doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1118.2019.18024

Journal of Fishery Sciences of China (中国水产科学) 2019/26:3 PP.569-576

Isolation and identification of a spring viremia of carp virus from Percocypris pingi and resultant pathological lesions


Abstract:
In April 2016, a serious infectious disease characterized by hemorrhage of the gill, swim bladder, and internal organs emerged in a Percocypris pingi farm in Sichuan Province. Histopathological observation showed that the spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) infection in P. pingi could cause pathological damages in multiple organs, which exhibited hemorrhage, degeneration, necrosis, and infiltration of the inflammation cells, especially in the liver, spleen, kidney, gill, and intestine. The filtrated homogenate was inoculated into the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells, and the typical cytopathic effect (CPE) was formed after three blind passages. Diseased tissue suspension filtered from bacteria and EPC-grown virus were used to inoculate healthy P. pingi. The results showed that the infected P. pingi developed similar clinical symptoms to those described above and suffered 60% and 50% mortality, whereas the control group remained normal. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of EPC cells infected with ZLP160415 found that the virus was bullet-shaped, 90-150 nm long, and 40-60 nm wide. RT-PCR of tissue homogenates from the fish naturally infected, the fish artificially infected, and the infected cells were performed, and the results showed that all were SVCV-positive. Based on phylogenetic analysis of glycoprotein genes, the isolate ZLP160415 was classified into the Ia genogroup. From the combination of epidemiology, pathologic lesions, virus isolation and identification, artificial infection, and TEM examination, it was concluded that the SVCV was the pathogen of the disease.

Key words:Percocypris pingi; SVCV; isolation and identification; phylogenetic analysis; pathological lesions

ReleaseDate:2019-07-04 08:55:18



[1] Fijan N, Petrinec Z, Sulimanovic D, et al. Isolation of the viral causative agent from the acute form of infectious dropsy of carp[J]. Veterinarski Arhiv, 1971, 41(5-6):125-138.

[2] Shao L, Zhao J. Isolation of a highly pathogenic spring viraemia of carp virus strain from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in late summer, China, 2016[J]. Virus Research, 2017, 238:183-192.

[3] Ahne W. Vergleichende untersuchungen über die stabilität von vier fischpathogenen viren (VHSV, PFR, SVCV, IPNV)[J]. Zoonoses and Public Health, 1982, 29(6):457-476.

[4] Shchelkunov I S, Shchelkunova T I. Rhabdovirus carpio in herpivorous fishes:Isolation, pathology and comparative susceptibility of fishes[M]//Viruses of Lower Vertebrates. Heidelberg:Springer, 1989:333-348.

[5] Jorgensen P E V, Olesen N J, Ahne W, et al. SVCV and PFR viruses:serological examination of 22 isolates indicates close relationship between the two fish rhabdoviruses[M]//Viruses of Lower Vertebrates. Heidelberg:Springer, 1989:349-366.

[6] Liu H, Gao L, Shi X, et al. Isolation of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) from cultured koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) and common carp (C. carpio carpio) in P.R.China[J]. Bulletin European Association of Fish Pathologists, 2004, 24(4):194-202.

[7] Stone D M, Ahne W, Denham K L, et al. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the glycoprotein gene of putative spring viraemia of carp virus and pike fry rhabdovirus isolates reveals four genogroups[J]. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 2003, 53(3):203-210.

[8] Ashraf U, Lu Y, Lin L, et al. Spring viraemia of carp virus:recent advances[J]. Journal of General Virology, 2016, 97(5):1037-1051.

[9] Liu J. A quantitative analysis on threat and priority of conservation order of the endemic fishes in upper reaches of the Yangtze River[J]. China Environmental Science, 2004, 24(4):395-399.[刘军. 长江上游特有鱼类受威胁及优先保护顺序的定量分析[J]. 中国环境科学, 2004, 24(4):395-399.]

[10] Ren S Y, Geng Y, Zhou Z Y, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of Aeromonas veronii disease in Percocypris pingi[J]. Scientific Fish Farming, 2012(11):66.[任思宇, 耿毅, 周赵英, 等. 鲈鲤维氏气单胞菌病的诊治[J]. 科学养鱼, 2012(11):66.]

[11] Geng Y, Chen D F, Peng C Z. Diagnosis and treatment of mixed infection of gill mildew and wheelworm of Percocypris pingi[J]. Scientific Fish Farming, 2006(3):58.[耿毅, 陈德芳, 彭成卓. 鲈鲤鳃霉病与车轮虫混合感染的诊治[J]. 科学养鱼, 2006(3):58.]

[12] Reed L J, Muench H. A simple method of estimating fifty per cent endpoints[J]. American Journal of Hygiene, 1938, 27(3):493-497.

[13] OIE. Spring viraemia of carp[M/OL]//Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. http://www.oie.int/index.php?id=2439&L=0&htmfile=chapitre_svc.htm. 2016.

[14] An W, Xiao Y, Zhang C W, et al. Preliminary isolation and identification of a spring viremia of carp virus[J]. Fisheries Science & Technology Information, 2014, 41(1):32-34.[安伟, 肖雨, 张崇文, 等. 一株鲤春病毒血症病毒的初步分离及鉴定[J]. 水产科技情报, 2014, 41(1):32-34.]

[15] Misk E, Garver K, Nagy E, et al. Pathogenesis of spring viremia of carp virus in emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede)[J]. Journal of Fish Diseases, 2016, 39(6):729-739.

[16] Sanders G E, Batts W N, Winton J R. Susceptibility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a model pathogen, spring viremia of carp virus[J]. Comparative Medicine, 2003, 53(5):514-521.

[17] Soliman M K, Aboeisa M M, Mohamed S G, et al. First record of isolation and identification of spring viraemia of carp virus from Oreochromis niloticus in Egypt[C]//Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Cairo, Egypt, 2008:1287-1306.

[18] Woo P T K, Bruno D W. Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Infections[M]//Fish Diseases and Disorders (2nd edition). CABI, 2011:168-179.

[19] Zhang N Z, Zhang L F, Jiang Y N, et al. Molecular analysis of spring viraemia of carp virus in China:a fatal aquatic viral disease that might spread in East Asian[J]. PLoS ONE, 2009, 4(7):e6337.

[20] Goodwin A E, Winton J R. Spring viremia of crap[J]. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 2003, 52(3):261-272.

[21] Gotesman M, Soliman H, Besch R, et al. Inhibition of spring viraemia of carp virus replication in an Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line by RNAi[J]. Journal of Fish Diseases, 2015, 38(2):197-207.

[22] Cao Y C, Xue C Y, Liu D C. A virus like particles and vaccine against spring viremia of carp virus and its preparation method. CN104152418A[P]. 2014.[曹永长, 薛春宜, 刘大才. 一种抗鲤春病毒血症病毒的病毒样颗粒和疫苗及其制备方法. CN104152418A[P]. 2014.]

[23] Cui L C, Guan X T, Liu Z M, et al. Recombinant lactobacillus expressing G protein of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) combined with ORF81 protein of koi herpesvirus (KHV):A promising way to induce protective immunity against SVCV and KHV infection in cyprinid fish via oral vaccination[J]. Vaccine, 2015, 33(27):3092-3099.