doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14203

Biodiversity Science (生物多样性) 2014/22:6 PP.685-695

Camera-trapping in wildlife research and conservation in China: review and outlook


Abstract:
During the last two decades, infrared-triggered camera-trapping has been widely used in wildlife and biodiversity research and conservation. In the areas of wildlife ecology research, animal species inventory, biodiversity monitoring and protected area management in China, considerable outputs have been produced by scientific research and conservation applications based on camera-trapping. This technique has been successfully used to detect rare or elusive species, conduct biodiversity inventory, study animal behavior, estimate population parameters, and evaluate the effectiveness of protected area management. Along with the rapid development of modern ecological analysis and modeling tools, camera-trapping will play a more important role in wildlife research at various levels. Meanwhile, along with improvements in techniques, decreasing cost and increasing application interests, camera-trapping will be adopted by more researchers, wildlife managers and protected areas, and can be used for systematic wildlife monitoring using standard protocols. Efforts devoted to its future development and applications should focus on establishing systematically-designed monitoring networks and data-sharing protocols, and developing new analytical approaches and statistical models specifically based on camera-trapping data.

Key words:camera-trapping,wildlife ecology,monitoring index,population parameter,ecological modeling

ReleaseDate:2015-03-10 09:14:40



Ahumada JA, Hurtado J, Lizcano D (2013) Monitoring the status and trends of tropical forest terrestrial vertebrate communities from camera trap data: a tool for conservation. PLoS ONE, 8, e73707.

Athreya V, Odden M, Linnell JD, Krishnaswamy J, Karanth U (2013) Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carni-vores in a human dominated landscape in India. PLoS ONE, 8, e57872.

Azlan JM, Sharma DSK (2006) The diversity and activity pat-terns of wild felids in a secondary forest in Peninsular Ma-laysia. Oryx, 40, 36-41.

Can DN, Abramov AV, Tikhonov AN, Averianov AO (2001) Annamite striped rabbit Nesolagus timminsi in Vietnam. Acta Theriologica, 46, 437-440.

Carter NH, Shrestha BK, Karki JB, Pradhan NMB, Liu J (2012) Coexistence between wildlife and humans at fine spatial scales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 109, 15360-15365.

Carthew SM, Slater E (1991) Monitoring animal activity with automated photography. The Journal of Wildlife Manage-ment, 55, 689-692.

Champion FW (1927) With a Camera in Tiger-land. Chatto & Windus, London.

Chen MT, Tewes ME, Pei KJ, Grassman LI Jr. (2009) Activ-ity patterns and habitat use of sympatric small carnivores in southern Taiwan. Mammalia, 73, 20-26.

Cutler TL, Swann DE (1999) Using remote photography in wildlife ecology: a review. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 27, 571-581.

Datta A, Anand MO, Naniwadekar R (2008) Empty forests: large carnivore and prey abundance in Namdapha National Park, north-east India. Biological Conservation, 141, 1429-1435.

Dinata Y, Nugroho A, Haidir IA, Linkie M (2008) Camera trapping rare and threatened avifauna in west-central Sumatra. Bird Conservation International, 18, 30-37.

Feng LM, Jutzeler E (2010) Clouded leopard. Cat News (Special Issue), 5, 34-36.

Feng LM, Lin L, Zhang LT, Wang LF, Wang B, Yang SH, Smith JLD, Luo SJ, Zhang L (2008) Evidence of wild tigers in Southwest China—a preliminary survey of the Xishuang-banna National Nature Reserve. Cat News, 48, 4-6.

Feng LM (冯利民), Wang LF (王利繁), Wang B (王斌), Smith JLD, Zhang L (张立) (2013) Population status of the Indo-Chinese tiger (Panthera tigris cobetti) and density of the three primary ungulate prey species in Shangyong Nature Reserve, Xishuangbanna, China. Acta Theriologica Sinica (兽类学报), 33, 308-318. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Feng LM, Wang TM, Mou P, Kou XJ, Ge JP (2011) First im-age of an Amur leopard recorded in China. Cat News, 55, 9.

