DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1258.2011.00125

Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology (植物生态学报) 2011/35:2 PP.125-136

Response of soil organic carbon and nutrients to simulated nitrogen deposition in Pleioblastus amarus plantation, Rainy Area of West China

Aims Our objectives were to determine the effect of increased nitrogen deposition on soil organic carbon and nutrients of Pleioblastus amarus plantations. Methods Beginning in November 2007, we conducted a two-year field experiment of simulated nitrogen deposition in a P. amarus plantation, Rainy Area of West China. The levels of nitrogen deposition were 0, 5, 15 and 30 g N·m–2·a–1 for control (CK), low, medium and high nitrogen, respectively. For one year beginning in November 2008, we monthly col-lected 0–20 cm horizon soil samples and measured soil total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), extractable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC), liable carbon (LC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), NH4+-N, NO3-N, available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). Important findings Nitrogen deposition increased concentrations of TOC, MBC, TN, MBN, NH4+-N and AP in soil and had no effect on the other indicators. MBC and MBN exhibited significant seasonal patterns that were positively related to temperature. AP and AK were significant negatively correlated with MBC and MBN. Nitrogen deposition stimulated availabilities of C, N and P and increased the accumulation of these elements in the soil. Results suggested the P. amarus plantation ecosystem is N-limited and soil organic carbon and nutrients respond positively to nitrogen deposition. Increasing nitrogen deposition may enhance fertility of the soil, stimulate growth of plants and increase future carbon fixa-tion.

Key words:nitrogen deposition, Pleioblastus amarus plantation, Rainy Area of West China, soil nutrients, soil organic carbon

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 15:59:20

Aber J, McDowell W, Nadelhoffer K, Magill A, Berntson G, Kamakea M, McNulty S, Currie W, Rustad L, Fernandez I (1998). Nitrogen saturation in temperate forest ecosys- tems. BioScience, 48, 921–934.

Bedison JE, McNeil BE (2009). Is the growth of temperate forest trees enhanced along an ambient nitrogen deposition gradient? Ecology, 90, 1736–1742.

Biederbeck VO, Janzen HH, Campbell CA, Zentner RP (1994). Labile soil organic matter as influenced by cropping prac-tices in an arid environment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 26, 1647–1656.

Blair GJ, Lefroy RDB, Lisle L (1995). Soil carbon fractions based on their degree of oxidation, and the development of a carbon management index for agricultural systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 46, 1459–1466.

Boddy E, Hill PW, Farrar J, Jones DL (2007). Fast turnover of low molecular weight components of the dissolved or-ganic carbon pool of temperate grassland field soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39, 827–835.

Bowden RD, Davidson E, Savage K, Arabia C, Steudler P (2004). Chronic nitrogen additions reduce total soil respi-ration and microbial respiration in temperate forest soils at the Harvard Forest. Forest Ecology and Manage-ment, 196, 43–56.

Cardon ZG, Hungate BA, Cambardella CA, Chapin FS III, Field CB, Holland EA, Mooney HA (2001). Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 on old and new soil carbon pools. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 33, 365–373.

Cosmas M (2009). Determination of the soil organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus and the combined above-ground plant materials in the semi-arid Mbulu District, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 47, 352–359.

Cusack DF, Silver WL, Torn MS, McDowell WH (2010). Ef-fects of nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests. Biogeochemistry, doi:10.1007/s10533-010-9496-4.

Deng RJ (邓仁菊), Yang WQ (杨万勤), Hu JL (胡建利), Feng RF (冯瑞芳) (2009). Dynamics on soil available nitrogen in organic layer and its responses to carbon and nitrogen supply in two subalpine coniferous forests of western Si-chuan. Acta Ecologica Sinica (生态学报), 29, 2716–2724. (in Chinese with English abstract)

de Vries W, Solberg S, Dobbertin M, Sterba H, Laubhann D, van Oijen M, Evans C, Gundersen P, Kros J, Wamelink GWW, Reinds GJ, Sutton MA (2009). The impact of ni-trogen deposition on carbon sequestration by European forests and heathlands. Forest Ecology and Manage-ment, 258, 1814–1823.

Dixon RK, Brown S, Houghton RA, Solomon AM, Trexler MC, Wisniewski J (1994). Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science, 263, 185–190.

Dou JX (窦晶鑫), Liu JS (刘景双), Wang Y (王洋), Zhao GY (赵光影) (2008). Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on biomass of wetland plant and soil active carbon pool. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology (应用生态学报), 19, 1714 –1720. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Fang YT (方运霆), Mo JM (莫江明), Gunderson P, Zhou GY (周国逸), Li DJ (李德军) (2004). Nitrogen transforma- tions in forest soils and its responses to atmospheric ni-trogen deposition: a review. Acta Ecologica Sinica (生态学报), 24, 1523–1531. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Findlay SEG (2005). Increased carbon transport in the Hudson River: Unexpected consequence of nitrogen deposition? Frontiers in Ecology Environment, 3, 133–137.

