DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1011.2012.00819

Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture (中国生态农业学报) 2012/20:7 PP.819-824

Ecoagricultural landscape for biodiversity conservation and ecological service maintenance

Loss of biodiversity and associated ecological services in agricultural landscape caused by intensive agricultural production have greatly threatened the sustainable agricultural development. Landscape management, together with less intensive practices such as organic agricultural production, should be carefully considered when developing strategies for biodiversity and ecological service restorations as landscape structures have potential strong effects on ecosystem services such as the biodiversity maintenance, natural pest control, pollination, etc. Ecoagricultural landscapes, which was characterized by optimized landscape configuration and management at different scale, could be designed and managed to improve the ecological services and agricultural sustainability. Potential measures of ecoagricultural landscapes were put forward as follows: 1) configurating crop and non-crop area properly at regional and landscape level to ensure ecological security and stability; 2) designing and constructing ecological infrastructure (such as beetle-bank and wildflowers belts) for essential ecological services at the between-field scale; 3) applying diversified planting and optimized farming practices at the field scale to reconcile agricultural production and nature conservation, and 4) integrating landscape planning with eco-cycle engineering to ensure efficient utilization of agricultural resources.

Key words:Agricultural landscape pattern, Ecoagriculture landscape, Biodiversity, Ecological service, Landscape planning, Ecological engineering

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 16:24:29

[1] Altieri M A. The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems[J]. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 1999, 74(1/3): 19-31

[2] Balvanera P, Daily G C, Ehrlich P R, et al. Conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services[J]. Science, 2001, 291(5511): 2047

[3] Miller K, Chang E, Johnson N. Defining common ground for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor[M]. Washington DC: World Resources Institute, 2001

[4] Hoekstra J M, Boucher T M, Ricketts T H, et al. Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protection[J]. Ecology Letters, 2005, 8(1): 23-29

[5] Tscharntke T, Klein A M, Kruess A, et al. Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity-ecosystem service management[J]. Ecology Letters, 2005, 8(8): 857-874

[6] FAO. FAO Statistical Service. Rome, 2007, http://faostat.

[7] Pimentel D, Stachow U, Takacs D A, et al. Conserving biological diversity in agricultural/forestry systems[J]. BioScience, 1992, 42(5): 354-362

[8] Norris K. Agriculture and biodiversity conservation: Opportunity knocks[J]. Conservation Letters, 2008, 1(1): 2-11

[9] Tilman D. Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: The need for sustainable and efficient practices[J]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1999, 96(11): 5995-6000

[10] Turner M G. Landscape ecology: The effect of pattern on process[J]. Annu Rev Ecol Syst, 1989, 20: 171-197

[11] 邬建国. 景观生态学——格局、过程、尺度与等级[M]. 北京: 高等教育出版社, 2000: 176

[12] Bennett A F, Radford J Q, Haslem A. Properties of land mosaics: Implications for nature conservation in agricultural environments[J]. Biological Conservation, 2006, 133(2): 250-264

[13] Dennis P, Fry G L A. Field margins: Can they enhance natural enemy population densities and general arthropod diversity on farmland?[J]. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 1992, 40(1/4): 95-115

[14] MacLeod A, Wratten S D, Sotherton N W, et al. ‘Beetle banks’ as refuges for beneficial arthropods in farmland: Long-term changes in predator communities and habitat[J]. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 2004, 6(2): 147-154

[15] Moore N P, Askew N, Bishop J D. Small mammals in new farm woodlands[J]. Mammal Review, 2003, 33(1): 101-104

[16] Pollard K A, Holland J M. Arthropods within the woody element of hedgerows and their distribution pattern[J]. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 2006, 8(3): 203-211

[17] Thomas C F G, Parkinson L, Griffiths G J K, et al. Aggregation and temporal stability of carabid beetle distributions in field and hedgerow habitats[J]. Journal of Applied Ecology, 2001, 38(1): 100-116

[18] Woodcock B A, Westbury D B, Potts S G, et al. Establishing field margins to promote beetle conservation in arable farms[J]. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2005, 107(2/3): 255-266

[19] Asteraki E J, Hanks C B, Clements R O. The influence of differ-ent types of grassland field margin on carabid beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) communities[J]. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Envi-ronment, 1995, 54(3): 195-202

[20] Bell J R, Johnson P J, Hambler C, et al. Manipulating the abun-dance of Lepthyphantes tenuis (Araneae: Linyphiidae) by field margin management[J]. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environ-ment, 2002, 93(1/3): 295-304

[21] Marshall E J P, Moonen A C. Field margins in northern Europe: their functions and interactions with agriculture[J]. Agric Ecosyst Environ, 2002, 89(1): 5-21

