DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2010.01027

Zoological Research (动物学研究) 2010/31:1 PP.27-34

Insect Antimicrobial Peptides: Structures, Properties and Gene Regulation

Insect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important group of insect innate immunity effectors. Insect AMPs are cationic and contain less than 100 amino acid residues. According to structure, insect AMPs can be divided into a limited number of families. The diverse antimicrobial spectrum of insect AMPs may indicate different modes of action. Research on the model organism Drosophila indicate that insect AMPs gene regulation involves multiple signaling pathways and a large number of signaling molecules.

Key words:Insect antimicrobial peptides,Innate immunity,Classification,Structures,Properties,Gene regulation

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 15:15:20

Ando K, Okada M, Natori S. 1987. Purification of sarcotoxin II, antibacterial proteins of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly) larvae[J]. Biochemistry, 26(1): 226-230.

Baba K, Okada M, Kawano T, Komano H, Natori S. 1987. Purification of sarcotoxin III,a new antibacterial protein of Sarcophaga peregrine [J]. J Biochem, 102(1): 69-74.

Barbault F, Landon C, Guenneugues M, Meyer JP, Schott V, Dimarcq JL, Vovelle F. 2003. Solution structure of Alo-3: a new knottin-type antifungal peptide from the insect Acrocinus longimanus [J]. Biochemistry, 42(49): 14434-14442.

Boman HG, Nilsson—Faye I, PauI K. 1974. Insect immunitv. Characteristics of an inducible cell—free antibacterial reaction in hemolymph of Samia cynthia pupae [J]. Infect Immun, 10: 136-145.

Boulanger N, Munks RJ, Hamilton JV, Vovelle F, Brun R, Lehane MJ and Bulet P. 2002. Epithelial innate immunity. A novel antimicrobial peptide with antiparasitic activity in the blood-sucking insect Stomoxys calcitrans [J]. J Biol Chem, 277 (51): 49921-49926.

Bulet P, Charlet M, Hetru C. 2003. Antimicrobial peptides in insect immunity[M]// Ezekowitz RAB, Hoffmann JA. Innate Immunity. Totowa: Humana Press Inc, 89-107.

Bulet P, Hetru C, Dimarcq JL and Hoffmann D. 1999. Antimicrobial peptides in insects; structure and function[J]. Dev Comp Immunol, 23: 329-344.

Bulet P, Hegy G, Lambert J, van Dorsselaer A, Hoffmann JA, Hetru C. 1995. Insect immunity. The inducible antibacterial peptide diptericin carries two O-glycans necessary for biological activity[J]. Biochemistry, 34(22): 7394-7400.

Bulet P, Stöcklin R. 2005. Insect antimicrobial peptides: structures, properties and gene regulation[J]. Protein Pept Lett, 12: 3-11.

Bulet P, Urge L, Ohresser S, Hetru C, Otvos L Jr. 1996. Enlarged scale chemical synthesis and range of activity of drosocin, an O-glycosylated antibacterial peptide of Drosophila [J]. Eur J Biochem, 238(1): 64-69.

Carisson A, Engstrom P, Hennich H. 1991. Attacin, an antibacterial protein from Hyalophora cecropia, inhibits synthesis of outer membrane proteins in Escherichia coli by interfering with omp gene transcription[J]. Infect Immun, 59(9): 3040-3044.

Castle M, Nazarian A, Yi SS, Tempst P. 1999. Analog lethal effects of apidaecin on Escherichia coli involves sequential molecular interactions with diverse targets[J]. J Biol Chem, 274: 32555-32564.

Cociancich S, Ghazi A, Hetru C, Hoffmann JA, Letellier L. 1993. Insect defensin, an inducible antibacterial peptide, forms voltage-dependent channels in Micrococcus luteus [J]. J Biol Chem, 268(26): 19239-19245.

Costa A, Jan E, Sarnow P, Schneider D. 2009. The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in Drosophila [J]. PLoS One, 4(10): e7436.