Frey SD, Knorr M, Parrent JL, Simpson RT (2004). Chronic nitrogen enrichment affects the structure and function of the soil microbial community in temperate hardwood and pine forests. Forest Ecology Management, 196, 159–171.

Galloway JN, Dentener FJ, Capone DG, Boyer EW, Howarth RW, Seitzinger SP, Asner GP, Cleveland CC, Green PA, Holland EA, Karl DM, Michaels AF, Porter JH, Town-send AR, Vörösmarty CJ (2004). Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future. Biogeochemistry, 70, 153–226.

Gavrichkova O, Kuzyakov Y (2008). Ammonium versus nitrate nutrition of Zea mays and Lupinus albus: effect on root-derived CO2 efflux. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 2835–2842.

Gu F, Zhang Y, Tao B, Wang Q, Yu G, Zhang L, Li K (2010). Modeling the effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon budget in two temperate forests. Ecological Complex-ity, doi: 10.1016/j.ecocom.2010.04.002.

Haynes RJ (2000). Labile organic matter as an indicator of organic matter quality in arable and pastoral soil in New Zealand. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 211–219.

Hobbie SE (2008). Nitrogen effects on decomposition: a five-year experiment in eight temperate sites. Ecology, 89, 2633–2644.

Högberg P (2007). Nitrogen impacts on forest carbon. Nature, 447, 781–782.

Högberg P, Read DJ (2006). Towards a more plant physiologi-cal perspective on soil ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolusiton, 21, 548–554.

Howarth RW, Billen G, Swaney D, Townsend A, Jaworski N, Lajtha K, Downing JA, Elmgren R, Caraco N, Jordan T, Berendse F, Freney J, Kudeyarov V, Murdoch P, Zhu ZL (1996). Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry, 35, 75– 139.

Hyvönen R, Persson T, Andersson S, Olsson B, Ågren GI, Linder S (2008). Impact of long-term nitrogen addition on carbon stocks in trees and soils in northern Europe. Biogeochemistry, 89, 121–137.

Jarecki MK, Lal R (2003). Crop management for soil carbon sequestration. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 22, 471–502.

Johnson D, Leake JR, Lee JA, Campbellb CD (1998). Changes in soil microbial biomass and microbial activities in re-sponse to 7 years simulated pollutant nitrogen deposition on a heathland and two grasslands. Environmental Pollution, 103, 239–250.

Keeler BL, Hobbie SE, Kellogg LE (2009). Effects of long-term nitrogen addition on microbial enzyme activity in eight forested and grassland sites: implications for litter and soil organic matter decomposition. Ecosystems, 12, 1–15.

Knorr W, Prentice IC, House JI, Holland EA (2005). Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon turnover to warming. Nature, 433, 298–301.

Lal R (2005). Forest soils and carbon sequestration. Forest Ecology and Management, 220, 242–258.

Lee KH, Jose S (2003). Soil respiration, fine root production, and microbial biomass in cottonwood and loblolly pine plantations along a nitrogen fertilization gradient. Forest Ecology and Management, 185, 263–273.

Li GC (李贵才), Han XG (韩兴国), Huang JH (黄建辉) (2001). Dry-season dynamics of soil inorganic nitrogen pools in primary Lithocarpus xylocarpus forest and degraded vegetations in Ailao Mountain, Yunnan Province. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica (植物生态学报), 25, 210– 217. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Liang BC, MacKenzie AF, Schnitzer M, Monreal CM, Vo-roney PR, Beyaert RP (1998). Management-induced change in labile soil organic matter under continuous corn in eastern Canadian soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 26, 88–94.

Lü DQ (吕殿青), Zhang SL (张树兰), Yang XY (杨学云) (2007). Effect of supplying C and N on the mineralization, immobilization and priming effect of soil nitrogen. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science (植物营养与肥料学报), 13, 223–229. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Magill AH, Aber JD, Currie WS, Nadelhoffer KJ, Martin ME, McDowell WH, Melillo JM, Steudler P (2004). Ecosystem response to 15 years of chronic nitrogen additions at the Harvard Forest LTER, Massachusetts, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 196, 7–28.

Magnani F, Mencuccini M, Borghetti M, Berbigier P, Berninger F, Delzon S, Grelle A, Hari P, Jarvis PG, Kolari P, Kowalski AS, Lankreijer H, Law BE, Lindroth A, Loustau D, Manca G, Moncrieff JB, Rayment M, Tedeschi V, Valentini R, Grace J (2007). The human footprint in the carbon cycle of temperate and boreal forests. Nature, 447, 848–850.

McLauchlan K (2006). The nature and longevity of agricultural impacts on soil carbon and nutrients: a review. Ecosystems, 9, 1364–1382.

Meng Y (孟盈), Xue JY (薛敬意), Sha LQ (沙丽清), Tang JW (唐建维) (2001). Variations of soil NH4+-N, NO3-N and N mineralization under different forests in Xishuang- banna, Southwest China. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica (植物生态学报), 25, 99–104. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Mo J, Zhang W, Zhu W, Gundersen P, Fang Y, Li D, Wang H (2007). Nitrogen addition reduces soil respiration in a mature tropical forest in southern China. Global Change Biology, 14, 1–10.

