doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1245.2011.00234

Asian Herpetological Research 2011/2:4 PP.234-239

Asymmetry of Testes in Guenther’s Frog, Hylarana guentheri (Anuar: Ranidae)


Abstract:
Testes size in most animals commonly shows directional asymmetry. In birds, the left testis mass is usually larger than the right one, but the reports on the testes asymmetry in anurans are very few. Møller (1994) hypothesized that the right testis serves a compensatory role and increases in size when the left one is defective, and further suggested that testes asymmetry may be a reliable indicator of individual body condition. In this paper, we tested the compensation hypothesis in the Guenther's frog, Hylarana guentheri. From 60 sampled males, we found that there was a significant directional asymmetry in testes mass, with the left testis size being significantly correlated with relative testes asymmetry, providing evidence that the right testis had a compensatory function. However, testes mass and asymmetry were not correlated with body condition. Hence, we found no evidence that testes asymmetry in the Guenther's frog reflected male condition, and male age was also not related to testes mass or asymmetry.

Key words:directional testes asymmetry, compensation hypothesis, body condition, Hylarana guentheri

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 16:05:29



Bailey R. O. 1979. Methods of estimating total lipid content in the redhead duck (Aythya americana) and an evaluation of condition indices. Can J Zool, 57: 1830-1833

Birkhead T. R., Buchanan K. L., Devoogd T. J., Pellatt E. J., Szèkely, T., Catchpole C. K. 1997. Song, sperm quality and testes asymmetry in the sedge warbler. Anim Behav, 53: 965-971

Birkhead T. R., Fletcher F., Pellatt E. J. 1998. Testes asymmetry, condition and sexual selection in birds: an experimental test. Proc Royal Soc London B, 265: 1185-1189

Bolger T., Connolly P. 1989. The selection of suitable indices for the measurement and analysis of fish condition. J Fish Biol, 34: 171-182

Castanet J., Smirina E. 1990. Introduction to the skeletochronological method in amphibians and reptiles. Ann de Sci Nat Zool (Paris), 11: 191-196

Chen B. Y., Liao W. B., Mi Z. P. 2011. Body size and age of the China Wood Frog (Rana chensinensis) in northeastern China. North-Western J Zool, 7: 236-242

Dobson F. S. 1992. Body mass, structural size and life-history patterns of the Columbian ground squirrel. Am Nat, 140: 109-125

Dobson F. S., Michener G. R. 1995. Maternal traits and reproduction in Richardson’s ground squirrels. Ecology, 76: 851-862

Fei L., Ye C. Y. 2001. The Colour Handbook of Amphibians of Sichuan. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House

Friedmann H. 1927. Testicular asymmetry and sex ratio in birds. Biol Pharm Bull, 52: 197-207

Graves G. R. 2004. Testicular volume and asymmetry are agedependent in black-throated blue warblers (Dendroica caerulescens). Auk, 121: 473-485

Guinet C., Roux J. P., Bonnet M., Mison V. 1998. Effect of body size, body mass, and body condition on reproduction of female South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) in Namibia. Can J Zool, 76: 1418-1424

Hemelaar A. S. M., Van Gelder J. J. 1980. Annual growth rings in phalanges of Bufo bufo (Anura, Amphibia) from the Netherlands and their use for age determination. Neth J Zool, 30: 129-135

Hettyey A., Laurila A., Herczeg G., Jönsson K. I., Kovács T., Merilä J. 2005. Does testis weight decline towards the Subarctic? A case study on the common frog, Rana temporaria. Naturwissenschaften, 92: 188-192

Jakob E. M., Marshall S. D., Uetz G. W. 1996. Estimating fitness: A comparison of body condition indices. Oikos, 77: 61-67

Jamieson B. G. M., Briskie J. V., Montgomerie R. 2007. Testis size, sperm size and sperm competition. In Jamieson B. G. M. (Ed.), Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Birds. Part A: Phylogeny, Morphology, Hormones, Fertilization. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, 513-551

Kempenaers B., Peer K., Vermeirssen E. L. M., Robertson R. J. 2002. Testes size and asymmetry in the tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor: A test of the compensation hypothesis. Avian Sci, 3: 115-122

Kimball R. T., Ligon D. J., Merola-Zwartjes M. 1997. Testicular asymmetry and secondary sexual characters in red junglefowl. Auk, 114: 221-228

Kotiaho J. S. 1999. Estimating fitness: Comparison of body condition indices revisited. Oikos, 87: 399-400

