DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1001.2009.03299

Journal of Software (软件学报) 2009/20:3 PP.702-712

Simulation of Autumn Leaves

This paper presents a method for capturing and efficiently simulating of a large number of plant leaves, realistically showing their weathering process in autumn time with various texture patterns and appearances. In generating the texture patterns of leaves, different from the existing technique that models the appearance manifolds from a single input material sample, this paper captures the BRDF and BTDF properties of leaf surface from multiple various samples, which contribute to a final complete aging manifold representing the appearance change through the aging process of the leaves. Combining this aging manifold representing with botanical knowledge, it can synthesize many different leaves’ appearance and textures and extrapolate texture patterns out of input samples. The effectiveness of this method is proved in several applications, including subjects with different ages and types. In most cases, it is able to re-produce texture patterns consistent with those observed in nature.

Key words:weathering,texture synthesis,leaf

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 15:08:09

Funds:Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No.2002CB312102

[1] Chiba N, Ohshida K, Muraoka K, Saito N. Visual simulation of leaf arrangement and autumn colours. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation, 1996,7(2):79-93.

[2] Mochizuki S, Cai D, Komiri T, Kimura H, Hori R. Virtual autumn coloring system based on biological and fractal model. In: Proc. of the 9th Pacific Conf. on Computer Graphics and Applications. IEEE Computer Society, 2001. 348.

[3] Braitmaier M, Diepstraten J, Ertl T. Real-Time rendering of seasonal influenced trees. In: Proc. of Theory and Practice of Computer Graphics. 2004. 152-159.

[4] Wang J, Tong X, Lin S, Pan M, Wang C, Bao H, Guo B, Shum HY. Appearance manifolds for modeling time-variant appearance of materials. ACM Trans. on Graphics, 2006,25(3):754-761.

[5] Gu J, Tu CI, Ramamoorthi R, Belhumeur P, Matusik W, Nayar S. Time-Varying surface appearance: Acquisition, modeling and rendering. In: Proc. of the ACM SIGGRAPH 2006. New York: ACM Press, 2006. 762-771.

[6] Wang L, Wang W, Dorsey J, Yang X, Guo B, Shum HY. Real-Time rendering of plant leaves. ACM Trans. on Graphics, 2005,24(3):712-719.

[7] Dorsey J, Hanrahan P. Modeling and rendering of metallic patinas. In: Proc. of the SIGGRAPH’96, 1996. 387-396.

[8] Dorsey J, Edelman A, Jensen HW, Legakis J, Pedersen HK. Modeling and rendering of weathered stone. In: Proc. of the SIGGRAPH’99. 1999. 225-234.

[9] Paquette E, Poulin P, Drettakis G. The simulation of paint cracking and peeling. In: Proc. of the Graphics Interface 2002 Conf. 2002. 59-68.

[10] Miller G. Efficient algorithms for local and global accessibility shading. In: Proc. of the SIGGRAPH’94. ACM Press. 1994. 319-326.

[11] Hsu SC, Wong TT. Simulating dust accumulation. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, 1995,15(1):18-22.

[12] Wong TT, Ng WY, Heng PA. A geometry dependent texture generation framework for simulating surface imperfections. In: Proc. of the 8th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering (Rendering Techniques’97). 1997. 139-150.

[13] Chen Y, Xia L, Wong TT, Tong X, Bao H, Guo B, Shum HY. Visual simulation of weathering by gamma-ton tracing. In: Proc. of the ACM SIGGRAPH 2005. New York: ACM Press, 2005. 1127-1133.

[14] Lu J, Georghiades AS, Dorsey J, Rushmeier J, Xu C. Synthesis of material drying history: Phenomenon modeling, transferring and rendering. In: Proc. of the SIGGRAPH 2006: ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Courses, 6. New York: ACM Press, 2006.

[15] Badler NI, Becket W. Imperfection for realistic image synthesis. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation. 1990,1(1): 26-32.

[16] Cook RL. Shade trees. In: Proc. of the 11th Annual Conf. on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH’84). New York: ACM Press, 1984. 223-231.

[17] Ebert DS, Musgrave FK, Peachey D, Perlin K, Worley S. Texturing and Modeling: A Procedural Approach. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2002.

[18] Turk G. Generating textures on arbitrary surfaces using reaction-diffusion. In: Proc. of the 18th Annual Conf. on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH’91). New York: ACM Press, 1991. 289-298.

[19] Witkin A, Kass M. Reaction-Diffusion textures. In: Proc. of the 18th Annual Conf. on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH’91). New York: ACM Press, 1991. 299-308.

[20] Matusik W, Zwicker M, Durand F. Texture design using a simplicial complex of morphable textures. ACM Trans. on Graphics, 2005,24(3):787-794.

[21] Lefebvre S, Hoppe H. Parallel controllable texture synthesis. ACM Trans. on Graphics, 2005,24(3):777-786.

[22] Kwatra V, Essa IA, Bobick AF, Kwatra N. Texture optimization for example-based synthesis. ACM Trans. on Graphics, 2005,24(3): 795-802.

[23] Enrique S, Koudelka M, Belhumer P, Dorsey J, Nayar S, Ramamoorthi R. Time-Varing textures: Definition, acquisition, and synthesis. Technical Report, CUCS-023- 05, Columbia University, 2005.

[24] Zhang J, Zhou K, Velho L, Guo B, Shum HY. Synthesis of progressively-variant textures on arbitrary surfaces. ACM Trans. on Graphics, 2003,22(3):295-302.

[25] Gardner A, Tchou C, Hawkins T, Debevec P. Linear light source reflectometry. ACM Trans. on Graphics, 2003,22(3):749-758.

[26] Wei LY, Levoy M. Fast texture synthesis using treestructured vector quantization. In: Proc. of the 27th Annual Conf. on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH 2000). New York: ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 2000. 479-488.

[27] Efros A, Freeman W. Image quilting for texture synthesis and transfer. In: Proc. of the ACM Siggraph. 2001. 341-346.