doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1011.2013.01127

Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture (中国生态农业学报) 2013/21:9 PP.1127-1134

Effects of habitat complexity and fertilization on arthropod community structure in cotton field


Abstract:
The effects of habitat complexity and fertilization mode on arthropod community structure in cotton fields were investigated to guide ecological control of insect pests. The study included treatments of different combinations of habitat and fertilization. In the experiment, no straw mulch (A1) and straw mulch (A2) were designed as simple- and complex-structure habitats, respectively. Compound fertilizer 90 kg(N)•hm-2 (B1), compound fertilizer 90 kg(N)•hm-2 with biogas fertilizer 90 kg(N)•hm-2 (B2) and compound fertilizer 90 kg(N)•hm-2 with urea 90 kg(N)•hm-2 (B3) were designed as fertilization modes. Ten cotton plants were sampled in each plot in the parallel jumping method. The species and individual number of arthropods in each plant and the 0.25 m2 land surface beneath the plant were counted and recorded on a weekly basis. The results showed that the individual number of spiders (counted as individuals for every 10 plants) was higher in A2 (391.1±70.1) than in A1 (226.8±29.3). Also the dominant enemy species Pardosa astrigera (also counted as individuals for every 10 plants) was higher in A2 (171.7±13.3) than in A1 (59.3±9.8). Then the dominant index for spiders was higher in A2 (0.527±0.089) than in A1 (0.258±0.049). The diversity index of insect pests was higher in A2 (1.459±0.067) than in A1 (1.245±0.249). The evenness index of insect pests was also higher in A2 (0.635±0.040) than in A1 (0.588±0.100). The individual number of insect pests was significantly higher in A2 (772.4±206.9) than in A1 (1 156.4±243.7). Based on the number of individuals per 10 plants, the target insect pest Syleptahn derogata number in A2 and A1 were respectively 320.8±80.6 and 659.5±254.8. The dominant insect pest index in A2 was 0.311±0.029 while that in A1 was 0.400±0.107. Also the diversity index of spiders in A2 was 0.997±0.169 while it was 1.584±0.138 in A1. The evenness indexes of spiders in A2 and A1 were 0.536±0.073 and 0.803±0.052, respectively. Also based on individual number per 10 plants, the insect pests numbers in B1, B2 and B3 were respectively 1 015.3±344.1, 714.0±152.2 and 1 164.0±168.9. Those of the target insect pest S. derogata in B1, B2 and B3 were respectively 552.0±253.8, 280.6±63.7 and 638.0±256.0. The indexes of the dominant insect pests were 0.370±0.055 in B1, 0.282±0.022 in B2 and 0.414±0.111 in B3. Then the diversity indexes of the insect pests in B1, B2 and B3 were respectively 1.324±0.228, 1.511±0.066 and 1.222±0.200. Also the diversity indexes of spiders in B1, B2 and B3 were respectively 1.167±0.374, 1.418±0.373 and 1.286±0.262. Then the evenness indexes of the insect pests were 0.600±0.039 in B1, 0.683±0.043 in B2 and 0.550±0.081 in B3. The indexes of the dominant spiders in B1, B2 and B3 were 0.457±0.175, 0.353±0.167 and 0.368±0.123, respectively. The corresponding evenness indexes of the spiders were 0.613±0.160, 0.701±0.130 and 0.695±0.168, respectively. Then the diversity indexes of predatory insects in B1, B2 and B3 were 1.190±0.153, 1.496±0.179 and 1.474±0.125, respectively. The individual numbers of insect pests, the target insect pest S. derogate, the indexes of the dominant insect pests, the diversity indexes of insect pests, and the evenness indexes of the insect pests were significantly influenced by the interaction between habitat complexity and fertilization mode. The species number of spiders was also significantly influenced by the interaction between habitat complexity and fertilization mode. Habitats of the dominant species enemy P. astrigera improved under straw mulching in cotton fields. This significantly enhanced the ability of P. astrigera to control S. derogate. Population growth of S. derogate did not enhanced by compound and biogas fertilizers.

Key words:Cotton field, Arthropod community, Habitat, Fertilization, Straw mulch, Biogas fertilizer, Compound fertilizer, Urea

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 16:50:48



[1] Finke D L, Denno R F. Predator diversity dampens trophic cascades[J]. Nature, 2004, 429(6990): 407–410

[2] Finke D L, Denno R F. Predator diversity and the functioning of ecosystems: the role of intraguild predation in dampening trophic cascades[J]. Ecology Letters, 2005, 8(12): 1299–1306

[3] Altieri M A. Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems[M]. New York: Food Products Press, 1994

[4] Reeves D W. Cover crops and rotations[M]//HatÞeld L, Stewart B A. Crops residue management. Advances in soil science. FL, Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers, 1994: 125–172

[5] Finke D L, Denno R F. Intraguild predation diminished in complex-structured vegetation: Implications for prey suppression[J]. Ecology, 2002, 83(3): 643–652

[6] Smith J D, Stewart S D. The effects of insecticide, nitrogen and Pix on arthropod populations in cotton in 1998 and 1999[C]//National Cotton Council of America. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences. USA, 2000, 2: 963–967

[7] 崔金杰, 夏敬源, 王春义, 等. 施氮量对棉田主要害虫种群动态的影响[J]. 植保技术与推广, 2003, 23(1): 3–5Cui J J, Xia J Y, Wang C Y, et al. Effect of the application of N fertilizer on population dynamics of major pests in cotton field[J]. Plant Protection Technology and Extension, 2003, 23(1): 3–5

[8] 戈峰, 刘向辉, 李泓达, 等. 氮肥对棉田主要害虫种群密度及棉花产量的影响[J]. 应用生态学报, 2003, 14(10): 1735–1738Ge F, Liu X H, Li H D, et al. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on pest population and cotton production[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2003, 14(10): 1735–1738

[9] Bi J L, Ballmer G R, Toscano N C, et al. Effect of nitrogen fertility on cotton-whitefly Interactions[C]//National Cotton Council of America. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences. USA, 2000, 2: 1135–1142

[10] Spellerberg I F, Fedor P J. A tribute to Claude Shannon (1916—2001) and a plea for more rigorous use of species richness, species diversity and the ‘Shannon-Wiener’ index[J]. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2003, 12(3): 177–179

[11] 马克平, 黄建辉, 于顺利, 等. 北京东灵山地区植物群落多样性的研究: Ⅱ丰富度、均匀度和物种多样性指数[J]. 生态学报, 1995, 15(3): 268–277Ma K P, Huang J H, Yu S L, et al. Plant community diversity in Dongling Mountain, Beijing, China: II. Species richness, evenness and species diversities[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 1995, 15(3): 268–277

[12] Mcnaughton S J. Diversity and stability of ecological communities: A comment on the role of empiricism in ecology[J]. The American Naturalist, 1977, 111(979): 515–525

[13] 杨琦, 张本凯, 姚玉桂, 等. 施用沼肥对茄子田节肢动物群落结构与茄子产量的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报, 2011, 19(1): 42–46Yang Q, Zhang B K, Yao Y G, et al. Effect of biogas manure on arthropod community structure in eggplant field and eggplant yield[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2011, 19(1): 42–46

[14] 丁仁杰, 张本凯, 姚玉桂, 等. 施用沼肥对番茄田节肢动物群落结构及番茄产量的影响[J]. 植物保护学报, 2010, 37(5): 403–407Ding R J, Zhang B K, Yao Y G, et al. Effects of biogas manure on the structure of arthropod community in tomato fields and the yield of tomato[J]. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 2010, 37(5): 403–407

PDF