantly with AP. Species richness patterns with the increase of MAT are different in the mountains and basins, it increases at first and then decreases with the increase of MAT in mountains, but decreases monotonically in the basins. At different water deficit (WD) levels, the increase rate of species richness is decreased with the increase of AP at high WD. Species richness increases with the increase of MAT at low WD level but decreases at high WD level.
 Francis A P,Currie D J.A globally consistent richness-climate relationship for angiosperms[J].The American Naturalist,2003,161(4):523-536.
 Ricklefs R E.A comprehensive framework for global patterns in biodiversity[J].Ecology Letters,2004,7(1):1-15.
 Currie D J,Mittelbach G G,Cornell H V,et al.Predictions and tests of climate-based hypotheses of broad-scale variation in taxonomic richness[J].Ecology Letters,2004,7(12):1 121-1 134.
 Kreft H,Jets W.Global patterns and determinants of vascular diversity[J].Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,2007,104(14):5 925-5 930.
 Barthlott W,Hostert A,Kier G,et al.Geographic patterns of vascular plant diversity at continental to global scales[J].Erdkunde,2007,61(4):305-316.
 Rahbek C,Gary G R.Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness[J].Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,2001,98(8):4 534-4 539.
 Palmer M W,White P S.Scale dependence and the species area relationship[J].The American Naturalist,1994,144(5):717-740.
 Hutchinson G E.Homage to Santa Rosalia,or why are there so ma-ny kinds of animals?[J].The American Naturalist,1959,93(3):145-159.
 Wright D H.Species-energy theory:An extension of species-area theory[J].Island Ecology,1983,41(3):496-506.
 Fraser R H,Currie D J.The species richness-energy hypothesis in a system where historical factors are thought to prevail:Coral reefs[J].The American Naturalist,1996,148(1):138-159.
 Gaston K J.Global patterns in biodiversity[J].Nature,2000,405:220-226.
 O’Brien E M.Climatic gradients in woody plant species richness:Towards an explanation based on an analysis of Southern Africa’s woody flora[J].Journal of Biogeography,1993,20(2):181-198.
 O’Brien E M.Water-energy dynamics,climate and prediction of woody plant species richness:An interim general model[J].Journal of Biogeography,1998,25(2):379-398.
 O’Brien E M,Whittaker R J,Field R.Climate and woody plant diversity in southern Africa:Relationships at species,genus and family levels[J].Ecography,1998,21(5):495-509.
 O’Brien E M,Field R,Whittaker R J.Climatic gradients in woody plant(tree and shrub) diversity:Water-energy dynamics,residual variation,and topography[J].Oikos,2000,89(3):588-600.
 O’Brien E M.Biological relativity to water-energy dynamics[J].Journal of Biogeography,2006,33(11):1 868-1 888.
 Connell J H,Eduardo O.The ecological regulation of species diversity[J].The American Naturalist,1964,98(6):399-414.
 Ricklefs R E.Community diversity:relative roles of local and regional processes[J].Science,1987,235:167-171.
 Shmida A,Wilson M V.Biological determinants of species diversity[J].Journal of Biogeography,1985,12(1):1-20.
 Rosenzweig M L.Species Diversity in Space and Time[M].Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1995.
 Vitousek P M,Mooney H A,Lubchenco J,et al.Human domination of earth’s ecosystems[J].Science,1997,277:494-499.
 Gaston K J.Biodiversity and extinction:Species and people[J].Progress in Physical Geography,2005,29(2):239-247.
 Fang J Y,Wang Z H,Zhao S Q,et al.Biodiversity changes in the lakes of the Central Yangtze[J].Frontiers of Ecology and the Environment,2006,4(7):369-377.
 Gurevitch J,Scheiner S M,Fox G A.The Ecology of Plants[M].Sunderland,Massachusetts USA:Sinauer Associates,Inc.,2002.
 Currie D J.Energy and large scale patterns of animal and plant species richness[J].The American Naturalist,1991,137(1):27-49.
 Kerr J T,Packer L.Habitat heterogeneity as a determinant of mammal species richness in high-energy regions[J].Nature,1997,385:252-254.
 新疆植物志编辑委员会.新疆植物志:第一卷、第二卷第一分册、第二卷第二分册、第四卷、第五卷、第六卷[M].乌鲁木齐:新疆科学技术出版社,1992-2004.[Commissione Redactorum Florae Xinjiangensis.Flora Xinjiangensis:Tomus 1,Tomus 2(1),Tomus 2(2),Tomus 4,Tomus 5,Tomus 6[M].Urumqi:Xinjiang Science & Technology Publishing House,1992-2004.]
 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所.新疆资源生态环境数据库[DB/OL].http://www.oasis.csdb.cn,2007.[Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography,Chinese Academy of Sciences.Xinjiang ecological resources and environment database[DB/OL].http://www.oasis.csdb.cn,2007.]
 Hijmans R J,Cameron S E,Parra J L,et al.Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas[J].International Journal of Climatology,2005,25:1 965-1 978.
 Fang J Y.Distribution of Vegetation and Climate in China[D].Osaka:Doctoral thesis of Osaka City University,1989.
 Fang J Y,Yoda K.Climate and vegetation in China III.Water balance and distribution of vegetation[J].Ecological Research,1990,5(1):9-23.
 Zhao S Q,Fang J Y.Patterns of species richness for vascular plants in China’s nature reserves[J].Diversity and Distributions,2006,12:364-372.