doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1300.2012.20076

Journal of Radars (雷达学报) 2012/1:4 PP.353-360

On the Development of Synthetic Aperture Ladar Imaging


Abstract:
A brief overview on the development of Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL) imaging both domestically and abroad is introduced, where the quality of the obtained SAL image, the system architecture adopted and the overall progress on SAL development are reviewed. We suggest that a practical SAL should have proper imaging field of view and can be kind of adaptive to atmospheric turbulence so as to be accepted by possible end-users. We also urge that more outdoor SAL imaging experiments should be carried out and more imaging results should be published for the further development of SAL.

Key words:Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL),Imaging demonstration,Image quality,Resolution

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 16:36:24



[1] Chung Soon-Jo, Miller D W, and de Weck O L. Design and implementation of sparse aperture imaging systems[C]. Proceedings of SPIE, 2002, Vol. 4849: 181-192.

[2] Marron J C and Kendrick R L. Distributed aperture active imaging[C]. Proceedings of SPIE, 2007, Vol. 6550: 65500A.

[3] Curlander J C and Mcdonough R N. Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems and Signal Processing[M]. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991.

[4] 邓云凯, 赵凤军, 王宇. 星载SAR技术的发展趋势及其应用浅析[J]. 雷达学报,2012, 1(1): 1-10. Deng Yun-kai, Zhao Feng-jun, and Wang Yu. Brief analysis on the development and application of spaceborne SAR[J]. Journal of Radars, 2012, 1(1): 1-10.

[5] Ricklin J C and Tomlinson P G. Active imaging at DARPA[J]. Proceedings of SPIE, 2005, Vol. 5895: 589505.

[6] Lewis T S and Hutchins H S. A synthetic aperture at optical frequencies[J]. Proceedings of the IEEE, 1970, 58(4): 578-588.

[7] Lewis T S and Hutchins H S. A synthetic aperture at 10.6 microns[J]. Proceedings of the IEEE, 1970, 58(10): 1781-1782.

[8] Aleksoff C C and Christensen C R. Holographic Doppler imaging of rotating objects[J]. Applied Optics, 1975, 14(1): 134-141.

[9] Aleksoff C C. Synthetic interferometric imaging technique for moving objects[J]. Applied Optics, 1976, 15(8): 1923-1929.

[10] Aleksoff C C, Accetta J S, and Tai L M, et al. Synthetic aperture imaging with a pulsed CO2 TEA laser[C]. Proceedings of SPIE, 1987, Vol. 783: 29-40.

[11] Marcus S, Collella B D, and Green T J, Jr. Solid-state laser synthetic aperture radar[J]. Applied Optics, 1994, 33(6): 960-964.

[12] Green T J, Jr., Marcus S, and Colella B D. Synthetic-aperture-rader imaging with a solid-state laser[J]. Applied Optics, 1995, 34(30): 6941-6949.

[13] Yoshikado S and Aruga T. Feasibility study of synthetic aperture infrared laser radar techniques for imaging of static and moving objects[J]. Applied Optics, 1998, 37(24): 5631-5639.

[14] Yoshikado S and Aruga T. Short-range verification experiment of a trial one-dimensional synthetic aperture infrared laser radar operated in the 10 µm band[J]. Applied Optics, 2000, 39(9): 1421-1425.

[15] Bashkansky M, Lucke R L, and Funk E, et al. Two-dimensional synthetic aperture imaging in the optical domain[J]. Optics Letters, 2002, 27(22): 1983-1985.

[16] Bashkansky M, Lucke R L, and Funk E, et al. Synthetic aperture imaging at 1.5 µm: laboratory demonstration and potential application to planet surface studies[C]. Proceedings of SPIE, 2002, Vol. 4849: 48-56.

[17] Buell W F, Marechal N J, and Buck J R, et al. Synthetic-aperture imaging ladar[J]. The Aerospace Corporation Magazine of Advances Technology, 2004, 5(2): 45-49.

[18] Beck S M, Buck J R, and Buell W F, et al. Synthetic aperture imaging ladar: laboratory demonstration and signal processing[J]. Applied Optics, 2005, 44(35): 7621-7629.

[19] Buell W, Marechal N, and Buck J, et al. Demonstrations of synthetic aperture imaging ladar[C]. Proceedings of SPIE, 2005, Vol. 5791: 152-166.

[20] Amann M C, Bosch T, and Myllyla R, et al. Laser ranging: a critical review of usual techniques for distance measurement [J]. Optics Engineering, 2001, 40(1): 10-19.

[21] Dierking M, Schumm B, and Ricklin J C, et al. Synthetic aperture LADAR for tactical imaging overview[C]. The 14th Coherent Laser Radar Conference(CLRC), 2007, Session 9.

[22] Buck J R, Krause B W, Malm A I R et al. Synthetic aperture imaging at optical wavelength[C]. OSA/CLEO/IQEC, 2009.

[23] Krause B W, Buck J, Ryan C, et al. Synthetic aperture ladar flight demonstration[C]. OSA/CLEO/IQEC, 2011.

[24] 彭仁军, 吴健, 杨春平, 等. 用干涉法实现光学合成孔径技术[J]. 光学学报, 2002, 22(3): 355-359. Peng Ren-jun, Wu Jian, Yang Chun-ping, et al. Synthethizing aperture in optics with interferometric imaging [J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2002, 22(3): 355-359.

[25] 郭亮, 邢孟道, 张龙, 等. 室内距离向合成孔径激光雷达成像的实验研究[J]. 中国科学E辑: 技术科学, 2009, 39(10): 1678-1684. Guo Liang, Xing Meng-dao, Zhang Long, et al. Research on indoor experimentation of range SAL im aging system[J]. Science China Technological Sciences, 2009, 39(10): 1678-1684.