Cruciani RA, Barker JI, Zasloff M. 199l. Antibiotic magainins exert cytolytic activity against transformed cell lines through channel formation[J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 88(9): 3792-3796.

Cudic M, Condie BA, Weiner DJ, Lysenko ES, Xiang ZQ, Insug O, Bulet P, Otvos L Jr. 2002. Development of novel antibacterial peptides that kill resistant isolates[J]. Peptides, 23(12): 2071-2083.

Cudic M, Lockatell V, Johnson DE, Otvos L Jr. 2003. In vitro and in vivo activity of an antibacterial peptide analog against uropathogens[J]. Peptides, 24: 807-820.

Dimarcq JL, Keppi E, Dunbar B, Lambert J, Reichhart JM, Hoffmann D, Rankine SM, Fothergill JE, Hoffmann JA. 1988. Insect immunity. Purification and characterization of a family of novel inducible antibacterial proteins from immunized larvae of the dipteran Phormia terranovae and complete amino-acid sequence of the predominant member, diptericin A[J]. Eur J Biochem, 171(1-2): 17-22.

Fehlbaum P, Bulet P, Chernysh S, Briand JP, Roussel JP, Letellier L, Hetru C, Hoffmann JA. 1996. Structure-activity analysis of thanatin, a 21-residue inducible insect defense peptide with sequence homology to frog skin antimicrobial peptides[J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA,93(3): 1221-1225.

Ferrandon D, Imler JL, Hetru C, Hoffmann JA. 2007. The Drosophila systemic immune response: sensing and signalling during bacterial and fungal infections[J]. Nat Rev Immunol, 7(11): 862-874.

Fujiwara S, Imai J, Fujiwara M, Yaeshima T, Kawashima T, Kobayashi K. 1990. A potent antibacterial protein in royal jelly. Purification and determination of the primary structure of royalisin[J]. J Biol Chem, 265 (19): 11333-11337.

Hara S, Yamakawa M. 1995. A novel antibacterial peptide family isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori [J]. Biochem J, 310 (2): 651-656.

Hetru C, Ho.mann D, Bulet P. 1998. Antimicrobial peptides from insects [M]//Brey PT, Hultmark D. Molecular Mechanisms of Immune Responses in Insects. London: Chapman & Hall, 40-66.

Hoffmann R, Bulet P, Urge L, Otvös L Jr. 1999. Range of activity and metabolic stability of synthetic antibacterial glycopeptides from insects[J]. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1426(3): 459-467.

Hoffmann JA. 2003. The immune response of Drosophila [J]. Nature, 426(6962): 33-38.

Hultmark D, Engström A, Andersson K, Steiner H, Bennich H, Boman HG. 1983. Insect immunity. Attacins, a family of antibacterial proteins from Hyalophora cecropia [J]. EMBO J, 2(4): 571-576.

Hultmark D. 2003. Drosophila immunity: paths and patterns[J]. Curr Opin Immunol, 15(1): 12-19.

Hu Y, Aksoy S. 2005. An antimicrobial peptide with trypanocidal activity characterized from Glossina morsitans morsitans [J]. Insect Biochem Mol Biol, 35(2): 105-115.

Iwai H, Nakajima Y, Natori S, Arata Y, Shimada I. 1993. Solution conformation of an antibacterial peptide, sarcotoxin IA, as determined by 1H-NMR[J]. Eur J Biochem, 217(2): 639-644.

Kaur KJ, Pandey S, Salunke DM. 2007. Design of a functionally equivalent nonglycosylated analog of the glycopeptide antibiotic formaecin I[J]. Protein Sci, 16(2): 309-315.

Kragol G, Lovas S, Varadi G, Condie BA, Hoffmann R, Otvos L Jr. 2001. The antibacterial peptide pyrrhocoricin inhibits the ATPase actions of DnaK and prevents chaperone-assisted protein folding[J]. Biochemistry, 40(10): 3016-3026.

