Journal of Grodesy and Geodynamics (大地测量与地球动力学) 2013/4:4 PP.26-32
Variations of Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) in the ionosphere are investigated around the time of the Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake A time-series analysis shows an anomalous VTEC increase 15 days before, as well as some anomalous VTEC decreases 5 days before and 8 hours after the earthquake.Each of these anomalies lasted more than 4 hours and drifted from east to west.The anomalous increase 15 days before the earthquake is significantly larger than the solar-terrestrial background noise, and is thus considered to be probably related to the earthquake..
 Davies K and Baker D M. Ionospheric effect observed around the time of Alaska earthquake of March 28, 1964. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1965, 70（9）: 172-179.
 Hayakawa M and Fujinawa Y. Electromagnetic phenomena related to earthquake prediction. Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo, Terrapub, 1994.
 Calais E and Minster J B. GPS detection of ionospheric TEC perturbations following the January 17, 1994, Northridge earthquake. Geophysical Research Letters, 1995, 22: 1045-1048.
 Chmyrev V M, Isaev N V, Serebryakova O N, et al. Small-Scale Plasma inhomogeneities and correlated ELF emissions in the ionosphere over an earthquake region. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 1997, 59（9）: 967-974.
 Liperovsky V A, Pokhotelov O A, Liperovskaya E V, et al. Modification of sporadic E-layers caused by seismic activity. Surveys in Geophysics, 2000, 21: 449-486.
 Liu J Y, Chen Y I, Chuo Y J, et al. Variations of ionospheric total electron content during the Chi-Chi earthquake. Geophysical Research Letters, 2001, 28: 1383-1386.
 Liu J Y, Chuo Y J, Shan S J, et al. Pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies monitored by GPS TEC. Annales Geophysicae, 2004, 22: 1585-1593.
 Gaivoronskaya T V and Pulinets S A. Analysis of F2-layer variability in the areas of seismic activity. Preprint IZMIRAN, Moscow, 2002, 2（1145）:1-20.
 Plotkin V V. GPS detection of ionospheric perturbation before the 13 February 2001, El Salvador earthquake. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2003, 3: 249-253.
 Pulinets S A, Boyarchuk K. Ionospheric precursors of earthquakes. Berlin: Springer, 2004.
 Trigunait A, Parrot M, Pulinets S A, et al. Variation of ionospheric electron density during the Bhuj seismic event. Annales Geophysicae, 2004, 22: 4123-4131.
 Krankowski A, Zakharenkova I E and Shagimuratov I I. Response of the ionosphere to the Baltic Sea earthquake of 21 September, 2004. Acta Geophysica, 2006, 54（1）: 90-101.
 Zakharenkova I E, Krankowski A and Shagimuratov I I. Modification of the low-latitude ionosphere before December 26, 2004 Indonesian earthquake. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2006, 6: 817-823.
 Zakharenkova I E, Shagimuratov I I, Tepenitzina N Yu a, et al. Anomalous modification of the ionospheric total electron content prior to the 26 September 2005 Peru earthquake. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial physics, 2008, 70: 1919 -1928.
 Hasbi A M, Mohd Ali M A and Misran N. Ionospheric variations before some large earthquakes over Sumatra. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2011, 11:597-611.
 Huijun Le, Libo Liu, Jann-Yeng Liu, et al. The ionospheric anomalies prior to the M9. 0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 2013, 62:476-484.
 Lin.kov E M, Petrova L N and Osipiv K S. Seismic gravitational pulsations of the Earth and atmospheric disturbances as possible precursors of strong earthquakes. Transaction of USSR Academy of Science, Earth Science, 1991, 306: 13-16.
 Shalimov S L and Gokhberg M B. Lithosphere-Ionosphere coupling mechanism and its application to the earthquake in Iran on June 20, 1990. A review of ionospheric measurements and basic assumptions. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 1998, 105: 211-218.
 Gokhberg M B and Shalimov S L. The lithosphere and ionosphere relationship and its modeling. Russian J. Earth Sciences, 2000, 2（2）: 95-108.
 Pilipenko V, Shalimov S, Uyeda S, et al. Possible mechanism of the over-horizon reception of FM radio waves during earthquake preparation period. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, ser. B, 2001, 77: 125-130.
 Varotsos P, Hdjicontis V and Nowick A. The physical mechanism of seismic electric signals. Acta Geophysica Polonica, 2001, 49: 416-421.
 Hayakawa M and Molchanov O A. Seismo-electromagnetics: lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo, Terrapub, 2002.
