DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09138

Biodiversity Science (生物多样性) 2013/21:1 PP.71-79

Genetic diversity of natural and planted populations of Tsoongiodendron odorum from the Nanling Mountains

ex situ conservation, complementary to in situ conservation, plays an important role in preservation and recovery of endangered species. Tsoongiodendron odorum is a relic species that was listed in the Second Grade of the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch) in China. For protection of its genetic diversity, ex situ conservation populations have been established and managed outside of natural habitats in several nature reserves since 1980. However, only dozens of individuals are currently saved from each planted population. To assess the actual protective effectiveness of these planted populations, we detected and compared the genetic diversity of three planted populations from Nanling Mountains with four natural populations using ISSR markers. Overall, we detected 362 total ISSR discernible bands with 16 ISSR primers, of which 301 were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands (P) was 83.2%. At the population level, the percent of polymorphic bands ranged from 37.9% to 62.2%, with an average value of 53.1%. This result showed that T. odorum had high genetic diversity both at population and species levels. However, the percentage of polymorphic bands and Shannon information index (I) of ex situ conservation populations (66.6% and 0.2990) were much lower than those of natural populations (80.9% and 0.3629). We deduced that there was a narrow genetic base for plantations of T. odorum. Population structure analysis revealed that three planted populations could be collected from the same wild population (i.e., YK population). The genetic variation of four natural populations (GST=0.2495) showed that there was significant isolation among populations, which would limit gene flow and population differentiation among populations. We pre-sent suggestions on regulating seed collection from different natural habitats to establish planted populations and strengthening research on the reproductive biology of T. odorum.

Key words:Tsoongiodendron odorum,ISSR,genetic diversity,natural population,ex situ conservation

ReleaseDate:2015-03-16 14:55:52

Chen T (陈涛), Chang HT (张宏达) (1994) The Floristic geography of Nanling Mountain Range, China. I. Floristic composition and characteristics. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany (热带亚热带植物学报), 2(1), 10-23. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Doebley JF, Gaut BS, Smith BD (2006) The molecular genetics of crop domestication. Cell, 127, 1309-1321.

Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Molecular Ecology, 14, 2611-2620.

Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S (2005) Arlequin ver. 3.1, an Integrated Software for Population Genetics Data Analysis. Zoological Institute, University of Berne, Berne.

Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM (1992) Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics, 131, 479-491.

Falush D, Stephensb M, Pritchard JK (2003) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: linked loci and correlated allele frequencies. Genetics, 164, 1567-1587.

Ferreira DK, Nazareno AG, Mantovani A, Bittencourt R, Sebbenn AM, dos Reis MS (2012) Genetic analysis of 50-year old Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) plantations: implications for conservation planning. Conservation Genetics, 13, 435-442.

Finkeldey R, Hattemer HH (2007) Tropical Forest Genetics. Springer, Berlin.

Frankham R, Ballou JD, Mcinnes KH (2002) Introduction to Conservation Genetics, pp. 266-276. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Fu LK (傅立国), Jin JM (金鉴明) (1992) China Plant Red Data Book——Rare and Endangered Plants, Vol. 1 (中国红皮书——稀有濒危植物, 第一册), pp. 454-455. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)

Gauli A, Gailing O, Stefenon VM, Finkeldey R (2009) Genetic similarity of natural populations and plantations of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. in Nepal. Annals of Forest Science, 66, 703.

Hamrick JL, Godt MJ (1990) Allozyme diversity in plant species. In: Plant Population Genetics, Breeding and Genetic Resources (eds Brown AHD, Clegg MT, Kahler AL, Weir BS), pp. 43-63. Sinauer, Sunderland.

Huang HW (黄宏文), Zhang Z (张征) (2012) Current status and prospects of ex situ cultivation and conservation of plants in China. Biodiversity Science (生物多样性), 20, 559-571. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Huang JX (黄久香), Zhuang XY (庄雪影) (2002a) Comparison of genetic diversity of Tsoongiodendron odorum in southern China by RAPD markers. Journal of South China Agricultural University (Natural Science Edition) (华南农业大学学报)(自然科学版), 23(2), 54-57. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Huang JX (黄久香), Zhuang XY (庄雪影) (2002b) Genetic diversity of the populations of Tsoongiodendron odorum. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica (植物生态学报), 26, 413-419. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Jiang JH, Wang J, Kang M, Sun W, Huang HW (2011) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Tsoongiodendron odorum (Magnoliaceae). American Journal of Botany, 98, 284-286.

Li NW (李乃伟), He SA (贺善安), Shu XC (束晓春), Wang Q (汪庆), Xia B (夏冰), Peng F (彭峰) (2011) Genetic diversity and structure analyses of wild and ex-situ conservation populations of Taxus chinensis var. mairei based on ISSR marker. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment (植物资源与环境学报), 20(1), 25-30. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Li SH (李松海), Xie AD (谢安德), Bi LY (贲丽云), Wang LH (王凌晖) (2011) Research status of precious tree species Tsoongiodendron odorum and its prospect. Journal of Southern Agriculture (南方农业学报), 42, 968-971. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Liu YH (刘玉壶) (1984) A preliminary study on the taxonomy of the family Magnoliaceae. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica (植物分类学报), 22, 89-109. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Navascués M, Emerson BC (2007) Natural recovery of genetic diversity by gene flow in reforested areas of the endemic Canary Island pine, Pinus canariensis. Forest Ecology and Management, 244, 122-128.

