doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1245.2011.00046

Asian Herpetological Research 2011/2:1 PP.46-54

The Snakes of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara), Indonesia


Abstract:
From the existing literature and data from museum specimens an overview is presented of all currently known terrestrial and semi-aquatic snakes of the Lesser Sunda Islands, in the Wallacean area of Indonesia. In total, twenty-nine species are known to inhabit the area. Of these eight are endemic to the area: Boiga hoeseli, Coelognathus subradiatus, Dendrelaphis inornatus, Stegonotus florensis, Cylindrophis opisthorhodus, Broghammerus timoriensis, Liasis mackloti and Typhlops schmutzi. Insular endemism is only found at the subspecific level, including Liasis mackloti dunni (Wetar), Liasis mackloti savuensis (Sawu), Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus brongersmai (Sumba), Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus elberti (Lombok) and Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus florensis (Flores). Such endemism may be due to the relatively young geological age of the Lesser Sunda Islands and that the snake fauna is still underestimated. Taxonomy of the genus Cylindrophis, the species Coelognathus subradiatus, Dendrelaphis inornatus, Cryptelytrops insularis, and the five subspecies of Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus need to be reviewed. Ecological studies are urgently required to establish if the species Broghammerus timoriensis and Liasis mackloti savuensis are endangered and which conservation measures should be taken. Telah dilakukan pengamatan ulang dari kepustakaan yang ada, data dari databank Western Australian Museum, maupun koleksi museum. Hasil tersebut dirangkum dalam suatu tinjauan mengenai semua jenis ular yang hidup di darat maupun di air-tawar dari daerah Nusa Tenggara sebagai bagian dari daerah Wallacea. Jumlah jenis yang dapat dipastikan berjumlah dua puluh sembilan jenis, dan delapan di antaranya merupakan jenis yang endemik, yaitu Boiga hoeseli, Coelognathus subradiatus, Dendrelaphis inornatus, Stegonotus florensis, Cylindrophis opisthorhodus, Broghammerus timoriensis, Liasis mackloti dan Typhlops schmutzi. Jenis endemic dalam daerah pulau hanya meliputi anak jenis: Liasis mackloti dunni (Wetar), Liasis mackloti savuensis (Sawu), Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus brongersmai (Sumba), Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus elberti (Lombok) dan Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus florensis (Flores). Hal ini diperkirakan merupakan konsekuensi langsung dari sejarah geologi yang relatif singkat namun dapat juga disebabkan karena kekayaan jenis ular kurang dipelajari dengan lebih seksama. Kedudukan sistematik dari Coelognathus subradiatus, Dendrelaphis inornatus, Cylindrophis boulengeri, C. opisthorhodus, dan ke-lima subspecies Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus serta Cryptelytrops insularis perlu ditinjau kembali. Jenis-jenis yang diperkirakan terancam dan perlu perlindungan adalah jenis-jenis piton Broghammerus timoriensis dan Liasis mackloti savuensis. Penelitian ekologi perlu segara dilakukan untuk menentukan apakah jenis-jenis tersebut perlu perlindungan, dan juga tindakan konservasi yang mana bisa diambil.

Key words:Ophidia, serpents, Lesser Sunda Islands, Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, Timor-Leste, checklist, distribution

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 15:50:50



Auffenberg W. 1980. The herpetofauna of Komodo, with notes on adjacent areas. Bull Florida State Museum Biol Sci, 25 (2): 39-156

BAPPENAS (Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional) 1993. Biodiversity Action Plan for Indonesia. Ministry of National Development Planning, National Development Planning Agency, Jakarta, Indonesia, 141 pp

Boback S. M. 2003. Body size evolution in snakes: Evidence from island populations. Copeia, (1): 81-94

Boback S. M., Guyer C. 2003. Empirical evidence for an optimal body size in snakes. Evolution, 57 (2): 345-351

De Lang R., Vogel G. 2005. The Snakes of Sulawesi. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Edition Chimaira, 312 pp

Holloway J. D. 2003. Biological images of geological history: through a glass darkly or brightly face to face? J Biogeogr, 30: 165-179

