doi:

DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1249.2018.02187

Journal of Shenzhen University Science and Engineering (深圳大学学报理工版) 2018/35:2 PP.187-196

Flow modelling of CO2 foam flooding in low permeability reservoirs based on fractional flow function


Abstract:
The seepage mechanism of foam flow in porous media is very complicated. The purpose of this research is explaining the flooding mechanism accurately and revealing the seepage mechanism of CO2 foam flow in porous media.Based on the characteristics of CO2 foam flow in low permeability oil reservoirs, a novel model of CO2 foam flooding considering the effects of surfactant adsorption and threshold pressure gradient is established and solved using the fractional-flow function and the principle of material balance. We derive the fractional-flow solutions for the foam displacement to find the water-saturation distribution in system, in the two cases of surfactant dissolved in supercritical CO2 or in water, respectively. The numerical simulations are presented to verify the graphical solutions obtained from fractional-flow function. In addition, the controlling factors that control the mobility and moving velocity of the foam bank are investigated, and the optimal design of flooding process is proposed (in the context of idealized 1D displacements). As the water fraction of the injected foam increases with deterioration of foam quality, the velocity of the flooding front would first increase and then decrease. Therefore, the optimal water fraction can be expected to maintain the gas front slightly ahead of the foam front for best performance. The propagation of the foam front depends on both surfactant adsorption onto rock and the partitioning of surfactant between water and CO2. The optimal process can be reached while the ratio of surfactant concentrations dissolved in CO2 to that in water tends to zero. Our work can provide a theoretical basis for the design of CO2 foam process in field applications.

Key words:oil and gas field development engineering,low permeability oil reservoir,CO2 foam flooding,fluids seepage characteristic,water-saturation distribution,fractional-flow function,numerical simulation,graphic solution

ReleaseDate:2018-03-20 15:26:57



[1] 杜庆军,侯健,鹿腾,等.基于分流方程的泡沫体系渗流特征[J].东北石油大学学报,2010, 34(4):71-76. DU Qingjun, HOU Jian, LU Teng, et al. The percolation characteristic of foam flooding based on fractional flow equation[J]. Journal of Northeast Petroleum University, 2010,34(4):71-76.(in Chinese)

[2] 王冠华.超临界CO2泡沫调驱技术研究[D].东营:中国石油大学(华东),2011. WANG Guanhua. Study on profile control and flooding technology of supercritical CO2 foam[D]. Dongying:China University of Petroleum (East China),2011.(in Chinese)

[3] 李冉. 低张力泡沫驱室内实验与数值模拟研究[D]. 东营:中国石油大学(华东),2013. LI Ran. Study on the laboratory experiment and numerical simulation of low tension foam flooding[D]. Dongying:China University of Petroleum (East China),2013.(in Chinese)

[4] 鹿腾,李兆敏,李敬,等.基于泡沫微观渗流特征的泡沫驱数学模型[J].计算物理,2012,29(4):519-524. LU Teng, LI Zhaomin, LI Jing, et al. A mathematical model of foam flooding based on foam microscopic seepage characteristics[J]. Chinese Journal of Computational Physics, 2012, 29(4):519-524.(in Chinese)

[5] 徐庆岩, 杨正明, 何英,等. 超低渗透油藏非线性渗流数值模拟[J].深圳大学学报理工版, 2012, 29(6):94-98. XU Qingyan, YANG Zhengming, HE Ying, et al. Numerical simulation of nonlinear seepage in super-low permeability reservoirs[J].Journal of Shenzhen University Science and Engineering, 2012, 29(6):94-98.(in Chinese)

[6] 刘露,李华斌,吴灿,等.空气泡沫在孔隙介质中的渗流特征研究[J].油田化学,2015(1):78-82. LIU Lu, LI Huabin, WU Can, et al. Flow characteristics of air foam in porous medium[J]. Oilfield Chemistry, 2015(1):78-82.(in Chinese)

[7] 杜东兴,王德玺,贾宁洪,等.多孔介质内CO2泡沫液渗流特性实验研究[J].石油勘探与开发, 2016,43(3):456-461. DU Dongxing, WANG Dexi, JIA Ninghong, et al. Experiments on CO2 foam seepage characteristics in porous media[J]. Petroleum Exploration and Development, 2016,43(3):456-461.(in Chinese)

[8] 刘祖鹏, 李兆敏. CO2 驱油泡沫防气窜技术实验研究[J]. 西南石油大学学报自然科学版, 2015, 37(5):117-122. LIU Zupeng, LI Zhaomin. An experimental study on anti-channeling technology with foam in CO2 flooding[J].Journal of Southwest Petroleum University Science & Technology Edition, 2015,37(5):117-122.(in Chinese)

[9] 吕春阳,赵凤兰,侯吉瑞,等.泡沫驱前调剖提高采收率室内实验[J].油气地质与采收率,2015,22(5):69-73. LV Chunyang, ZHAO Fenglan, HOU Jirui, et al. Laboratory experiment of EOR through profile control before foam flooding[J]. Petroleum Geology and Recovery Efficiency,2015,22(5):69-73.(in Chinese)

[10] MANCEAU J C, MA J, LI R,et al. Two-phase flow properties of a sandstone rock for the CO2/water system:core-flooding experiments, and focus on impacts of mineralogical changes[J]. Water Resources Research,2015,51(4):2885-2900.