Feng T (封托), Zhang HF (张洪峰), Wu XM (吴晓民) (2013) Utilization of wildlife underpasses on Qinghai-Tibet railway during the operation. Shaanxi Forest Science and Technology (陕西林业科技), (6), 42-45. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Foster ML, Humphrey SR (1995) Use of highway underpasses by Florida panthers and other wildlife. Wildlife Society Bul-letin, 23, 95-100.

Foster RJ, Harmsen BJ (2012) A critique of density estimation from camera-trap data. Journal of Wildlife Management, 76, 224-236.

Fu P (付鹏), Zhang Y (张宇), Wu XM (吴晓民), Wang GL (王光磊) (2011) Validity analysis on animal passages along Qinghai-Tibet Railway. Environmental Science and Man-agement (环境科学与管理), 36, 98-106. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Gopalaswamy AM, Royle JA, Delampady M, Nichols JD, Ka-ranth KU, Macdonald DW (2012) Density estimation in tiger populations: combining information for strong inference. Ecology, 93, 1741-1751.

Hernandez F, Rollins D, Cantu R (1997) An evaluation of Trailmaster camera system for identifying ground-nest pre-dators. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 25, 848-853.

Hines JE, Boulinier T, Nichols JD, Sauer JR, Pollock KH (1999) COMDYN: software to study the dynamics of animal communities using a capture-recapture approach. Bird Study, 46, 209-217.

Huang Z, Qi X, Garber PA, Jin T, Guo S, Li S, Li B (2014) The use of camera traps to identify the set of scavengers preying on the carcass of a golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithe-cus roxellana). PLoS ONE, 9, e87318.

Jackson RM, Roe JD, Wangchuk R, Hunter DO (2005) Sur-veying Snow Leopard Populations with Emphasis on Camera Trapping: A Handbook. The Snow Leopard Conservancy, Sonoma, California.

Jackson RM, Roe JD, Wangchuk R, Hunter DO (2006) Esti-mating snow leopard population abundance using photo-graphy and capture-recapture techniques. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34, 772-781.

Jacobson HA, Kroll JC, Browning RW, Koerth BH, Conway MH (1997) Infrared-triggered cameras for censuring white-tailed deer. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 25, 547-556.

Karanth KU (1988) Analysis of predator-prey balance in Ban-dipur Tiger Reserve with reference to census reports. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 85, 1-8.

Karanth KU (1995) Estimating tiger (Pathera tigris) populations from camera-trap data using capture-recapture models. Biological Conservation, 71, 333-338.

Karanth KU, Nichols JD (1998) Estimation of tiger densities in India using photographic captures and recaptures. Ecology, 79, 2852-2862.

Kucera TE, Barrett RH (2011) A history of camera trapping. In: Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses (eds O'Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU), pp. 9-26. Springer, New York.

Li J, Schaller GB, McCarthy TM, Wang D, Jiagong Z, Cai P, Basang L, Lu Z (2013) A communal sign post of snow leo-pard (Panthera uncia) and other species on the Tibetan Pla-teau, China. International Journal of Biodiversity, 2013, Ar-ticle ID 370905, 1-8.

Li M (李敏), Wang JC (汪继超), Liu HW (刘海伟), Shi HT (史海涛) (2014) Simulation of Cuora galbinifrons nest pre-dation. Chinese Journal of Ecology (生态学杂志), 33, 1629-1633. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Li Q (李勤), Wu JG (邬建国), Kou XJ (寇晓军), Feng LM (冯利民) (2013) Applications of camera trap in wildlife popu-lation ecology. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology (应用生态学报), 24, 947-955. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Li S (李晟) (2009) The Diversity of Large-and Medium-sized Mammals and Pheasants in Minshan and Qionglai Moun-tains: Status Assessment, Determinate Factor Analysis, and Application in Conservation Management (岷山及邛崃山大中型兽类和雉类多样性: 现状评估, 影响因子分析, 及保护管理应用). PhD dissertation, Peking University, Beijing. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Li S, McShea WJ, Wang DJ, Shao LK, Shi XG (2010a) The use of infrared-triggered cameras for surveying phasianids in Sichuan Province, China. IBIS, 152, 299-309.