How R. A., Kitchener D.J. 1997. Biogeography of Indonesian snakes. J Biogeogr, 24 (6): 725-735

How R. A., Schmitt L. H., Maharadatunkamsi. 1996a. Geographical variation in the genus Dendrelaphis (Serpentes: Colubridae) within the islands of south-eastern Indonesia. J Zool 238 (2): 351-363

How R. A., Schmitt L. H., Suyanto A. 1996b. Geographical variation in the morphology of four snake species from the Lesser Sunda Islands, eastern Indonesia. Biol J Linnean Soc, 59 (4): 439-456

Ibarrondo B. R. 2006. Die Situation des Savu-Pythons. ZGAP Mitteilungen, 22 (1): 12-14 (In German)

Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics. 2010. http://www.bps.go.id

Iskandar D. T. 1998. The biogeography of Cylindrophis (Ophidia, Cylindrophiidae) in Wallacea. In Prawiradilaga D. M., Amir M., Sugardjito J. (Eds), Proc Second Int Conf on Eastern Indonesian-Australian Vertebrate Fauna. LIPI, Indonesian Wildlife Society, Fauna Flora International, Indonesia Programme, Directorate General of Tourism R.I. 32-40

Iskandar D. T., Erdelen W. 2006. Conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Indonesia: issues and problems. Amphib Rept Conserv, 4 (1): 60-87

Kuchling G., Rhodin A. G. J., Ibarrondo B. R., Trainor C. R. 2007. A new subspecies of the Snakeneck Turtle Chelodina mccordi from Timor-Leste (East Timor) (Testudines: Chelidae). Chelonian Conserv Biol, 6 (2): 213-222

MacArthur R. H., Wilson E. O. 1969. The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press, 203 pp

Michaux B. 2010. Biogeology of Wallacea: Geotectonic models, areas of endemism, and natural biogeographical units. Biol J Linnean Soc, 101: 193-212

Mittermeier R. A., Myers N., Goettsch Mittermeier C., Robles Gil P. 1999. Hotspots: Earth’s biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. Mexico City: CEMEX Conservation International, 430 pp

Monk K. A., De Fretes Y., Reksodiharjo-Lilley G. 1997. The ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. The Ecology of Indonesia Series, Vol V. HongKong: Periplus Editions Ltd, 966 pp

Ramadhan G., Iskandar D. T., Subasri D. R. 2010. A new species of Cat Snake (Serpentes: Colubridae) morphologically similar to Boiga cynodon from the Nusa Tenggara Islands, Indonesia. Asian Herpetol Res, 1 (1): 22-30

Richardson A. N., Blundell D. J. 1996. Continental collision in the Banda Arc. Geolog Soc Special Publ, 106: 47-60

Samedi, Iskandar D. T. 2000. Freshwater Turtle and Tortoise Conservation and Utilization in Indonesia. In Van Dijk P. P., Stuart B. L., Rhodin A. G. J. Asian Turtle Trade: Proc Workshop on Conserv and Trade of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises in Asia. Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 1-4 December 1999. Chelonian Research Monographs, 2: 106-111

Shepherd C. R., Ibarrondo B. 2005. The Trade of the Roti Island Snake-necked Turtle Chelodina Mccordi. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia

Stuebing R. B., Inger R. F. 1999. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia: Natural History Publications, 254 pp

Teynié A., David P., Ohler A. 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1-43

Whittaker R. J., Fernández-Palacios J. M. 2007. The biogeography of island life: Biodiversity hotspots in context. Chapter 3. Oxford, UK: University Press

Whitten A. J., Mustafa M., Henderson G. S. 1987. The ecology of Sulawesi. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada Univ Press, 777 pp

Wüster W., Thorpe R. S. 1989. Population affinities of the Asiatic cobras (Naja naja) species complex in Southeast Asia: Reliability and random resampling. Biol J Linnean Soc 36 (4): 391-409

Yuwono F. B. 1998. The trade of live reptiles in Indonesia. Conservation, Trade and Sustainable Use of Lizards and Snakes in Indonesia. Mertensiella 9: 9-15. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde (DGHT)