[11] MA Kun, FARAJZADEH R, LOPEZ-SALINAS J L,et al. Non-uniqueness, numerical artifacts, and parameter sensitivity in simulating steady-state and transient foam flow through porous media[J]. Transport in Porous Media,2014,102(3):325-348.

[12] LEE S, LEE G, KAM S I. Three-phase fractional flow analysis for foam-assisted non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) remediation[J]. Transport in Porous Media, 2014, 101(3):373-400.

[13] ZHANG Yang, WANG Yuting, XUE Fangfang, et al. CO2 foam flooding for improved oil recovery:Reservoir simulation models and influencing factors[J]. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,2015,133:838-850.

[14] ROSSEN W R, BOEIJE C S. Fitting foam-simulation-model parameters to data:Ⅱ. surfactant-alternating-gas foam applications[J]. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 2015,18(2):273-283.

[15] LEE S. Modeling of foam flow in porous media for subsurface environmental remediation[D]. Austin:the University of Texas at Austin, 2014.

[16] ROOSTAPOUR A, KAM S I. Anomalous foam-fractional-flow solutions at high-injection foam quality[J]. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering,2013,16(1):40-50.

[17] LIU Jie, CHENG Ruihui, ZHANG Zhen, et al. Numerical simulation of N2 foam flooding in medium-permeability light-oil reservoir with ultra-high water cut[J]. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, 2017, 53(2):286-295.

[18] XING Dazun, WEI Bing, MCLENDON W J, et al. CO2-soluble, nonionic, water-soluble surfactants that stabilize CO2-in-brine foams[J]. SPE Journal, 2012, 17(4):1172-1185.

[19] ZANGANEH M N, KAM S I, LAFORCE T C,et al.The method of characteristics applied to oil displacement by foam[J]. SPE Journal,2011,16(1):8-23.

[20] TELMADARREIE A, TRIVEDI J J. New insight on carbonate-heavy-oil recovery:pore-scale mechanisms of post-solvent carbon dioxide foam/polymer-enhanced-foam flooding[J]. SPE Journal, 2016, 21(5):1655-1668.

[21] IRAWAN S, PERMATASARI K A, BAYUAJI R. Effect of density and resistivity measurement for foam flooding propagation in static condition[C]//IOP Conference Series:Materials Science and Engineering.[S. l.]:IOP Publishing, 2017, 267(1):012031.

[22] Keliang W, Yuhao C, Gang W, et al. The Evaluation of Foam Performance and Flooding Efficiency[C]//IOP Conference Series:Earth and Environmental Science. IOP Publishing, 2017, 100(1):012211.

[23] 赵金省, 李天太, 张明,等. 聚合物驱后氮气泡沫驱油特性及效果[J]. 深圳大学学报理工版, 2010, 27(3):361-366. ZHAO Jinsheng, LI Tianda, ZHANG Ming, et al. Study on the displacement characteristics of nitrogen foam flooding after polymer flooding[J]. Journal of Shenzhen University Science and Engineering, 2010, 27(3):361-366.(in Chinese)

[24] ZHOU Z, ROSSEN W R. Applying fractional-flow theory to foam processes at the "limiting capillary pressure"[J]. SPE Advanced Technology Series, 1995, 3(1):154-162.

[25] MAYBERRY D J, KAM S I. The use of fractional-flow theory for foam displacement in presence of oil[J]. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 2008, 11(4):707-718.

[26] KHOSHNEVIS N, MAHANI H, REHLING J, et al. Investigation of pressure transient behaviour during injection fall-off (IFO) test in foam flooding[J]. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2016, 149(4):860-872.

[27] CHENG L, REME A B, SHAN D, et al. Simulating foam processes at high and low foam qualities[C]//SPE/DOE improved oil recovery symposium. Tulsa, USA:Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2000:SPE-59287-MS.

[28] XU X, SAEEDI A, LIU Keyu. Experimental study on a novel foaming formula for CO2 foam flooding[J]. Journal of Energy Resources Technology-Transactions of the ASME,2017,139(2):022902.

[29] LIU Juncheng, HAN Buxing, LI Ganzuo, et al. Investigation of nonionic surfactant Dynol-604 based reverse microemulsions formed in supercritical Carbon dioxide[J]. Langmuir, 2001,17(26):8040-8043.