DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2012.05463

Zoological Research (动物学研究) 2012/33:5 PP.463-472

DNA barcoding and species and subspecies classification within genus Carassius

The classification of Carassius has not been well established due to its great variability and wide distribution. Usually, Carassius is identified as three species: C. carassius, C. cuvieri and C. auratus, the latter including several subspecies, such as goldfish. Out of these subspecies, C. auratus gibelio have recently been thought of as a valid species of Carassius. In this study we collected the 5′end 651 bp segments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene from 128 specimens, including C. carassius, C. cuvieri, C. auratus auratus, C. auratus gibelio and C. auratus langsdorfii. All three species of Carassius (C. carassius, C. cuvieri, C. auratus) were found to be valid, meanwhile genetic differentiation between the Eurasian C. auratus and Japanese C. auratus has reached a high level. However, several haplotypes were shared between C. auratus auratus and C. auratus gibelio. Consequently, C. auratus gibelio should be regarded as a subspecies of C. auratus rather than a valid species. Moreover, because both diploids and triploids exist in C. auratus auratus and C. auratus gibelio, ploidy level should not be used as criteria for the classification of species or subspecies in Carassius.

Key words:Carassius,DNA barcode,COI gene,Species identification,C. auratus gibelio

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 16:32:19

Apalikova OV, Eliseikina MG, Kovalev MY, Brykov VA. 2008. Collation of data on the ploidy levels and mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic lineages in the silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio from Far Eastern and Central Asian populations [J]. Russ J Gene, 44(7): 873-880.

Brykov VA, Polyakova NE, Skurikhina LA, Dolganov SM, Eliseikina MG, Kovalev MY. 2002. Mitochondrial DNA variation in goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio from far eastern water reservoirs [J]. Russ J Gene, 38(10): 1176-1180.

Chen XL, Huang HJ. 1982. Cyprininae [M] // Wu XW. Monographs of Cyprinidae in China. Shanghai: Shanghai People’s Press. [陈湘粦, 黄宏金. 1982. 鲤亚科[M]// 伍献文. 中国鲤科鱼类志. 上海: 上海科学技术出版社, 395-438.]

Chen Z. 1959. The Domestification and Variation of Goldfish [M]. Beijing: Science Press. [陈帧. 1959. 金鱼的家化与变异[M]. 北京: 科学出版社.]

Edgar RC. 2004. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput [J]. Nucleic Acids Res, 32(5): 1792-1797.

Fan ZT, Shen JB. 1990. Studies on the evolution of bisexual reproduction in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) [J]. Aquaculture, 84(3-4): 235-244.

Flajšhans M, Rodina M, Halačka K, Vetešník L, Gela D, Lusková V, Lusk S. 2008. Characteristics of sperm of polyploid Prussian carp Carassius gibelio [J]. J Fish Biol, 73(1): 323-328.

Geng B, Sun XW. 2008. The application of Flow cytometry on the DNA content and ploidy analysis of hydrophily organisms [J]. Chn J Fish, 21(2): 21-24. [耿波, 孙效文. 2008. 流式细胞术在水生生物DNA含量和倍性分析中的应用 [J]. 水产学杂志, 21(2): 21-24.]

Gui JF. 2007. Partialarity and genetic basis of reproduction mode of gibel carp [M] // Gui JF. Genetic Basis and Artificial Control of Sexuality and Reproduction in Fish. Beijing: Science Press, 107-124. [桂建芳. 2007. 银鲫生殖方式的特殊性及其遗传基础 [M]// 桂建芳. 鱼类性别和生殖的遗传基础及其人工控制. 北京: 科学出版社, 107-124.]

Gui JF, Zhou L. 2010. Genetic basis and breeding application of clonal diversity and dual reproduction modes in polyploid Carassius auratus gibelio [J]. Sci Chn Life Sci, 53(4): 409-415.

Guo XH, Liu SJ, Liu Y. 2007. Evidence for maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in allotetraploid [J]. DNA Seq, 18(4): 247-256.

Halacka K, Luskova V, Lusk S. 2003. Carassius "gibelio" in fish communities of the Czech Republic [J]. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol, 3(1): 133-138.

Hebert PDN, Cywinska A, Ball SL, de Waard JR. 2003a. Biological identifications through DNA barcodes [J]. Proc Roy Soc Lond B Biol, 270(1512): 313-321.

Hebert PDN, Ratnasingham S, de Waard JR. 2003b. Barcoding animal life: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species [J]. Proc Roy Soc Lond B Bio, 270(Suppl 1): S96-S99.

Hosoya K. 2002. Cyprinidae [M] // Nakabo T. Fishes of Japan with Pictorial Keys to the Species. English edn. Tokyo: Tokai University Press, 253-254.

Jakovlić I, Gui JF. 2011. Recent invasion and low level of divergence between diploid and triploid forms of Carassius auratus complex in Croatia [J]. Genetica, 139(6): 789-804

Kalous L, Šlechtová V Jr, Bohlen J, Petrtýl M, Švátora M. 2007. First European record of Carassius langsdorfii from the Elbe basin [J]. J Fish Biol, 70(Suppl): 132-138.

Kobayasi H. 1971. A cytological study on gynogenesis of the triploid ginbuna (Carassius auratus langsdorfii) [J]. Zool Mag, 80: 316-322.

Kobayasi H, Kawashima Y, Takeuchi N. 1970. Comparative chromosome studies in the genus Carassius, especially with a finding of polyploidy in the ginbuna (C. auratus langsdorfii)[J]. Jpn J Ichthyol, 17(4): 153-160.