 Molchanov O, Fredorov E, Schekotov A, et al. Lithosphereatmosphere-ionosphere coupling as governing mechanism for preseismic short-term events in atmosphere and ionosphere. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 2004, 4: 757-767.
 Rapoport Y, Grimalsky V, Hayakawa M, et al. Change of ionosphere plasma parameters under the influence of electric field which has lithospheric origin and due to radon emanation. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 2004, 29: 579-587.
 Yoshida S and Ogawa T. Electromagnetic emissions from dry and wet granite associated with acoustic emission. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2004, 109（B9）: B09204.
 Kamogawa M. Preseismic lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 2006, 87（40）: 417-424.
 Mannucci A J, Wilson B D, Yuan D N, et al. A global mapping technique for GPS-derived ionospheric electron content measurements. Radio Science, 1998, 33（3）: 565-582.
 Jakowski N, Heise S, Wehrenpfennig A, et al. GPS/GLONASSbased TEC measurements as a contributor for space weather forecast. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial physics, 2002, 64: 729-735.
 Otsuka Y, Ogawa T, Saito A, et al. A new technology for mapping of total electron content using GPS network in Japan. Earth Planets Space, 2002, 58（5）: 529-534.
 Schaer S. Mapping and Predicting the Earth.s Ionosphere Using the Global Positioning System. Astronomical Institute, University of Berne, Switzerland, 1999.
 Azpilicueta F, Brunini C and Radicella S M. Global ionospheric maps from GPS observations using modip latitude, Advance in Space Research, 2006, 38: 2324-2331.
 Wilson B D and Mannucci A J. Instrument biases in ionospheric measurements derived from GPS data. Proceedings of ION GPS.93, Salt Lake City, 1993.
 Sardon E, Rius A and Zarraoa N. Estimation of the transmitter and receiver differential biases and the ionospheric total electron content from global positioning system observations. Radio Science, 1994, 29（3）: 577-586.
 Ma G and Maruyama T. Derivation of TEC and estimation of instrumental biases from GEONET in Japan. Annales Geophysicae, 2003, 21（10）: 2083-2093.
 Gao Y, Heroux P and Kouba J. Estimation of GPS receiver and satellite L1/L2 signal delay biases using data from CACS. Proceedings of KIS-94, Banff, Canada, August 30-September 2, 1994.
 Komjathy J. Global ionospheric total electron content mapping using the global positioning system. Fredericton: University of New Brunswick, 1997.
 Kazimirovski E S. Coupling from below as a source of ionospheric variability: a review. Annals of Geophysics, 2002, 45: 1-29.
 Forbes J M, Palo S E and Zhang, X L. Variability of the ionosphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2000, 62: 685-693.
 Rishbeth H and Mendillo M. Patterns of F2-layer variability. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial physics, 2001, 63: 1661-1680.
 Mendillo M, Rishbeth H, Roble R G. , et al. Modelling F2-layer seasonal trends and day-to-day variability driven by coupling with the lower atmosphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial physics, 2002, 64: 1911-1931.
 Zhao B, Yu T, Wang M, et al. Is an unusual large enhancement of ionospheric electron density linked with the 2008 great Wenchuan earthquake, J. Geophys. Res. , 2008, 113, A11304.
 Liu J Y, Chen Y I, Chen C H, et al. Seismoionoshperic GPS total electron content anomalies observed before the 12 May 2008 Mw7. 9 Wenchuan earthquake. J. Geophys. Res. , 2009, 114, A04320.
 Zhang X, Shen X, Liu J, et al. Analysis of ionospheric plasma perturbations before Wenchuan earthquake, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. , 2009, 9: 1259-1266.
 Liu J Y, Chen Y I, Chuo Y J, et al. A statistical investigation of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomaly, J. Geophys. Res. , 2006, 111, A05304.
 Freund F. Time-resolved study of charge generation and propagation in igneous rocks. J. Geophys. Res. , 2000, 105, 11001-11019.
 Kim V P and Hegai V V. A possible presage of strong earthquakes in the nighttime mid latitude associated with earthquakes. Atmospheric and Ionoshperic Electromagnetic Phenomena Associated with Earthquakes. Terra Scientific Publishing Company, 1999, 619-627.
 Pulinets S A, Boyarchuk K A, Hegai V V, et al. Quasielectrostatic model of atmosphere-thermosphereionosphere coupling. Adv. Space Res. , 2000, 26（8）: 1209-1218.
 Sorokin V M, Chmyrev V M and Yaschenko A K. Electrodynamic model of the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere coupling. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. , 2001, 63: 1681-1691.