Li S, Wang DJ, Gu XD, McShea WJ (2010b) Beyond pandas, the need for a standardized monitoring protocol for large mammals in Chinese nature reserves. Biodiversity and Con-servation, 19, 3195-3206.

Li S, Wang DJ, Lu Z, McShea WJ (2010c) Cats living with pandas: the status of wild felids within giant panda range, China. Cat News, 52, 20-23.

Li S, McShea WJ, Wang DJ, Lu Z, Gu XD (2012a) Gauging the impact of management expertise on the distribution of large mammals across protected areas. Diversity and Distributions, 18, 1166-1176.

Li S, McShea WJ, Wang DJ, Huang JZ, Shao LK (2012b) A direct comparison of camera-trapping and sign transects for monitoring wildlife in a giant panda reserve, China. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 36, 538-545.

Li S (李晟), Zhang XF (张晓峰), Chen P (陈鹏), Wang J (王军), Xiang DQ (向定乾), Dong W (董伟), Zhang XM (张希明), He BS (何百锁), Sun RQ (孙瑞谦), Zhao NX (赵纳勋), Wang DJ (王大军) (2014) The community structure and evelva-tional patterns of forest ungulates at the southern slope of the Qinling Mountains, China. Chinese Journal of Zoology (动物学杂志), 49, 633-643. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Li XY, Buzzard P, Jiang XL (2014) Habitat associations of four ungulates in mountain forests of southwest China, based on camera trapping and dung counts data. Population Ecology, 56, 251-256.

Li YZ (李耀增), Zhou TJ (周铁军), Jiang HB (姜海波) (2008) Utilization effect of wildlife passages in Golmud-Lhasa Sec-tion of Qinghai-Tibet railway. China Railway Science (中国铁道科学), 29, 127-131. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Liu F (刘芳), Li DQ (李迪强), Wu JG (吴记贵) (2012) Using infra-red cameras to survey wildlife in Beijing Songshan National Nature Reserve. Acta Ecologica Sinica (生态学报), 32, 730-739. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Lu J, Hu DF, Yang LL (2010) Legal status and conservation of cat species in China. Cat News, Special Issue 5, 5-6.

Lu XL (卢学理), Jiang ZG (蒋志刚), Tang JR (唐继荣), Wang XJ (王学杰), Xiang DQ (向定乾), Zhang JP (张建平) (2005) Auto-trigger camera traps for studying giant panda and its sympatric wildlife species. Acta Zoologica Sinica (动物学报), 51, 495-500. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Ma M (马鸣), Xu F (徐峰), Chundawat RS, Jumabay K, Wu YQ (吴逸群), Aizezi (艾则孜), Zhu MH (朱玛洪) (2006) Camera trapping of snow leopards for the photo capture rate and population size in the Muzat Valley of Tianshan Moun-tains. Acta Zoologica Sinica (动物学报), 52, 788-793. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Ma SL (马世来), Harris RB (1996) Use of remote camera sys-tems to document wildlife species presence in forested areas of Yunnan. Zoological Research (动物学研究), 17, 360-370. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Martins SS, Sanderson JG, Silva-Junior JS (2007) Monitoring mammals in the Caxiuana National Forest, Brazil-first results from the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) program. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 857-870.

Martorello DA, Eason TH, Pelton MR (2001) A sighting tech-nique using cameras to estimate population size of black bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29, 560-567.

McShea WJ, Stewart C, Peterson L, Erb P, Stuebing R, Giman B (2009) The importance of secondary forest blocks for ter-restrial mammals within an Acacia/secondary forest matrix in Sarawak, Malaysia. Biological Conservation, 142, 3108-3119.

O'Brien TG, Baillie JEM, Krueger L, Cuke M (2010) The wildlife picture index: monitoring top trophic levels. Animal Conservation, 6, 131-139.

O'Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU (2011) Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer, New York.

Pei JQ (裴家骐) (1998) An evaluation of using auto-trigger cameras to record activity patterns of wild animals. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science (台湾林业科学), 13, 317-324. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Pei K (1995) Activity rhythm of the spinous country rat (Nivi-venter coxingi) in Taiwan. Zoological Studies, 34, 55-58.

