DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1141.2012.05511

Zoological Research (动物学研究) 2012/33:5 PP.511-522

Diversity and development of positional behavior in non-human primates

In long-term evolution, wildlife in general and primates in particular have formed specific patterns of behavior to adapt to a diverse variety of habitat environments. Current research on positional behavior in non-human primates has been found to explain a great deal about primate adaptability diversification, ecology, anatomy and evolution. Here, we summarize the noted classifications and differences in seasonal, site-specific and sex-age positional behaviors while also reviewing the development and status of non-human primate positional behavior research. This review is intended to provide reference for the future research of non-human primates and aid in further research on behavioral ecology of primates.

Key words:Nonhuman primates,Positional behavior,Locomotor behavior,Postural behavior

ReleaseDate:2014-07-21 16:32:28

Anemone RL. 1993. The function anatomy of the hip and thigh in primates [C] // Gebo DL. Postcranial Adaptation in Nonhuman Primates. Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 150-174.

Bergeson DJ. 1996. The Positional Behavior and Prehensile Tail Use of Alouatta palliate, Ateles geoffroyi, and Cebus capucinus [D]. Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Bergeson DJ. 1998. Patterns of suspensory feeding in Alouatta palliata, Ateles geoffroyi, and Cebus capucinus [C] // Strasser E, Fleagle JG, Rosenberger A, McHenry H. Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances. New York: Plenum Press, 45-60.

Bezanson MF. 2006. Leap, bridge, or ride? Ontogenetic influences on positional behavior in Cebus and Alouatta [C] // Estrada A, Garber PA, Pavelka MSM, Luecke L. New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates: Distribution, Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation. New York: Springer Verlang, 333-348.

Boinski S. 1989. The positional behavior and substrate use of squirrel monkeys: Ecological implications [J]. J Hum Evol, 18(7): 659-677.

Cant JGH. 1986. Locomotion and feeding posture of spider and howling monkeys: field study and evolutionary interpretation [J]. Folia Primatol, 46(1): 1-14.

Cant JGH. 1987a. Positional behavior of female bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) [J]. Am J Primatol, 12(1): 71-90.

Cant JGH. 1987b. Effects of sexual dimorphism in body size on feeding postural behavior of Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) [J]. Am J Phys Anthropol, 74(2): 143-148.

Charles-Dominique P. 1977. Ecology and Behavior of Nocturnal Primates [M]. New York: Columbia University Press.

Chatani K. 2003. Positional behavior of free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) [J]. Primates, 44(1): 13-23.

Crompton RH. 1984. Foraging, habitat structure, and locomotion in two species of Galago [C] // Rodman PS, Cant JGH. Adaptations for Foraging in Nonhuman Primates. New York: Columbia University Press, 73-111.

Dagosto M. 1995. Seasonal variation in positional behavior of Malagasy lemurs [J]. Int J Primatol, 16(5): 807-834.

Derousseau CJ, Bito LZ, Kaufman PL. 1986. Age-dependent impairments of the rhesus monkey visual and musculoskeletal systems and apparent behavioral consequences [C] // Rawlins RG, Kessler MJ. The Cayo Santiago Macaques. Albany: State University of New York Press, 233-251.

Doran DM. 1993. Sex differences in adult chimpanzee positional behavior: the influence of body size on locomotion and posture [J]. Am J Primatol, 91(1): 99-116.

Dunbar DC, Badam GL. 1995. Head and trunk stabilization in natural gaits of free-ranging monkeys [J]. Soc Neurosci Abstr, 21: 418.

Dunbar DC, Badam GL. 1998. Development of posture and locomotion in free-ranging primates [J]. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 22(4): 541-546.

Dunbar DC. 1988. Aerial maneuvers of leaping lemurs: the physics of whole-body rotations while airborne [J]. Am J Primatol, 16(4): 291-303.

Dunbar DC. 1989. Locomotor behavior of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago [J]. P R Health Sci J, 8(1): 79-85.

