DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2013.00684

Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions 2013/5:6 PP.684-690

Involvement of anti-oxidative enzymes, photosynthetic pigments and flavonoid metabolism in the adaptation of Reaumuria soongorica to salt stress

Reaumuria soongorica is a short woody shrub widely found in semi-arid areas of China.It can survive severe environmental stress including high salinity in its natural habitat.Thus,we investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative enzymes,photosynthetic pigments and flavonoid metabolism in the adaptation of R.soongorica to saline environments.R.soongorica was treated with 0,100,200 and 400 mM NaCl solutions for 14 days.Soil salt content increased significantly by watering with high content of NaCl solution,and no variation between 8 and 14 days during treatment.The levels of peroxidation of lipid membranes(measured by malondialdehyde content)and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes(superoxide dismutase(SOD),peroxidase(POD)and ascorbate peroxidase(APX))increased under salt stress.Chlorophyll and carotenoid content decreased with increasing salt content.The ratio of Chl a/Chl b and carotenoid/Chl exhibited significant increase under 400 mM NaCl.However,total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents and key enzyme activities in the flavonoid pathway including phenylalanine ammonialyase(PAL)and Chalcone isomerase(CHI)decreased under salt stress.These findings possibly suggest that R.soongorica has an adaptation protection mechanism against salt-induced oxidative damage by inducing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and maintaining a steady level of carotenoid/Chl.

Key words:antioxidant enzymes,photosynthetic pigments,flavonoid,Reaumuria soongorica

ReleaseDate:2015-04-17 09:59:08

Al-Azzawie HF, Mohamed-Saiel SA, 2006. Hypoglycemic and anti-oxidant effect of oleuropein in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Life Sci.,78: 1371-1377.

Ali AA, Alqurainy F, 2006. Activities of antioxidants in plants underenvironmental stress. In: Motohashi N (ed.). The Lutein-preventionand Treatment for Diseases. Transworld Research Network, India,pp. 187-256.

Asada K, 1992. Ascorbate peroxidase—a hydrogen perox-ide-scavenging enzyme in plants. Physiol. Plant, 85: 235-241.

Ashraf M, 2009. Biotechnological approach of improving plant salttolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotechnol. Adv., 27:84-93.

Ben Amor N, Jiménez A, Megdiche W, Lundqvist M, Sevilla F, Ab-delly C, 2006. Response of antioxidant systems to NaCl stress inthe halophyte Cakile maritime. Physiol. Plant, 126: 446-457.

Chaparzadeh N, D’Amico ML, Khavari-Nejad RA, Izzo R, Nava-ri-Izzo F, 2004. Antioxidative responses of Calendula officinalisunder salinity conditions. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 42: 695-701.

Demmig-Adams B, Adams III WW, 1996. Chlorophyll and carotenoidcomposition in leaves of Euonymus kiautschovicus acclimated todifferent degrees of light stress in the field. Aust. J. Plant Physiol.,23: 649-659.

Demmig-Adams B, Adams III WW, 2002. Antioxidants in photosyn-thesis and human nutrition. Science, 298(5601): 2149-2153.

Di Baccio D, Navari-Izzo F, Izzo R, 2004. Seawater irrigation: antiox-idant defense responses in leaves and roots of a sunflower (Heli-anthus annuus L.) ecotype. J. Plant Physiol., 161: 1359-1366.

Dixon RA, Paiva NL, 1995. Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabo-lism. Plant Cell, 7(7): 1085-1097.

Elsheery NI, Cao KF, 2008. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence,and osmotic adjustment in two mango cultivars under droughtstress. Acta Physiol. Plant., 30: 769-777.

Endo Y, Usuki R, Kaneda T, 1985. Antioxidant effects of chlorophylland pheophytin on the autoxidation of oils in the dark. I. Compari-son of the inhibitory effects. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 62(9):1375-1378.

Galmés J, Abadía A, Medrano H, Flexas J, 2007. Photosynthesis andphotoprotection responses to water stress in the wild-extinct plant Lysimachia minoricensis. Environ. Exp. Bot., 60: 308-317.

Giannopolitis CN, Ries SK, 1977. Superoxide dismutases. I. Occur-rence in higher plants. Plant Physiol., 59: 309-314.