Nadelhoffer KJ, Emmett BA, Gundersen P, Kjønaas OJ, Koopmans CJ, Schleppi P, Tietema A, Wright RF (1999). Nitrogen deposition makes a minor contribution to carbon sequestration in temperate forests. Nature, 398, 145–148.

Neff JC, Townsend AR, Gleixner G, Lehman SJ, Turnbull J, Bowman WD (2002). Variable effects of nitrogen addi-tions on the stability and turnover of soil carbon. Nature, 419, 915–917.

Nowinski NS, Trumbore SE, Schuur EAG, Mack MC, Shaver GR (2008). Nutrient addition prompts rapid destabilization of organic matter in an arctic tundra ecosystem. Ecosystems, 11, 16–25.

Pregitzer KS, Burton AJ, Zak DR, Talhelm AF (2008). Simu-lated chronic nitrogen deposition increases carbon storage in Northern Temperate forests. Global Change Biol-ogy, 14, 142–153.

Rustad LE, Fernandez IJ, Fuller RD, David MB, Nodvin SC, Halteman WA (1993). Soil solution response to acidic deposition in a northern hardwood forest. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 47, 117–134.

Samuelson L, Mathew R, Stokes T, Feng Y, Aubrey D, Cole-man M (2009). Soil and microbial respiration in a loblolly pine plantation in response to seven years of irrigation and fertilization. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 2431–2438.

Stark JM, Hart SC (1997). High rates of nitrification and nitrate turnover in undisturbed coniferous forests. Nature, 385, 61–64.

Su B (苏波), Han XG (韩兴国), Qu CM (渠春梅), Li GC (李贵才) (2002). Factors affecting soil N availability in forest ecosystems: a literature review. Chinese Journal of Ecology (生态学杂志), 21, 40–46. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Swanston C, Homann PS, Caldwell BA, Myrold DD, Ganio L, Sollins P (2004). Long-term effects of elevated nitrogen on forest soil organic matter stability. Biogeochemistry, 70, 227–250.

Tamm CO (1991). Nitrogen in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, London.

Tietema A (1998). Microbial carbon and nitrogen dynamics in coniferous forest floor material collected along a European nitrogen deposition gradient. Forest Ecology and Management, 101, 29–36.

Tu L, Hu T, Zhang J, Li R, Dai H, Luo S (2010). Short-term simulated nitrogen deposition increases carbon sequestra- tion in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation. Plant and Soil, doi: 10.1007/s11104-010-0610-0.

Tu LH (涂利华), Hu TX (胡庭兴), Huang LH (黄立华), Li RH (李仁洪), Dai HZ (戴洪忠), Luo SH (雒守华), Xiang YB (向元彬) (2009a). Response of soil respiration to simu-lated nitrogen deposition in Pleioblastus amarus forest, Rainy Area of West China. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology (植物生态学报), 33, 728–738. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Tu LH (涂利华), Hu TX (胡庭兴), Zhang J (张健), He YY (何远洋), Tian XY (田祥宇), Xiao YL (肖银龙) (2010). Ef-fects of simulated nitrogen deposition on the fine root characteristics and soil respiration in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in Rainy Area of West China. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology (应用生态学报), 21, 2472– 2478. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Tu LH (涂利华), Hu TX (胡庭兴), Zhang J (张健), Li RH (李仁洪), Dai HZ (戴洪忠), Luo SH (雒守华), Xiang YB (向元彬), Huang LH (黄立华) (2009b). Soil enzyme activi-ties in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in Rainy Area of West China under simulated nitrogen deposition. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology (应用生态学报), 20, 2943–2948. (in Chinese with English abstract)

van Grogenigen KJ, Six J, Hungate BA, de Graaff MA, van Breemen N, van Kessel (2006). Element interactions limit soil carbon storage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 6571– 6574.

Vitousek PM, Aber JD, Howarth RW, Likens GE, Matson PA, Schindler DW, Schlesinger WH, Tilman DG (1997). Hu-man alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecological Applications, 7, 737–750.

Wallenstein MD, McNulty S, Fernandez IJ, Boggs J, Schlesinger WH (2006). Nitrogen fertilization decreases forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass in three long-term experiments. Forest Ecology and Management, 222, 459–468.

Xiao HL (肖辉林) (2001). Effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on forest soil acidification. Scientia Silvae Sinicae (林业科学), 37(4), 111–116. (in Chinese with English abstract)

Xu QF (徐秋芳), Jiang PK (姜培坤), Shen Q (沈泉) (2005). Comparison of organic carbon pool of soil in bush and broad-leaved forests. Journal of Beijing Forestry Uni-versity (北京林业大学学报), 27(2), 18–22. (in Chi-nese with English abstract)

Yang WQ (杨万勤), Wang KY (王开运) (2004). Advances in forest soil enzymology. Scientia Silvae Sinicae (林业科学), 40(2), 152–159. (in Chinese with English ab-stract)