Dunbar DC. 1994. The influence of segmental movements and design on whole-body rotations during the airborne phase of primate leaps [J]. Z Morphol Anthropol, 80(1): 109-124.

Fleagle JG. 1978. Locomotion, posture and habitat utilization in two sympatric Malayan leaf monkeys [C] // Montogomery GE. Ecology of Arboreal Folivores. Washington DC: Smithsonian Press, 243-251.

Fleagle JG. 1979. Primate positional behavior and anatomy: naturalistic and experimental approaches [C] // Morbeck ME, Preuschoft H, Gomberg N. Environment, Behavior and Morphology: Dynamic Interactions in Primates. New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 313-325.

Fleagle JG, Mittermeier RA. 1980. Locomotor behavior, body size, and comparative ecology of seven Surinam monkeys [J]. Am J Phys Anthropol, 52(3): 301-314.

Fontaine R. 1990. Positional behavior in Saimiri boliviensis and Ateles geoffroyi [J]. Amer J Phys Anthropol, 82(4): 485-508.

Garber PA. 1980. Locomotor behavior and feeding ecology of the Panamanian tamarin (Saguinus oedipus geoffroyi, Callitrichidae, Primates) [J]. Int J Primatol, 1(2): 185-210.

Garber PA. 1984. Use of habitat and positional behavior in a neotropical primates, Saguinus Oedipus [C] // Rodman PS, Cant JGH. Adaptations for Foraging in Nonhuman Primates: Contributions to an Organismal Biology of Prosimians, Monkeys, and Apes. New York: Columbia University Press, 112-133.

Garber PA. 1992. Vertical clinging, small body size, and the evolution of feeding adaptation in the Callitrichinae [J]. Am J Phys Anthropol, 88(4): 469-482.

Garber PA. 1998. Within- and between-site variability in moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) positional behavior during food procurement [C] // Strasser E, Fleagle JG, Rosenberger A, McHenry H. Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances. New York: Plenum Press, 61-78.

Garber PA. 2007. Primate locomotor behavior and ecology [C] // Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK. Primates in Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 543-560.

Gebo DL, Chapman CA. 1995a. Positional behavior in five sympatric old world monkeys [J]. Am J Phys Anthropol, 97(1): 49-76.

Gebo DL, Chapman CA. 1995b. Habitat, annual, and seasonal effects on positional behavior in red colobus monkeys [J]. Am J Phys Anthropol, 96(1): 73-82.

Grand TI. 1972. A mechanical interpretation of terminal branch feeding [J]. J Mammal, 53(1): 198-201.

Grand TI. 1976. Differences in terrestrial velocity in Macaca and Presbytis [J]. Am J Phys Anthropol, 45(1): 101-108.

Gray J. 1944. Studies in the mechanics of the tetrapod skeleton [J]. J Exp Biol, 20(2): 88-116.

Hunt KD, Cant JGH, Gebo DL, Rose MD, Walker SE, Youlatos D. 1996. Standardized descriptions of primate locomotor and postural modes [J]. Primates, 37(4): 363-387.

Hunt KD. 1991. Positional behavior in the Hominoidea [J]. Int J Primatol, 12(2): 95-118.

Jenkins FA Jr, Fleagle JG. 1975. Knuckle-walking and the functional anatomy of the wrists in living apes [C] // Tuttle RH. The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates. Chicago: Aldine, 213-228.

Jiang ZG. 2004. Theories in Animal Behavioral Study and Conservation Methods [M]. Beijing: Science Press. [蒋志刚. 2004. 动物行为原理与物种保护方法. 北京: 科学出版社.]

Kinzey WG. 1967. Preface [J]. Am J Phys Anthropol, 26(2): 115-118.

Lawrence DG, Hopkins DA. 1976. The development of motor control in the rhesus monkey: evidence concerning the role of corticomotoneuronal connections [J]. Brain, 99(2): 235-254.