Havaux M, 1998. Carotenoids as membrane stabilizers in chloroplasts.Trends Plant Sci., 3: 147-151.

Hoshina C, Tomita K, Shioi Y, 1998. Antioxidant activity of chloro-phylls: its structure-activity relationship. Photosynthesis: Mecha-nisms Effects, 4: 3281-3284.

Johnson SM, Doherty SJ, Croy RRD, 2003. Biphasic superoxide gen-eration in potato tubers. A self amplifying response to stress. PlantPhysiol., 13: 1440-1449.

Kahkonen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS,Heinonen M, 1999. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts contain-ing phenolic compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem., 47: 3954-3962.

Lichtenthaler HK, 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments ofphotosynthetic biomembranes. Methods Enzymol., 148: 350-382.

Liu GM, Yang JS, Yao RJ, 2006. Electrical conductivity in soil extracts:chemical factors and their intensity. Pedosphere, 16(1): 100-107.

Liu YB, Liu ML, Cao B, 2011. Effects of drought stress on antioxidantenzyme, photosynthetic pigment and flavonoid pathway in two de-sert shrubs. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 3(4): 332-338.

Meneguzzo S, Navari-Izzo F, Izzo R, 1999. Antioxidant responses ofshoots and roots of wheat to increasing NaCl concentrations. J.Plant Physiol., 155: 274-280.

Mittler R, 2002. Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance.Trends Plant Sci., 7: 405-410.

Morita S, Kaminaka H, Masumura T, Tanaka K, 1999. Induction ofrice cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase mRNA by oxidative stress: theinvolvement of hydrogen peroxide in oxidative stress signaling.Plant Cell Physiol., 40: 417-422.

Munné-Bosch S, Alegre L, 2000. Changes in carotenoids, tocopherolsand diterpenes during drought and recovery, and the biological sig-nificance of chlorophyll loss in Rosmarinus officinalis plants.Planta, 207: 925-931.

Nijveldt RJ, van Nood E, van Hoorn DEC, Boelens PG, van Norren K,van Leeuwen PAM, 2001. Flavonoids: a review of probable mech-anisms of action and potential applications. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 74:418-425.

Noctor G, Foyer CH, 1998. Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping activeoxygen under control. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 49:249-279.

Sakata K, Yamamoto K, Ishikawa H, Yagi A, Etoh H, Ina K, 1990.Chlorophyllone-A, a new pheophorbide a related compound iso-lated from Ruditapes philippinarum as an antioxidant compound.Tetrahedron Letters, 31(8): 1165-1168.

Schafer RQ, Wang HP, Kelley EE, Cueno KL, Martin SM, BuettnerGR, 2002. Comparing carotene, vitamin E and nitric oxide asmembrane antioxidants. Biol. Chem., 383(3-4): 671-681.

Shalata A, Tal M, 1998. The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidationand antioxidants in the leaf of the cultivated tomato and its wildsalt-tolerant relative Lycopersicon pennellii. Physiol. Plant., 104(2):169-174.

Smirnoff N, 1993. The role of active oxygen in the response of plantsto water deficit and desiccation. New Phytol., 125: 27-58.

Smirnoff N, 2005. Antioxidants and Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants.Blackwell Publishing Book.

Tausz M, Grill D, 2000. The role of glutathione in stress adaptation ofplants. Phyton., 40: 111-118.

Usuki R, Endo Y, Kaneda T, 1984. Prooxidant activities of chloro-phylls and pheophytins on the photooxidation of edible oils. J. Biol.Chem., 48(4): 991-994.

Vierstra RD, John TR, Poff KL, 1982. Kaempferol 3-O-galactoside7-O-rhamnoside is the major green fluorescing compound in theepidermis of Vicia faba. Plant Physiol., 69(2): 522-525.

Wanasundara UN, Shahidi F, 1998. Antioxidant and prooxidant activityof green tea extracts in marine oils. Food Chem., 63(3): 335-342.

Williams RJ, Spencer JPE, Rice-Evans C, 2004. Flavonoids: Antioxi-dants or signaling molecules? Free Radical Bio. Med., 36(7):838-849.

Wise RR, Naylor AW, 1987. Chilling-enhanced photooxidation: evi-dence for the role of singlet oxygen and endogenous antioxidants.Plant Physiol., 83(2): 278-282.