Krishnakumari V, Nagaraj R. 1997. Antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of crabrolin, a 13-residue peptide from the venom of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, and its analogs[J]. J Pept Res, 50: 88-93.

Lamberty M, Caille A, Landon C, Tassin-Moindrot S, Hetru C, Bulet P, Vovelle F. 2001. Solution structures of the antifungal heliomicin and a selected variant with both antibacterial and antifungal activities[J]. Biochemistry, 40: 11995-12003.

Lamberty M, Zachary D, Lanot R, Bordercau C, Robert A, Hoffmann J A, Bulet P. 2001. Constitutive expression of a cysteine-rich antifungal and linear antibacterial peptide in a termite insect[J]. J Biol Chem, 276(6): 4085-4092.

Lambert J, Keppi E, Dimarcq JL, Wicker C, Reichhart JM, Dunbar B, Lepage P, Van Dorsselaer A, Hoffmann J, Fothergill J. 1989. Insect immunity: isolation from immune blood of the dipteran Phormia terranovae of two insect antibacterial peptides with sequence homology to rabbit lung macrophage bactericidal peptides[J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86(1): 262-266.

Leclerc V, Reichhart JM. 2004. The immune response of Drosophila melanogaster[J]. Immunol Rev, 198:59-71.

Lee MK, Cha L, Lee SH, Hahm KS. 2002. Role of amino acid residues within the disulfide loop of thanatin, a potent antibiotic peptide[J]. J Biochem Mol Biol, 35(3): 291-296.

Lehane MJ, Wu D, Lehane SM. 1997. Midgut-specific immune molecules are produced by the blood-sucking insect Stomoxys calcitrans [J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 94: 11502-11507.

Leippe M. 1999. Antimicrobial and cytolytic polypeptides of amoeboid protozoa-effector molecules of primitive phagocytes[J]. Dev Comp Immunol, 23: 267-279.

Lemaitre B, Reichhart JM, Hoffmann JA. 1997. Drosophila host defense: differential induction of antimicrobial peptide genes after infection by various classes of microorganisms[J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 94(26): 14614-14619.

Levitin A, Whiteway M. 2008. Drosophila innate immunity and response to fungal infections[J]. Cell Microbiol, 10(5): 1021-1026.

Liu JT, Su ZJ, Wang FH, Li GH, Song SY. 2006. Progresses on insect antimicrobial peptides[J]. Nat Enemies Insect 28(1): 36-43. [刘建涛, 苏志坚, 王方海, 李广宏, 宋少云. 2006. 昆虫抗菌肽的研究进展. 昆虫天敌, 28(1): 36-43.]

Lowenberger C, Charlet M, Vizioli J, Kamal S, Richman A, Christensen BM, Bulet P. 1999. Antimicrobial activity spectrum, cDNA cloning, and mRNA expression of a newly isolated member of the cecropin family from the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti [J]. J Biol Chem, 274: 20092-20097.

Maillet F, Bischoff V, Vignal C, Hoffmann J, Royet J. 2008. The Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-LF blocks PGRP-LC and IMD/JNK pathway activation[J]. Cell Host Microbe, 3(5): 293-303.

Mandard N, Sodano P, Labbe H, Bonmatin JM, Bulet P, Hetru C, Ptak M, Vovelle F. 1998. Solution structure of thanatin, a potent bactericidal and fungicidal insect peptide, determined from proton two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance data[J]. Eur J Biochem, 256(2): 404-410.

Marchini D, Manetti AG, Rosetto M, Bernini LF, Telford JL, Baldari CT and Dallai R. 1995. cDNA sequence and expression of the ceratotoxin gene encoding an antibacterial sex-specific peptide from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (diptera)[J]. J Biol Chem, 270 (11): 6199-6204.

Matsuyama K, Natori S. 1988. Purification of three antibacterial proteins from the culture medium of NIH-Sape-4, an embryonic cell line of Sarcophaga peregrine [J]. J Biol Chem, 263(32): 17112-17116.