Rexstad E, Burnham KP (1991) User's Guide for Interactive Program CAPTURE. Colorado Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Riordan P (1998) Unsupervised recognition of individual tigers and snow leopards from their footprints. Animal Conserva-tion, 1, 253-262.

Rowcliffe JM, Carbone C (2008) Surveys using camera traps: are we looking to a brighter future? Animal Conservation, 11, 185-186.

Rowcliffe JM, Field J, Turvey ST, Carbone C (2008) Estimating animal density using camera traps without the need for individual recognition. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 1228-1236.

Royle JA, Nichols JD, Karanth KU, Gopalaswamy AM (2009) A hierarchical model for estimating density in camera-trap studies. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 118-127.

Sanderson JG, Trolle M (2005) Monitoring elusive mammals-unattended cameras reveal secrets of some of the world's wildest places. American Scientist, 93, 148-155.

Sanderson J, Yin Y, Drubgayal N (2010) Of the only endemic cat species in China. Cat News (Special Issue), 5, 18-21.

Si X, Kays R, Ding P (2014) How long is enough to detect terrestrial animals? Estimating the minimum trapping effort on camera traps. PeerJ, 2, e374.

Smith AT, Xie Y, Gemma F (2008) A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

Song DZ (宋大昭), Wang BP (王卜平), Jiang JY (蒋进原), Wan SP (万绍平), Cui SM (崔士明), Wang TM (王天明), Feng LM (冯利民) (2014) Using camera trap to monitor a population of North Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus ja-ponesis) and their main ungulate prey. Biodiversity Science (生物多样性), 22, 733-736. (in Chinese with English ab-stract)

Sunarto S, Kelly MJ, Parakkasi K, Klenzendorf S, Septayuda E, Kurniawan H (2012) Tigers need cover: multi-scale oc-cupancy study of the big cat in Sumatran forest and plantation landscapes. PLoS ONE, 7, e30859.

Swann DE, Hass CC, Dalton DC, Wolf SA (2004) Infra-red-triggered cameras for detecting wildlife: an evaluation and review. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 32, 357-365.

Thorn M, Scott DM, Green M, Bateman PW, Cameron EZ (2009) Estimating brown hyaena occupancy using baited camera traps. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 39, 1-10.

Tilson R, Hu DF, Jeff M, Nyhus PJ (2004) Dramatic decline of wild South China tigers: field survey of priority tiger re-serves. Oryx, 38, 40-47.

Trolle M, Kery M (2003) Estimation of ocelot density in the Pantanal using capture-recapture analysis of camera-trapping data. Journal of Mammalogy, 84, 607-614.

Wang DJ, Li S, McShea WJ, Li MF (2006) Use of remote-trip cameras for wildlife surveys and evaluating the effectiveness of conservation activities at a nature reserve in Sichuan Province, China. Environmental Management, 38, 942-951.

Wang DJ, Li S, Jin T, Shao LK (2012) How important is meat in the diet of giant pandas, the most herbivorous bear? In-ternational Bear News, 21, 7-9.

Wang F, McShea WJ, Wang D, Li S, Zhao Q, Wang H, Lu Z (2014) Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves. PLoS ONE, 9, e105086.

Wang JJ (王佳佳), Yu ZG (余志刚), Li ZM (李筑眉), Jiang H (蒋鸿), Liang W (梁伟) (2014) Identifying predators of ground nests of birds in Kuankuoshui Nature Reserve, Guizhou, southwestern China. Chinese Journal of Ecology (生态学杂志), 33, 352-357. (in Chinese with English ab-stract)

Wang T, Yang H, Xiao W, Feng L, Mou P, Ge J (2014) Camera traps reveal Amur tiger breeding in NE China. Cat News, 61, 18-19.

Wang Y (王云), Piao ZJ (朴正吉), Guan L (关磊), Kong YP (孔亚平) (2013) Influence of Ring Changbai Mountain Scenic Highway on wildlife. Chinese Journal of Ecology (生态学杂志), 32, 425-435. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Wang Y, Wang YD, Tao SC, Chen XP, Kong YP, Asif S, Ye CY, Pang M (2014) Using infra-red camera trapping tech-nology to monitor mammals along Karakorum Highway in Khunjerab National Park, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zo-ology, 46, 725-731.