Lake P. E. 1981. Male genital organs. In King A. S., McLelland J. (Eds.), Form and Function in Birds. London: Acad Press, 1-61

Li C., Liao W. B . , Yang Z. S., Zhou C. Q. 2010. A skeletochronological estimation of age structure in a population of the Guenther’s frog, Hylarana guentheri, from western China. Acta Herpetol, 5(1): 1-11

Liao W. B., Lu X. 2010a. Age structure and body size of the Chuanxi tree frog Hyla annectans chuanxiensis from two different elevations in Sichuan (China). Zool Anz, 248: 255-263

Liao W. B., Lu X. 2010b. Age and growth of a subtropical highelevation torrent frog, Amolops mantzorum, in western China. J Herpetol, 44: 172-176

Liao W. B., Lu X. 2010c. A skeletochronological estimation of age and body size by the Sichuan torrent frog (Amolops mantzorum) between two populations at different altitudes. Anim Biol, 60: 479-489

Liao W. B., Lu X. 2011a. Variation in body size, age and growth in the Omei Treefrog (Rhacophorus omeimontis) along an altitudinal gradient in western China. Ethol Ecol Evol, 23: 248-261

Liao W. B., Lu X. 2011b. Adult body size = f (initial size + growth rate × age): Explaining the proximate cause of Bergman’s cline in a toad along altitudinal gradients. Evol Ecol. DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9501-y (In press)

Liao W. B., Lu X., Shen Y. W., Hu J. C. 2011. Age structure and body size of two populations of the rice frog Rana limnocharis from different altitudes. Ital J Zool, 78: 215-228

Ligon J. D. 1997. A single functional testis as a unique proximate mechanism promoting sex-role reversal in coucals. Auk, 114: 800-801

Møller A. P. 1989. Ejaculate quality, testes size and sperm production in mammals. Funct Ecol, 3: 91-96

Møller A. P. 1991. Sperm competition, sperm depletion, paternal care, and relative testis size in birds. Am Nat, 137: 882-906

Møller A. P. 1994. Directional selection on directional asymmetry: Testes size and secondary sexual characters in birds. Proc Roy Soc Lond B, 258: 147-151

Møller A. P., Briskie J. V. 1995. Extra-pair paternity, sperm competition and the evolution of testis size in birds. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 36: 357-365

Møller A. P., Swaddle J. P. 1997. Asymmetry, developmental stability, and evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Olsson M., Madsen T., Shine R. 1997. Is sperm really so cheap? Costs of reproduction in male adders, Vipera berus. Proc Roy Soc Lond B, 264: 455-459

Olsson M., Madsen T. 1998. Sexual selection and sperm competition in reptiles. In Birkhead T. R., Møller A. P. (Eds.), Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection. San Diego, CA: Acad Press, 503-577

Parker G. A. 1998. Sperm competition and the evolution of ejaculates: Towards a theory base. In Birkhead T. R., Møller A. P. (Eds.), Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection. San Diego, CA: Acad Press, 3-54

Rising J. D. 1987. Geographic variation in testis size in Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). Wilson Bull, 99: 63-72

Rising J. D. 1996. Relationship between testis size and mating systems in American sparrows (Emberizinae). Auk, 113: 224-228

Schulte-Hostedde A. I., Millar J. S., Hickling G. J. 2005. Condition dependence of testis size in small mammals. Evol Ecol Res, 7: 143-149

Schulte-Hostedde A. I., Millar J. S., Hickling G. J. 2001. Evaluating body condition in small mammals. Can J Zool, 79: 1021-1029

Selander R. K., Hauser R. J. 1965. Gonadal and behavioral cycles in the Great-tailed Grackle. Condor, 67: 157-182

Sheldon B. C. 1994. Male phenotype, fertility, and the pursuit of extra-pair copulations by female birds. Proc Roy Soc Lond B, 257: 25-30

Wauters L. A., Dhondt A. A. 1995. Lifetime reproductive success and its correlates in female Eurasian red squirrels. Oikos, 72: 402-410

Wells K. D. 1977. The social behaviour of anuran amphibians. Anim Behav, 25: 666-693

Wright P. L., Wright M. H. 1944. The reproductive cycle of the male Red-winged Blackbird. Condor, 46: 46-59

Yu Z. H. 1998. Asymmetrical testicular weights in mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibia. Int J Androl, 21: 53-55

Zhou C. Q., Mao M., Liao W. B., Mi Z. P., Liu Y. H. 2011. Testis asymmetry in the dark-spotted frog Rana nigromaculata. Herpetol J, 21: 181-185

PDF