doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1245.2011.00199

Asian Herpetological Research 2011/2:4 PP.199-215

Reproductive Behavior and Underwater Calls in the Emei Mustache Toad, Leptobrachium boringii


Abstract:
The Emei mustache toad, Leptobrachium boringii (Megophryidae), is terrestrial but breeds in permanent streams. Primarily, it has a polygynous mating system and polyandry also occurs. The species vigorously defends submerged nest sites. We report on a reproductive study at Mt. Emei, western China conducted in 2004, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2011 during the breeding season. Males produce both advertisement and courtship calls underwater, and the latter differs from the former in having an additional trill-like last note of low intensity. Females might determine the oviposition location and hence the egg mass location. A low, submissive posture can be adopted by the male to avoid being attacked by other males. When fighting, the maxillary nuptial spines are employed as weapons, and males hold their opponents on their spines with the forelimbs that enlarge during the breeding season. Male body size and the quantity of fight wounds on its ventral side are positively correlated. Satellite male mating might exist in L. boringii. Additionally, underwater calls from another population of this species and a population of L. leishanense generally are similar to those of the population from Mt. Emei.

Key words:advertisement call, courtship call, underwater call, male combat, male weaponry, nest inspection, satellite male, reproductive tactic

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 16:05:28



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