Journal of Geriatric Cardiology 2011/8:2 PP.121-126
Depression is a common medical problem and is more prevalent among patients with coronary artery disease. Whether early detection and treatment of depression will enhance cardiovascular outcome is uncertain. Obviously, the safety and efficacy of the anti-depression drugs is an important link. This article reviews the patho-physiologic and behavioural links between depression and cardiovascular disease progression, the treatment of depression, and the potential benefits of anti-depressants in patients with coronary disease.
1 Fan AZ, Strine TW, Jiles R, et al. Depression and anxiety associated with cardiovascular disease among persons aged 45 years and older in 38 states of the United States, 2006. Prev Med 2008; 46(5): 445-450.
2 Everson SA, Kaplan GA, Goldberg DE, et al. Hypertension incidence is predicted by high levels of hopelessness in Finnish men. Hypertension 2000; 35(2): 561-567.
3 Suls J, Bunde J. Anger, anxiety, and depression as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the problems and implications of overlapping affective dispositions. Psychol Bull 2005; 131(2): 260-300.
4 Denollet J, Maas K, Knottnerus A, et al. Anxiety predicted premature all-cause and cardiovascular death in a 10-year follow-up of middle-aged women. J Clin Epidemiol 2009; 62(4): 452-456.
5 Frasure-Smith N, Lespérance F, Habra M, et al. Elevated depression symptoms predict long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Circulation 2009; 120(2): 134-140.
6 van Melle JP, de Jonge P, Spijkerman TA, et al. Prognostic association of depression following myocardial infarction with mortality and cardiovascular events: A meta-analysis. Psychosom Med 2004; 66(6): 814-822.
7 Dickens C, McGowan L, Percival C, et al. New onset depression following myocardial infarction predicts cardiac mortality. Psychosom Med 2008; 70(4): 450-455.
8 Glassman, AH, Bigger JT Jr., Gaffney M, et al. Psychiatric characteristics associated with long-term mortality among 361 patients having an acute coronary syndrome and major depression: Seven-years follow-up of SADHART participants. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009; 66(9): 1022-1029.
9 O'Connor CM, Jiang W, Kuchibhatla M, et al. Antidepressant use, depression, and survival in patients with heart failure. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168(20): 2232-2237.
10 Pizzi C, Manzoli L, Mancini S, et al. Analysis of potential predictors of depression among coronary heart disease risk factors including heart rate variability, markers of inflammation, and endothelial function. Eur Heart J 2008; 29(9): 1110-1117.
11 Rajagopalan S, Brook R, Rubenfire M, et al. Abnormal brachial artery flow mediated vasodilatioan in young adults with major depression. Am J Cardiol 2001; 196-198.
12 Sherwood A, Hinderliter AL, Watkins LL, et al. Impaired endothelial function in coronary heart disease patients with depressive symptomatology. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46(4): 656-659.
13 Carney RM, Blumenthal JA, Freedland KE, et al. Low heart rate variability and the effect of depression on post-myocardial infarction mortality. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165(13): 1486-1491.
14 Krittayaphong R, Cascio WE, Light KC, et al. Heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease: differences in patients with higher and lower depression scores. Psychosom Med 1997; 59(3): 231-235.
15 Carney RM, Blumenthal JA, Stein PK, et al. Depression, heart rate variability, and acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 2001; 104: 2024-2028.
16 Rieckmann N, Gerin W, Kronish IM, et al. Course of depressive symptoms and medication adherence after acute coronary syndromes: an electronic medication monitoring study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48: 2218-2222.
17 Gehi A, Hass D, Pipkin S, et al. Depression and medication adherence in outpatients with coronary heart disease: findings from the heart and soul study. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165(21): 2508-2513.
18 Carney RM, Freedland KE, Eisen SA, et al. Major depression and medication adherence in elderly patients with coronary artery disease. Health Psychology 1995; 14(1): 88-90.
19 Brodie BB, Shore PA. A concept for a role of serotonin and norepinephrine as chemical mediators in the brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1957; 66(3): 631-642.
20 Checkley SA. Neuroendocrine tests of monoamine function in man: a review of basic theory and its application to the study of depressive illness. Psychol Med 1980; 10(1): 35-53.
21 Heninger GR, Delgado PL, Charney DS. The revised monoamine theory of depression: a modulatory role for monoamines, based on new findings from monoamine depletion experiments in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry1996; 29(1): 2-11.
22 Hindmarch I. Beyond the monoamine hypothesis: mechanisms, molecules and methods. Eur Psychiatry 2002; 17(Suppl 3): 294-299.
23 Hirschfeld RM. History and evolution of the monoamine hypothesis of depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61 (Suppl 6): 4-6.