[22] Van Buskirk J, Willi Y. Enhancement of farmland biodiversity within set-aside land[J]. Conservation Biology, 2004, 18(4): 987-994

[23] Thies C, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T. Effects of landscape context on herbivory and parasitism at different spatial scales[J]. Oikos, 2003, 101(1): 18-25

[24] Tscharntke T, Brandl R. Plant-insect interactions in fragmented landscapes[J]. Annual Review of Entomology, 2004, 49: 405-430

[25] Gabriel D, Sait S M, Hodgson J A, et al. Scale matters: the impact of organic farming on biodiversity at different spatial scales[J]. Ecology Letters, 2010, 13(7): 858-869

[26] Pöyry J, Paukkunen J, Heliölä J, et al. Relative contributions of local and regional factors to species richness and total density of butterflies and moths in semi-natural grasslands[J]. Oecologia, 2009, 160(3): 577-587

[27] Forman R T T, Baudry J. Hedgerows and hedgerow networks in landscape ecology[J]. J Environ Manage, 1984, 8(6): 495-510

[28] Settle W H, Ariawan H, Astuti E T, et al. Managing tropical rice pests through conservation of generalist natural enemies and al-ternative prey[J]. Ecology, 1996, 77(7): 1975-1988

[29] Östman Ö. The relative effects of natural enemy abundance and alternative prey abundance on aphid predation rates[J]. Biol Con-trol, 2004, 30(2): 281-287

[30] Siekmann G, Tenhumberg B, Keller M A. Feeding and survival in parasitic wasps: sugar concentration and timing matter[J]. Oikos, 2001, 95(3): 425-430

[31] Wäckers F L. A comparison of nectar- and honeydew sugars with respect to their utilization by the hymenopteran parasitoid Cotesia glomerata[J]. J Insect Physiol, 2001, 47(9): 1077-1084

[32] Lee J C, Heimpel G E, Leibee G L. Comparing floral nectar and aphid honeydew diets on the longevity and nutrient levels of a parasitoid wasp[J]. Entomol Exp Appl, 2004, 111(3): 189-199

[33] Tylianakis J M, Didham R K, Wratten S D. Improved fitness of aphid parasitoids receiving resource subsidies[J]. Ecology, 2004, 85(3): 658-666

[34] Bianchi F J J A, Booij C J H, Tscharntke T. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control[J]. Proc R Soc B, 2006, 273: 1715-1727

[35] Steffan-Dewenter I, Münzenberg U, Bürger C, et al. Scale-dependent effects of landscape structure on three pollinator guilds[J]. Ecology, 2002, 83(5): 1421-1432

[36] Holzschuh A, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T. How do land-scape composition and configuration, organic farming and fallow strips affect the diversity of bees, wasps and their parasitoids?[J]. Journal of Animal Ecology, 2010, 79(2): 491-500

[37] Schmidt M H, Tscharntke T. Landscape context of sheetweb spi-der (Araneae: Linyphiidae) abundance in cereal fields[J]. J Bio-geogr, 2005, 32(3): 467-473

[38] Kruess A, Tscharntke T. Habitat fragmentation, species loss, and biological control[J]. Science, 1994, 264 (5165): 1581-1584

[39] Veres A, Petit S, Conord C, et al. Does landscape composition affect pest abundance and their control by natural enemies? A re-view[J]. Agric Ecosyst Environ, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.agee. 2011.05.027

[40] Scherr S J, McNeely J A. Biodiversity conservation and agricultural sustainability: towards a new paradigm of ‘ecoagriculture’ landscapes[J]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2008, 363(1491): 477-494

[41] Mash W M. Landscape planning: environmental applications (4th ed)[M]. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2005

[42] Bentrup G. 保护缓冲带: 缓冲带、廊道和绿色廊道设计指南[EB/OL]. 2008. SRS-109_Chinese-rev-minimized.pdf, Accessed 2012-3-10

[43] Zhu Y Y, Chen H R, Fan J H, et al. Genetic diversity and disease control in rice[J]. Nature, 2000, 406 (6797): 718-722

[44] Zhu Y Y, Wang Y Y, Chen H R, et al. Conserving traditional rice varieties through management for crop diversity[J]. BioScience, 2003, 53(2): 158-162

[45] 徐楠, 黄彬. 40个世纪的农民奥秘[J]. 中华遗产, 2008, 32(6): 48-63

[46] Wong M H, Cheung K C, Yediler A, et al. The dyke-pond systems in South China: Past, present and future[M]. Wetlands Ecosystems in Asia, 2004: 47-66