[26] 周煌, 许楠, 奕竹, 等. 实验室合成孔径激光雷达点目标二维成像实验[J]. 光学学报, 2009, 29(2): 566-568. Zhou Yi, Xu Nan, and Luan Zhu, et al. Two-dimensional imaging experiment of a point target in a laboratory-scale synthetic aperture imaging ladar[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2009, 29(2): 566-568.

[27] 周煜, 许楠, 栾竹, 等. 尺度缩小合成孔径激光成像雷达的二维成像实验[J]. 光学学报, 2009, 29(7): 2030-2032. Zhou Yu, Xu Nan, Luan Zhu, et al. 2D imaging experiment of a 2D target in a laboratory-scale synthetic aperture imaging ladar[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2009, 29(7): 2030-2032.

[28] 刘立人, 周煜, 职亚楠, 等. 大口径合成孔径激光成像雷达演示样机及其实验验证[J]. 光学学报, 2011, 31(9): 112-116. Liu Li-ren, Zhou Yu, Zhi Ya-nan, et al. A large aperture synthetic aperture imaging ladar demonstrator and its verification in laboratory space[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2011, 31(9): 112-116.

[29] 戴恩文, 孙建峰, 闫爱明, 等. 菲涅耳望远镜合成孔径激光雷达实验室验证[J]. 光学学报, 2012, 32(5): 278-283. Dai En-wen, Sun Jian-feng, Yan Ai-ming, et al. Demonstration of a laboratory Fresnel telescope synthetic aperture imaging ladar[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2012, 32(5): 278-283.

[30] 洪光烈, 王建宇, 孟昭华, 等. Chirp强度调制与近红外激光合成孔径雷达距离向处理[J]. 红外与毫米波学报, 2009, 28(3): 229-234. Hong Guang-lie, Wang Jian-yu, Meng Zhao-hua, et al. Chirped amplitude modulation and range dimension processing of near infrared synthetic aperture ladar[J]. Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 2009, 28(3): 229-234.

[31] 刘国国, 吴谨, 朱炳祺, 等. 合成孔径激光雷达距离像分辨率非线性恶化与补偿[J]. 激光与红外, 2009, 39(9): 934-938. Liu Guo-guo, Wu Jin, Zhu Bing-qi, et al. Nonlinear degradation and compensation on range resolution in synthetic aperture ladar experiment[J]. Laser & Infrared, 2009, 39(9): 934-938.

[32] 朱炳祺, 吴谨, 赵美静, 等. 条带式合成孔径激光雷达光轴影响距离成像研究[J]. 激光与光电子学进展, 2010, 47(11): 42-48. Zhu Bing-qi, Wu Jin, Zhao Mei-jing, et al. Influence of optical axis on range imaging in stripmap synthetic aperture ladar[J]. Laser & Optoelectronics Progress, 2010, 47(11): 42-48.

[33] Wu Jin, Li Fei-fei, Zhao Zhi-long, et al. Demonstration of stripmap mode synthetic aperture ladar with PGA- independent high resolution images[J]. (Submitted to Optics & Laser Technology).

[34] 吴谨, 杨兆省, 赵志龙, 等. 单程远场衍射合成孔径激光雷达成像实验室演示[J]. 红外与毫米波学报, 待发表. Wu Jin, Yang Zhao-sheng, Zhao Zhi-long, et al. Laboratory demonstration on synthetic aperture ladar imaging with one-way far-field diffraction[J]. Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, to be published.

[35] Eichel P H, Wahl D E, Ghiglia D C, et al. Phase gradient autofocus-a robust tool for high resolution SAR phase correction[J]. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic System, 1994, 30(3): 827-835.

[36] 赵美静, 吴谨, 朱炳祺. 随机相位误差影响条带模式合成孔径激光雷达成像的数学模拟[J]. 红外与激光工程, 2011, 40(12): 2418-2423. Zhao Mei-jing, Wu Jin, and Zhu Bing-qi. Mathematical simulation on stripmap mode synthetic aperture ladar imaging with random phase errors, infrared and laser engineering[J]. Infrared and Laser Engineering, 2011, 40(12): 2418-2423.

[37] Karr T J. Atmospheric phase error in coherent laser radar[J]. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2007, 55(4): 1122-1132.

[38] Karr T J. Resolution of synthetic-aperture imaging through turbulence[J]. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 2003, 20(6): 1067-1083.

[39] Lucke R L. Synthetic aperture ladar simulations with phase screens and Fourier propagation[C]. 2004 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 2004: 1788-1798.

[40] Stappaerts E A and Scharlemann E T. Differenctial synthetic aperture ladar[J]. Optics Letters, 2005, 30(18): 2385-2387.

[41] Duncan B D and Dierking M P. Holographic aperture ladar[J]. Applied Optics, 2009, 48(6): 1168-1177.

[42] Duncan B D and Dierking M P. Stripmap holographic aperture ladar[C]. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2008: 511-512.

[43] Stafford J W, Duncan B D, and Dierking M P. Experimental demonstration of a stripmap holographic aperture ladar system[J]. Applied Optics, 2010, 49(12): 2262-2270.

[44] Venable S M, III, Duncan B D, Dierking M P, et al. Demonstrated resolution enhancement capability of a stripmap holographic aperture ladar system[J]. Applied Optics, 2012, 51(22): 5531-5542.

[45] Dierking M P and Duncan B D. Periodic, pseudonoise waveforms for multifunction coherent ladar[J]. Applied Optics, 2010, 49(10): 1908-1922.

[46] 刘立人. 直视合成孔径激光雷达成像原理[J]. 光学学报, 2012, 32(9): 287-294. Liu Li-ren. Principle of down-looking synthetic aperture imaging ladar[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2012, 32(9): 287-294.