McManus AM, Otvos L Jr, Hoffmann R, Craik DJ. 1999. Conformational studies by NMR of the antimicrobial peptide, drosocin, and its non-glycosylated derivative: effects of glycosylation on solution conformation[J]. Biochemistry, 38(2): 705-714.

Okada M, Natori S. 1984. Mode of action of a bactericidal protein induced in the haemolymph of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh-fly) larvae[J]. Biochem J, 222(1): 119-124.

Oren Z, Shai Y. 1998. Mode of action of linear amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptides[J]. Biopolymers, 47(6): 451-463.

Orivel J, Redeker V, Le Caer JP, Krier F, Revol-Junelles AM, Longeon A, Chaffotte A, Dejean A, Rossier J. 2001. Ponericins, new antibacterial and insecticidal peptides from the venom of the ant Pachycondyla goeldii [J]. J Biol Chem, 276: 17823-17829.

Otvos L Jr, O I, Rogers ME, Consolvo PJ, Condie BA, Lovas S, Bulet P, Blaszczyk-Thurin M. 2000. Interaction between heat shock proteins and antimicrobial peptides[J]. Biochemistry, 39(46): 14150-14159.

Pagès JM, Dimarcq JL, Quenin S and Hetru C. 2003. Thanatin activity on multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae [J]. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 22: 265-269.

Reichhart JM, Essrich M, Dimarcq JL, Hoffmann D, Hoffmann JA, Lagueux M. 1989. Insect immunity. Isolation of cDNA clones corresponding to diptericin, an inducible antibacterial peptide from Phormia terranovae (Diptera)[J]. Eur J Biochem, 182 (2): 423-427.

Schuhmann B, Seitz V, Vilcinskas A, Podsiadlowski L. 2003. Cloning and expression of gallerimycin, an antifungal peptide expressed in immune response of greater wax moth larvae, Galleria mellonella [J]. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol, 53: 125-133.

Steiner H. 1982. Secondary structure of the cecropins: antibacterial peptides from the moth Hyalophora cecropia [J]. FEBS Lett, 137: 283-287.

Sun D, Eccleston ED, Fallon AM. 1998. Peptide sequence of an antibiotic cecropin from the vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus [J]. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 249: 410-415.

Sun D, Eccleston ED, Fallon AM. 1999. Cloning and expression of three cecropin cDNAs from a mosquito cell line[J]. FEBS letters, 454: 147-151.

Taguchi S, Kuwasako K, Suenaga A, Okada M, and Momose H. 2000. Functional mapping against Escherichia coli for the broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide, thanatin, based on an in vivo monitoring assay system[J]. J Biochem, 128(5): 745-754.

Tanji T, Ip YT. 2005. Regulators of the Toll and Imd pathways in the Drosophila innate immune response[J]. Trends Immunol, 26(4): 193-198.

Thevissen K, Warnecke DC, François IE, Leipelt M, Heinz E, Ott C, Zähringer U, Thomma BP, Ferket KK, Cammue BP. 2004. Defensins from insects and plants interact with fungal glucosylceramides[J]. J Biol Chem, 279(6): 3900-3905.

Tossi A, Sandri L, Giangaspero A. 2000. Amphipathic, α-helical antimicrobial peptides[J]. Biopolymers, 55(1): 4-30.

Vizioli J, Bulet P, Charlet M, Lowenberger C, Blass C, Müller HM, Dimopoulos G, Hoffmann J, Kafatos FC, Richman A. 2000. Cloning and analysis of a cecropin gene from the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae[J]. Insect Mol Biol, 9: 75-84.

Vlasak R, Unger-Ullmann C, Kreil G and Frischauf AM. 1983. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA coding for honeybee prepromelittin[J]. Eur J Biochem, 135 (1): 123-126.

Yang WY, Wen SY, Huang YD, Ye MQ, Deng XJ, Han D, Xia QY, Cao Y. 2006. Functional divergence of six isoforms of antifungal peptide Drosomycin in Drosophila melanogaster [J]. Gene, 379: 26-32.