Whitfield J (1998) A saola poses for the camera. Nature, 396, 410.

Wu PF (武鹏峰), Liu XH (刘雪华), Cai Q (蔡琼), He XB (何祥博), Songer M, Zhu Y (朱云), Shao XM (邵小明) (2012) The application of infrared camera in mammal research in Guany-inshan Nature Reserve, Shaanxi. Acta Theriologica Sinica (兽类学报), 32, 67-71. (in Chinese with English ab-stract)

Xia L, Yang QS, Li ZC, Wu YH, Feng ZJ (2007) The effect of the Qinghai-Tibet railway on the migration of Tibetan ante-lope Pantholops hodgsonii in Hoh-xil National Nature Re-serve, China. Oryx, 41, 352-357.

Xiao WH (肖文宏) (2014) Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Its Prey in Hunchun Nature Reserve, Jilin, China: Their Population Size, Distribution and Occupancy (东北虎(Panthera tigris altaica)与猎物的种群分布、数量和占据研究). PhD dissertation, Beijing Normal University, Beijing. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Xiao ZS (肖治术), Hu L (胡力), Wang X (王翔), Shang T (尚涛), Zhu DH (朱大海), Zhao ZL (赵志龙), Huang XQ (黄小群) (2014a) Wildlife diversity after Wenchuan Earthquake: a case from Guangguangshan Valley of Longxi-Hongkou National Nature Reserve, Southwest China. Biodiversity Science (生物多样性), 22, 794-797. (in Chinese)

Xiao ZS (肖治术), Wang XZ (王学志), Li XH (李欣海) (2014b) An introduction to CameraData: an online database of wildlife camera trap data. Biodiversity Science (生物多样性), 22, 712-716. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Xiao ZS (肖治术), Li XH (李欣海), Wang XZ (王学志), Zhou QH (周岐海), Quan RC (权锐昌), Shen XL (申小莉), Li S (李晟) (2014c) Developing camera-trapping protocols for wildlife monitoring in Chinese forests. Biodiversity Science (生物多样性), 22, 704-711. (in Chinese with English ab-stract)

Xue YD (薛亚东), Liu F (刘芳), Guo TZ (郭铁征), Yuan L (袁磊), Li DQ (李迪强) (2014) Using camera traps to survey wildlife at water sources on the northern slope of the Altun Mountains, China. Acta Theriologica Sinica (兽类学报), 34, 164-171. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Yin YF, Drubgyal, Achu, Lu Z, Sanderson J (2007) First pho-tographs in nature of the Chinese mountain cat. Cat News, 47, 6-7.

Yu LG (余梁哥), Chen MJ (陈敏杰), Yang SJ (杨士剑), Li XY (李学友), Shi L (师蕾) (2013) Camera trapping survey of Nyticebus pygmaeus, Nyticebus coucang and other sym-patric mammals at Dawei Mountain, Yunnan. Sichuan Journal of Zoology (四川动物), 32, 814-818. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Zhang HF (张洪峰), Feng T (封托), Ji MZ (姬明周), Kong F (孔飞), Wu XM (吴晓民) (2009) Monitor wildlife using small bridges along Qinghai-Tibet railway. Bulletin of Biology (生物学通报), 44(10), 8-10. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Zhang SS (章书声), Bao YX (鲍毅新), Wang YN (王艳妮), Fang PF (方平福), Ye B (叶彬) (2012) Activity rhythms of black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifron) revealed with infrared camera. Acta Theriologica Sinica (兽类学报), 32, 368-372. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Zhang SS (章书声), Bao YX (鲍毅新), Wang YN (王艳妮), Fang PF (方平福), Ye B (叶彬) (2013) Estimating rodent density using infrared-triggered camera technology. Acta Ecologica Sinica (生态学报), 33, 3241-3247. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Zhao YZ (赵玉泽), Wang ZC (王志臣), Xu JL (徐基良), Luo X (罗旭), An LD (安丽丹) (2013) Activity rhythm and beha-vioral time budgets of wild Reeves's Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) using infrared camera. Acta Ecologica Sinica (生态学报), 33, 6021-6027. (in Chinese with English abstract).