Li DY, Zhou QH, Tang HX, Huang CM. 2012. Sex-age differences in activity budget and position behavior of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) [J]. Acta Ther Sin, 32(1): 25-32. [黎大勇, 周崎海, 唐兴华, 黄乘明. 2012. 猕猴不同性别年龄组个体时间分配和姿态行为的差异分析. 兽类学报, 32(1): 25-32.]

McGraw WS. 1998a. Posture and support use of Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae): the influence of foraging strategies, activity patterns, and the spatial distribution of preferred food items [J]. Am J Primatol, 46(3): 229-250.

McGraw WS. 1998b. Locomotion, support use, maintenance activities, and habitat structure: the case of the Ta ï Forest cercopithecids [C] // Strasser E, Fleagle JG, Rosenberger A, McHenry H. Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances. New York: Plenum Press, 79-94.

Mittermeier RA. 1978. Locomotion and posture in Ateles geoffroyi and Ateles paniscus [J]. Folia Primatol, 30(3): 161-193.

Napier JR, Walker AC. 1967. Vertical clinging and leaping-a newly recognized category of locomotor behaviour of primates [J]. Folia Primatol, 6(3-4): 204-219.

Niemitz C. 1984. Locomotion and posture of Tarsius bancanus [C] // Niemitz C. Biology of Tarsiers. New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 191-226.

Oxnard CE, Crompton RH, Liebermann SS. 1990. Animal Lifestyles and Anatomies: The Case of the Prosimian Primates [M]. Seattle: Washington University Press.

Pan QH, Ben KL. 1984. The review and prospect of primatology in China [J]. Zool Res, 5(S4): 1-6. [潘清华, 贲昆龙. 1984. 中国灵长类研究工作的回顾与展望. 动物学研究, 5(S4): 1-6.]

Peters A, Preuschoft H. 1984. External biomechanics of leaping in Tarsius and its morphological and kinematic consequences [C] // Niemitz C. Biology of Tarsiers. New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 227-255.

Prates HM, Bicca-Marques JC. 2008. Age-sex analysis of activity budget, diet, and positional behavior in Alouatta caraya in an orchard forest [J]. Int J Primatol, 29(3): 703-705.

Prost JH. 1965. A definitional system for the classification of primate locomotion [J]. Am Anthropol, 67(5): 1198-1214.

Pyykkö I, Jäntti P, Aalto H. 1988. Postural control in the oldest olds [J]. Adv Otorhinolaryngol, 41: 146-151.

Rawlins RG. 1976. Locomotor ontogeny in Macaca mulatta: I. Behavioral strategies and tactics [J]. Am J Phys Anthropol, 44: 201.

Ripley S. 1967. The leaping of langurs: a problem in the study of locomotor adaptation [J]. Am J Phys Anthropol, 26(2): 149-170.

Rodman PS. 1979. Skeletal differentiation of Macaca fascicularis and Macaca nemestrina in relation to arboreal and terrestrial quadrupedalism [J]. Am J Phys Anthropol, 51(1): 51-62.

Rosenblum LA. 1986. Mother-infant relations and early behavioral development in the squirrel monkey [C] // Rosenblum L, Cooper R. The Squirrel Monkey. New York: Academic Press, 207-233.

Stern JT Jr, Oxnard CE. 1973. Primate locomotion: some links with evolution and morphology [J]. Primatologia, 4(11): 1-93.

Turnquist JE. 1986. Joint mobility as a function of age in free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) [C] // Rawlins RG, Kessler MJ. The Cayo Santiago Macaques. Albany: State University of New York Press, 253-262.

Tuttle RH. 1969. Quantitative and functional studies on the hands of the anthropoidea. I: the Hominoidea [J]. J Morphol, 128(3): 309-363.

Youlatos D. 2002. Positional behavior of black spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus) in French Guiana [J]. Int J Primatol, 23(5): 1071-1093.