Komiyama T, Kobayashi H, Tateno Y, Inoko H, Gojobori T, Ikeo K. 2009. An evolutionary origin and selection process of goldfish [J]. Gene, 430(1-2): 5-11.

Leonardos ID, Tsikliras AC, Eleftheriou V, Cladas Y, Kagalou I, Chortatou R, Papigioti O. 2008. Life history characteristics of an invasive cyprinid fish (Carassius gibelio) in Chimaditis Lake (northern Greece) [J]. J Appl Ichthyol, 24(2): 213-217.

Li FB, Gui JF. 2008. Clonal diversity and genealogical relationships of gibel carp in four hatcheries [J]. Anim Genet, 39(1): 28-33.

Librado P, Rozas J. 2009. DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data [J]. Bioinformatics, 25(11): 1451-1452.

Liousia V, Liasko R, Koutrakis E, Leonardos ID. 2008. Variation in clones of the sperm-dependent parthenogenetic Carassius gibelio (Bloch) in Lake Pamvotis (north-west Greece)[J]. J Fish Biol, 72(1): 310-314.

Luo YL, Yue PQ. 2000 Cyprininae [M] // Yue PQ. Fauna Sinica, Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes Ⅲ. Beijing: Science Press, 427-434. [罗云林, 乐佩琦. 2000. 鲤亚科[M]// 乐佩琦. 中国动物志(硬骨鱼纲·鲤形目·下卷). 北京: 科学技术出版社, 427-434.]

Murakami M, Matsuba C, Fujitani H. 2001. The maternal origins of the triploid ginbuna (Carassius auratus langsdorfi): phylogenetic relationships within the C. auratus taxa by partial mitochondrial D-loop sequencing [J]. Genes Genet Syst, 76(1): 25-32.

Öezuluğ M, Meriç N, Freyhof J. 2004. The distribution of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Thrace (Turkey) [J]. Zool Middle East, 31: 63-66.

Ohara K, Ariyoshi T, Sumida E, Sitizyo K, Taniguchi N. 2000. Natural hybridization between diploid crucian carp species and genetic independence of triploid crucian carp elucidated by DNA markers [J]. Zool Sci, 17(3): 357-364.

Ohara K, Dong S, Taniguchi N. 1999. High proportion of heterozygotes in microsatellite DNA loci of wild clonal silver crucian carp, Carassius langsdorfii [J]. Zool Sci, 16(6): 909-913.

Ren ML, Guo Y, Zhang RM, Cai LG, Li H, Adak, Fu YL, Liu KL, Zhang XS, Deng GZ. 2002. Fisheries Resources and Fishery of the Ertixhe River in China [M]. Urumqi: Xinjiang Science, Technology and Health Press, 145-162. [任慕莲, 郭焱, 张人铭, 张秀善, 蔡林钢, 李红, 阿达克, 付亚丽, 刘昆仑, 郑贵中. 2002. 中国额尔齐斯河鱼类资源及渔业[M]. 乌鲁木齐: 新疆科技卫生出版社, 145-162.]

Rylková K, Kalous L, Slechtová V, Bohlen J. 2010. Many branches, one root: first evidence for a monophyly of the morphologically highly diverse goldfish (Carassius auratus). Aquaculture, 302(1-2): 36-41.

Shen JB, Liu MH, Fan ZT. 1997. Silver Crucian Carp in Amur River [M]. Harbin: Heilongjiang Science and Technology Press. [沈俊宝, 刘明华, 范兆廷. 1997. 黑龙江银鲫 [M]. 哈尔滨: 黑龙江科学技术出版社.]

Takada M, Tachihara K, Kon T, Yamamoto G, Iguchi K, Miya M, Nishida M. 2010. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia [J]. BMC Evol Biol, 10(1): 7.

Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. 2011. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods [J]. Mol Biol Evol, 28(10): 2731-2739.

Tsoumani M, Liasko R, Moutsaki P, Kagalou I, Leonardos I. 2006. Length-weight relationships of an invasive cyprinid fish (Carassius gibelio) from 12 Greek lakes in relation to their trophic states [J]. J Appl Ichthyol, 22(4): 281-284.

Wang CY. 2007. Variation and Heredity of Goldfish [M]. Beijing: China Agriculture Press. [王春元. 2007. 金鱼的变异与遗传[M]. 北京: 中国农业出版社.]

Ward RD, Hanner R, Hebert PDN. 2009. The campaign to DNA barcode all fishes, FISH-BOL [J]. J Fish Biol, 74(2): 329-356.

Ward RD, Costa FO, Holmes BH, Steinke D. 2008. DNA barcoding of shared fish species from the North Atlantic and Australasia: minimal divergence for most taxa, but Zeus faber and Lepidopus caudatus each probably constitute two species [J]. Aquat Biol, 3(1): 71-78.

Ward RD, Zemlak TS, Innes BH, Last PR, Hebert PDN. 2005. DNA barcoding Australia’s fish species [J]. Philos Trans R Soc B, 360(1462): 1847-1857.

Wheeler A. 2000. Status of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), in the UK [J]. Fisheries Manag Ecol, 7(4): 315-322.

Xiao J, Zou T M, Chen Y B, Chen L, Liu S J, Tao M, Zhang C, Zhao R R, Zhou Y, Long Y, You C P, Yan J P, Liu Y. 2011. Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus) in natural waters [J]. BMC Genet, 12: e20.

Yamamoto G, Takada M, Iguchi K, Nishida M. 2010. Genetic constitution and phylogenetic relationships of Japanese crucian carps (Carassius) [J]. Ichthyol Res, 57(3): 215-222.