Nybom H (2004) Comparison of different nuclear DNA markers for estimating intraspecific genetic diversity in plants. Molecular Ecology, 13, 1143-1156.

Pandey M, Gailing O, Leinemann L, Finkeldey R (2004) Molecular markers provide evidence for long-distance planting material transfer during plantation establishment of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. in Nepal. Annals of Forest Science, 61, 603-606.

Primack PB, Ma KP (马克平) (2009) A Primer of Conservation Biology (保护生物学简明教程), pp. 121-132. Higher Education Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)

Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics, 155, 945-959.

Rohlf FJ (2000) NTSYS-pc version 2.1, Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System. Exeter Software, Setauket, New York.

Salas-Leiva DE, Mayor-Durán VM, Toro-Perea N (2009) Genetic diversity of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) in natural and reforested areas of Salamanca Island Parkway, Colombian Caribbean. Hydrobiologia, 620, 17-24.

Sharma K, Degen B, von Wuehlisch G, Singh NB (2002) Allozyme variation in eight natural populations of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. in India. Silvae Genetica, 51, 246-253.

Shi QF (史全芬), Yang J (杨佳), Li XD (李晓东), Li XW (李新伟), Li JQ (李建强) (2005) Genetic diversity of cultivated populations of Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Acta Botanica Yunnanica (云南植物研究), 27, 403-412. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Sozen E, Ozaydin B (2010) A study of genetic variation in endemic plant Centaurea wiedemanniana by using RAPD markers. Ekoloji, 19, 1-8.

Stefenon VM, Gailing O, Finkeldey R (2008) Genetic structure of plantations and the conservation of genetic resources of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 2718-2725.

The Office of Forestry Division of China Forestry Department, PRC (中华人民共和国林业部林业区划办公室) (1987) China Division of Forest (中国林业区划), pp. 220-225. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)

Wang X (王霞), Wang J (王静), Jiang JH (蒋敬虎), Kang M (康明) (2012) Genetic diversity and the mating system in a fragmented population of Tsoongiodendron odorum. Biodiversity Science (生物多样性), 20, 676-684. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Wang ZS, Liu H, Xu WX, Wei N, An SQ (2010) Genetic diversity in young and mature cohorts of cultivated and wild populations of Picea asperata Mast (Pinaceae), a spruce endemic in western China. European Journal of Forest Research, 129, 719-728.

Willi Y, van Buskirk J, Hoffmann AA (2006) Limits to the adaptive potential of small populations. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 37, 433-458.

Wu XQ (吴雪琴), Xu GB (徐刚标), Liang Y (梁艳), Wang JQ (王家庆) (2012) Establishment and optimization of Tsoongiodendron odorum ISSR-PCR reaction system. Journal of Central South University of Forestry & Technology (中南林业科技大学学报), 32(7), 76-79. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Wu ZY (吴则焰), Liu JF (刘金福), Hong W (洪伟), Pan DM (潘东明), Zheng SQ (郑世群) (2011) Genetic diversity of natural and planted Glyptostrobus pensilis populations: a comparative study. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology (应用生态学报), 22, 873-879. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Xing FW (邢福武), Chen HF (陈红锋), Wang FG (王发国), Chen ZM (陈振明), Zeng QW (曾庆文) (2011) Inventory of Plant Species Diversity in Nanling Mountains (南岭植物物种多样性编目), pp. 1-2. Huazhong University of Science and Technology Press, Wuhan. (in Chinese)

Yang YS, Chen GS, Guo JF, Lin P (2004) Decomposition dynamic of fine roots in a mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Tsoongiodendron odorum in mid-subtropics. Annals of Forest Science, 61, 65-72

Yeh FC, Yang RC, Boyle T (1999) POPGENE version 1.31, Software Microsoft Window-based Freeware for Population Genetic Analysis. University of Alberta and Centre for International Forestry Research, Alberta.

Zeng QW (曾庆文), Gao ZZ (高泽正), Xing FW (邢福武), Zhang DX (张奠湘), Gong X (龚洵) (2004) Pollination biology of an endangered species: Tsoongiodendron odorum (Magnoliaceae). In: Proceedings of the Fifth National Symposium on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in China (第5届生物多样性保护和持续利用研讨会论文集) (ed. Biodiversity Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (中国科学院生物多样性委员会)), pp. 199-204. China Meteorological Press, Beijing. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Zhu TB, Meng TZ, Zhang JB, Yin YF, Cai ZC, Yang WY, Zhong WH (2012) Nitrogen mineralization, immobilization turnover, heterotrophic nitrification, and microbial groups in acid forest soils of subtropical China. Biology and Fertility of Soil, doi: 10.1007/s00374-012-0725-y.