24 Kirsch I. Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A meta-analysis of data submitted to the food and drug administration. PLoS Med 2008; 5(2): e45.
25 Turner EH, Mathews AM, Linardato E, et al. Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. N Engl J Med 2008; 358(3): 252-260.
26 Olfson M, Marcus SC. National patterns in antidepressant medication treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009; 66(8): 848-856.
27 Gillman PK. Tricyclic antidepressant pharmacology and therapeutic drug interactions updated. Br J Pharmacol 2007; 151(6): 737-748.
28 Jefferson JW. A review of the cardiovascular effects and toxicity of tricyclic antidepressants. Psychosom Med 1975; 37(2): 160-179.
29 Biggs JT, Spiker DG, Petit JM, et al. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose. JAMA 1977; 238(2): 135-138.
30 Callaham M, Kassel D. Epidemiology of fatal tricyclic antidepressant ingestion: implications for management. Ann Emerg Med 1985; 14(1): 1-9.
31 Goodnick PJ, Goldstein BJ. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in affective disorders-I. Basic pharmacology. J Psychopharmacol 1998; 12(3 Suppl B): S5-20.
32 Markovitz JH, Shuster JL, Chitwood WS, et al. Platelet activation in depression and effects of sertraline treatment: An open-label study. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157(6): 1006-1008.
33 Serebruany VL, Glassman AH, Malinin AI, et al. Platelet/ Endothelial biomarkers in depressed patients treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline after acute coronary events: the sertraline antidepressant heart attack randomized trial (SADHART) platelet substudy. Circulation 2003; 108(8): 939-944.
34 Pollock BG, Laghrissi-Thode F, Wagner WR. Evaluation of platelet activation in depressed patients with ischemic heart disease after paroxetine or nortriptyline treatment. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2000; 20(2): 137-140.
35 Morel-Kopp MC, McLean L, Chen Q, et al. The association of depression with platelet activation: evidence for a treatment effect. J Thromb Haemost 2009; 7(4): 573-581.
36 Pizzi C, Mancini S, Angeloni L, et al. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy on endothelial function and inflammatory markers in patients with coronary heart disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2009; 86(5): 527-532.
37 O'brien SM, Scott LV, Dinan TG. Antidepressant therapy and C-reactive protein levels. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188(5): 449-452.
38 Lekakis J, Ikonomidis I, Papoutsi Z, et al. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors decrease the cytokine-induced endothelial adhesion molecule expression, the endothelial adhesiveness to monocytes and the circulating levels of vascular adhesion molecules. Int J Cardiol 2010; 139(2): 150-158.
39 Glassman AH, O'Connor CM, Califf RM, et al. Sertraline treatment of major depression in patients with acute MI or unstable angina. JAMA 2002; 288(6): 701-709.
40 Lespérance F, Frasure-Smith N, Koszycki D, et al. Effects of citalopram and interpersonal psychotherapy on depression in patients with coronary artery disease: the Canadian Cardiac Randomized Evaluation of Antidepressant and Psychotherapy Efficacy (CREATE) trial. JAMA 2007; 297(4): 367-379.
41 Pizzi C, Rutjes AW, Costa GM, et al. Meta-analysis of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in patients with depression and coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol 2011; 107(7): 972-979.
42 Mazza M, Lotrionte M, Biondi-Zoccai G, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors provide significant lower re-hospitalization rates in patients recovering from acute coronary syndromes: evidence from a meta-analysis. J Psychopharmacol 2010; 24(12): 1785-1792.
43 Scherrer JF, Garfield LD, Lustman PJ, et al. Antidepressant drug compliance: reduced risk of MI and mortality in depressed patients. Am J Med 2011; 124(4): 318-324.
44 Scherrer JF, Chrusciel T, Zeringue A, et al. Anxiety disorders increase risk for incident myocardial infarction in depressed and nondepressed veterans administration patients. Am Heart J 2010; 159(5): 772-779.
45 Hoen PW, Whooley MA, Martens EJ, et al. Differential associations between specific depressive symptoms and cardiovascular prognosis in patients with stable coronary heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 56(11): 838-844.
46 Wong CK, Tang EW, Herbison P, et al. Pre-existent depression in the 2 weeks before an acute coronary syndrome can be associated with delayed presentation of the heart attack. QJM 2008; 101: 137-144.
47 US Preventive Task Force. Screening for depression in adults: US preventive task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151: 784-792.
48 Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, et al. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death. N Engl J Med 2009; 360(3): 225-235.
49 Rozanski A, Blumenthal JA, Davidson KW, et al. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice: the emerging field of behavioral cardiology. J Am CollCardiol 2005; 45(5): 637-651.
50 Whooley MA, Depression and cardiovascular disease: healing the broken-hearted. JAMA 2006. 295(24): 2874-2881.