DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1245.2011.00046

Asian Herpetological Research 2011/2:1 PP.46-54

The Snakes of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara), Indonesia

From the existing literature and data from museum specimens an overview is presented of all currently known terrestrial and semi-aquatic snakes of the Lesser Sunda Islands, in the Wallacean area of Indonesia. In total, twenty-nine species are known to inhabit the area. Of these eight are endemic to the area: Boiga hoeseli, Coelognathus subradiatus, Dendrelaphis inornatus, Stegonotus florensis, Cylindrophis opisthorhodus, Broghammerus timoriensis, Liasis mackloti and Typhlops schmutzi. Insular endemism is only found at the subspecific level, including Liasis mackloti dunni (Wetar), Liasis mackloti savuensis (Sawu), Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus brongersmai (Sumba), Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus elberti (Lombok) and Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus florensis (Flores). Such endemism may be due to the relatively young geological age of the Lesser Sunda Islands and that the snake fauna is still underestimated. Taxonomy of the genus Cylindrophis, the species Coelognathus subradiatus, Dendrelaphis inornatus, Cryptelytrops insularis, and the five subspecies of Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus need to be reviewed. Ecological studies are urgently required to establish if the species Broghammerus timoriensis and Liasis mackloti savuensis are endangered and which conservation measures should be taken. Telah dilakukan pengamatan ulang dari kepustakaan yang ada, data dari databank Western Australian Museum, maupun koleksi museum. Hasil tersebut dirangkum dalam suatu tinjauan mengenai semua jenis ular yang hidup di darat maupun di air-tawar dari daerah Nusa Tenggara sebagai bagian dari daerah Wallacea. Jumlah jenis yang dapat dipastikan berjumlah dua puluh sembilan jenis, dan delapan di antaranya merupakan jenis yang endemik, yaitu Boiga hoeseli, Coelognathus subradiatus, Dendrelaphis inornatus, Stegonotus florensis, Cylindrophis opisthorhodus, Broghammerus timoriensis, Liasis mackloti dan Typhlops schmutzi. Jenis endemic dalam daerah pulau hanya meliputi anak jenis: Liasis mackloti dunni (Wetar), Liasis mackloti savuensis (Sawu), Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus brongersmai (Sumba), Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus elberti (Lombok) dan Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus florensis (Flores). Hal ini diperkirakan merupakan konsekuensi langsung dari sejarah geologi yang relatif singkat namun dapat juga disebabkan karena kekayaan jenis ular kurang dipelajari dengan lebih seksama. Kedudukan sistematik dari Coelognathus subradiatus, Dendrelaphis inornatus, Cylindrophis boulengeri, C. opisthorhodus, dan ke-lima subspecies Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus serta Cryptelytrops insularis perlu ditinjau kembali. Jenis-jenis yang diperkirakan terancam dan perlu perlindungan adalah jenis-jenis piton Broghammerus timoriensis dan Liasis mackloti savuensis. Penelitian ekologi perlu segara dilakukan untuk menentukan apakah jenis-jenis tersebut perlu perlindungan, dan juga tindakan konservasi yang mana bisa diambil.

Key words:Ophidia, serpents, Lesser Sunda Islands, Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, Timor-Leste, checklist, distribution

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 15:50:50

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